Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням “Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance” призначений для роботи в аудиторії та для самостійної роботи студентів авіаційних навчальних закладів, що навчаються за спеціальністю «Виробництво, технічне обслуговування і ремонт повітряних суден та авіаційних двигунів».

Метою підручника є навчити майбутніх інженерів основам професійного спілкування англійською мовою, розвинути стійкі навички читання, перекладу, анотування, реферування спеціальної технічної літератури для отримання й використання інформації, необхідної в їх майбутній практичній діяльності.

Навчальний посібник складається з тематичних розділів, що містять автентичні інформаційно-насичені тексти, комплекс лексико-граматичних вправ, розподілених за принципом зростання складності, передтекстові тематичні термінологічні словники, додаткові тексти для контролю розуміння і засвоєння навчального матеріалу. Наприкінці роботи наведено алфавітний англо-українсько-російський словник для полегшення самостійної роботи студентів. Тематика навчальних розділів повязана із основними напрямками спеціалізації студентів: конструкція, експлуатація літальних апаратів, технічне обслуговування та ремонт повітряних суден й авіаційних двигунів. Лексичні вправи передбачають пошук українсько-російсько-англійських та англо-українсько-російських термінологічних еквівалентів, підбір синонімів, антонімів; комунікативні вправи на розвиток навичок висловлювання власної думки, аргументування.

Граматичні вправи охоплюють основні граматичні явища, характерні для англійської науково-технічної літератури. Вся система вправ дозволяє викладачам обирати завдання з урахуванням індивідуальних здібностей студентів.

Навчальний матеріал посібника складено на основі оригінальних неадаптованих статей сучасних англомовних авіаційних журналів: “Flight”, “Aircraft and Engine Maintenance”, “Helicopter World”, «Flight Safety Training International”.
UNIT I. PRINCIPAL STRUCTURAL UNITS OF THE AIRPLANE

I.1. AIRFRAME

Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1.

aircraft

повітряне судно (суда);

літальний апарат(и); літак(и), борт



воздушное судно (суда); летательный аппарат(ы); самолет(ы), борт

airplane

літак

самолет

vehicle

1. транспортний засіб
2. літальний апарат

1. транспортное средство 2. летательный аппарат

engine-driven vehicle

літальний аппарат з приводом від двигуна (що приводиться в дію двигуном)

летательный аппарат с приводом от двигателя (приводимый в действие двигателем)

wing

крило

крыло

main plane

крило, несна площина

крыло, несущая плоскость

fixed-wing aircraft

повітряне судно з нерухомим крилом

воздушное судно с неподвижным крылом

airframe

планер/ корпус літаль-ного апарату

планер/ корпус летательного аппарата

flight control surface

поверхня керування літаком у польоті

плоскость управления самолетом в полете

landing gear

шасі

шасси

undercarriage

шасі

шасси

propulsion system

силова установка

силовая установка

power plant

силова установка

силовая установка

performance

характеристика; льотно-технічні характеристики; експлуатаційні дані/параметри

характеристика; летнотехнические характеристики; эксплуатационные данные/ параметры

reliability

надійність

надёжность

alloy

сплав

сплав

stainless steel

неіржавіюча сталь

нержавеющая сталь

strength

міцність

прочность

endurance

тривалість

продолжительность

weight

вага

вес

meet requirements

відповідати вимогам

соответствовать требованиям

Exercise2. Practise out the dialogue.

Dialogue

T. Look at Figure I.1.1., please. What is this?

Fig. I.1.1. Airplane


S. This is an airplane.

T. That’s right. This is a flying vehicle. There are some words in the English language having the same meaning. They are aircraft, aeroplane (British English), airliner and airplane (American English), plane, for short. Airplanes are technically called fixed-wing aircraft (повітряне судно з нерухомим крилом/воздушное судно с неподвижным крылом).

S. Aircraft are heavier than air, aren’t they? How can they fly?

T. First, aircraft can fly through the air supported by the action of the air against its wings and then aircraft are driven by the engines. They are called engine-driven vehicles.

S. What is the structure of a fixed-wing aircraft?

T. The mechanical structure of a fixed-wing aircraft is an airframe. The term “airframe” is translated “планер, корпус літального апарату/планер, корпус летательного аппарата”.

S. What does the airframe contain?

T. It contains the fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control surfaces and the landing gear. The wing means “крило / крыло”, the synonym to it is “main plane”. The flight control surface is “поверхня керування літаком у польоті/поверхность управления самолетом в полете”. The landing gear is “шасі/шасси”. The airframe doesn’t include the propulsion system.

S. What is the Ukrainian for “propulsion system”?

T. It is “силова установка / силовая установка”. The synonym to it is “power plant”. The power plant is a source of power. It provides power for flight and propels the aircraft. So, what does the airplane consist of?

S. As far as I have understood, the airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage, wings, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant.

T. Quite right. The wing is the main plane of the airplane. The word “plane” has two meanings “літак / самолет та поверхня/поверхность”.The Ukrainian/Russian equivalent for “tail unit” is “хвостове оперення/хвостовое оперение”.

S. And what is the fuselage?

T. The fuselage is an aircraft main body section that houses crew and passengers or cargo, and equipment. As you can see in the picture, the wing is the largest flat part of the aircraft. Its function is to develop the major portion of the lift of a heavier-than-air aircraft for flight through the atmosphere. So the wings are lifting and supporting surfaces.

S. The tail unit is the rear part of an airplane, isn’t it?

T. It is so. The tail unit is also known as the tail assembly or empennage. All three terms may be used interchangeably. The tail unit provides stability and control of aircraft in flight.

S. What kind of structure is the landing gear?

T. The landing gear or undercarriage in aviation , is a structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, take off and land.
Exercise 3. Say with the teacher:

a [ei] - base, came, case, make, same, plane, frame, place, shape, range, change;

a [ǽ] - fan, gas, land, taxi, cabin, hatch, panel, carry, action, canopy, factor, ladder, passenger, stabilizer;

[έə] - airline, airport, airplane, aircraft, airframe, airfield, airtight, airliner;

t, d + ed [id] - welded, divided, located, riveted, extended, operated, provided, supported, accommodated;

s [s] - parts, types, rivets, shapes, flights, elements, cockpits, frameworks, equipments, compartments, arrangements;

s [z]- heads, skins, rings, spars, cabins, members, controls, windows, stringers, airplanes, structures, longerons;

es [iz] - uses, sizes, noses, places, hatches, classes, surfaces, purposes, fuselages.


Exercise 4. Be careful to pronounce the following words and translate them:

Component, vehicle, configuration, section, fuselage, circulation, longeron, tonnage, stringer, monocoque, mechanic, parachute, chassis, machine, generator, calculation, calibration, aileron, engineer, container, pilot, centre, class, navigation.


Exercise 5. Translate derivatives built with the following word-building suffixes. Analyse their structure.

Nouns

Model:

1. the noun worker – працівник/рабочий

the verb to work - (працювати/работать) + er

2. the adjective creative – творчий/творческий

the verb to create - (створювати/создавать) + ive

3. the adverb badly – погано/плохо

the adjective bad - (поганий/плохой) + ly



er: carrier, airliner, designer, booster, container, fighter, stabilizer, trainer, manufacturer;

or: constructor, navigator, operator, elevator, generator, indicator, regulator, collector;

ion: combustion, deflection, ignition, inspection, instruction, reflection, action, reaction;

(a)tion: adaptation, application, classification, determination, exploration, formation, identification, installation, observation;

sion: corrosion, decision, division, explosion, provision, propulsion;

(ss)ion: compression, discussion, expression, submission, transmission;

ment: arrangement, compartment, attachment, department, employment, equipment, movement, development, requirement;

ance: appearance, assistance, disturbance, guidance, performance, insurance, continuance;

ence: dependence, difference, existence, occurrence, reference, insistence;

ity: activity, equality, intensity, productivity, sensitivity, accessibility, capability, controllability, flexibility, possibility, reliability, visibility, availability.
Adjectives

able: adjustable, changeable, considerable, favourable, movable, reliable, remarkable, steerable, valuable, interchangeable;

ive: active, attractive, constructive, corrective, creative, effective, expressive, intensive;

al: global, normal, formal, frontal, orbital, accidental, centrifugal, continental, experimental, fundamental, industrial, operational, sectional, structural, mechanical.
Adverbs

ly: nearly, badly, really, simply, slowly, manually, directly, continuously, completely, experimentally, permanently, necessarily, unfortunately, aerodynamically, mechanically, physically, scientifically, symmetrically, technologically, theoretically, technically.
Exercise 6. Translate the words with prefixes having negative meanings.

anti: anti-aircraft, anti-atom, anti-gravitation, anti-icer, anti-missile, anti-rocket, anti-submarine, anticyclone, anticlockwise;

de: demagnetize, deatomize, decentralize, depressurize, deactivate;

dis: disorder, disadvantage, disarmament, disconnection, dislocation, disorganization, discontinuance;

in: inactive, invisible, incorrect, incombustible, incontrollable, incompressible, independent, ineffective, insensitive;

ir: irregular, irrespective, irresponsible, irrelevant, irreversible, irrepairable;

non: nonatomic, nonaxial, nonlinear, nonairtight, nonstationary, nonturbulent, non-stop, non-nuclear, non-standard, non-military, non-flammable;

un: unequal, unnamed, unfixed, unstable, unlimited, unreliable, uncertain, unaccelerated, unbalanced, uncontrolled, uncorrected, unpowered, unstabilized, unpressurized, unacceptable, unsymmetrical.
Exercise 7. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1

The airplane is a vehicle that flies in the air and has wings and one or more engines. Airplanes are technically called fixed-wing aircraft. The aircraft, engine-driven vehicle, is supported by the action of the air against its wings. Aircraft are heavier than air. Heavier-than-air aircraft must find some way to push air downwards, so that a reaction occurs (by Newton’s laws of motion) to push the aircraft upwards.

The mechanical structure of a fixed-wing aircraft is an airframe. The airframe is a structure of any aircraft without engines. It contains the fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control surfaces and the landing gear, but the airframe doesn’t include the propulsion system.

The airframe design is a field of engineering that combines aerodynamics, materials technology and manufacturing methods to achieve balances of performance and reliability.

The airframe is fabricated from aluminum alloy. Stainless steel, titanium and advanced composites are used where advantageous to strength, endurance, weight or heat protection. The airframe must meet the present-day requirements. Airframe manufacturers are continuously creating innovative designs, making greater use of new lightweight materials and increasing their focus on passenger comfort.
Exercise 8. Translate word combinations with the terms: airframe, aircraft, vehicle, structure with the help of a dictionary.

a) basic airframe, stiffened airframe, reinforced airframe, semimonocoque airframe, high-efficiency airframe, high-tech airframe, skin-stringer airframe, aerodynamically shaped airframe, fatique test airframe, static test airframe, all-metallic honey airframe;

b) civil aircraft, cargo aircraft, land aircraft, state aircraft, passenger aircraft, freight aircraft, transport aircraft, experimental aircraft, research aircraft, amphibious aircraft, basic aircraft, training aircraft, commercial aircraft, float aircraft, multipurpose aircraft;

c) airborne vehicle, lifting vehicle, freight vehicle, transport vehicle, orbital vehicle, guided vehicle, space vehicle, rocket vehicle, satellite vehicle, heavier-than-air vehicle, lighter-than-air vehicle;

d) basic structure, airframe structure, aircraft structure, innovative structure, all-metal structure, fail-safe structure, nacelle structure, stressed-skin structure, damage tolerant structure, aluminum-alloy structure, composite materials structure, heat-resistant structure, high temperature structure, load-carrying structure.
Exercise 9. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents of the following terminological word combinations.

Airframe design, power plant, heat protection, aircraft engine, propulsion system, system reliability, aluminum alloy, airframe manufacturer, passenger comfort, aircraft landing gear, materials technology, airplane design, dynamic movement, advanced composites, stainless steel, aerodynamic lift, mechanical structure, flight control surface, fixed-wing aircraft, lightweight materials, engine-driven vehicle, heavier-than-air aircraft, lighter-than-air aircraft.


Exercise 10. Translate the verb combinations.

To fly in the air, to have one engine, to drive the airplane, to push air downwards, to include the propulsion system, to achieve balance of performance and reliability, to fabricate from aluminum alloy, to describe fixed-wing aircraft, to consist of the fuselage and wings, to support the aircraft in the air, to meet the present-day requirements, to create innovative designs, to contain the power plant, to make greater use of new lightweight materials.


Exercise 11. Match the synonyms.


1.tail unit

a) aircraft

2. vehicle

b) sphere

3. propulsion system

c) characteristics

4. wing

d) undercarriage

5. fuselage

e) structure

6. rear

f) empennage

7. design

g) central body

8. landing gear

h) main plane

9. performance

i) power plant

10. airplane

j) machine

11. field

k) back



Exercise 12. Define by suffixes the parts of speech the following words belong to, and translate them.

Comfortable, endurance, greatly, fighter, motion, widely, controllable, usually, movement, designer, materials, aerodynamic, possibility, manufacture, reliability, continuously, mechanical, propulsion, interchangeable, constructor, requirement, constructive, manufacturer, technically, innovative, performance, structure, experimental, advantageous, stabilizer, structural, principal, combination.


Exercise 13. Find English equivalents in text 1.

Корпус літального апарату / корпус летательного аппарата; повітряне судно з нерухомим крилом / воздушное судно с неподвижным крылом; літальний апарат з приводом від двигуна/ летательный апарат с приводом от двигателя; фюзеляж / фюзеляж; силова установка / силовая установка; крило / крыло; стабілізатор / стабилизатор; шасі / шасси; транспортний засіб / транспортное средство; поверхня керування літаком у польоті/ плоскость управления самолетом в полете; неіржавіюча сталь / нержавеющая сталь; механічна конструкція/механическая конструкция; аеродинаміка / аэродинамика; сплав алюмінію / сплав алюминия; легковагий матеріал / легковесный материал; композитний матеріал/композитный материал; сучасні вимоги / современные требования; новітні технології / инновационные технологии; галузь техніки / область техники; льотно-технічні характеристики / летно-технические характеристики.


Exercise 14. Define the functions of the verbs: to be, to do, to have, shall/will in the following sentences. Translate into Ukrainian/Russian.

a) to be:

1. Airframe production is an exacting process.

2. The airframes are strong and light in weight.

3. All the students are to deliver reports on “Principal Structural Units of an Aircraft” next week.

4. Empennage is an aviation term used to describe the tail section of an aircraft.

5. The students are busy now, they are writing their test papers.

6. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift and powered lift in the form of engine thrust.

7. The function of the fuselage is to reduce shocks of landing.

8, My brother is a pilot-in-command.

9. The engine starting has been already performed.

10. The primary factors to consider in aircraft structures are strength, weight and reliability.

b) to do:

1. The students will do their work tomorrow.

2. Reliability does minimize the possibility of dangerous and unexpected failures.

3. Don’t enter the laboratory. The first-year students haven’t done all the calculations yet.

4. I did it yesterday.

5. We prepared our plans earlier than they did.

c) to have:

1. Aircraft usually have the same basic configuration.

2. I often have dinner at our University canteen.

3. The students have discussed forces and structural stresses acting on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static.

4. This device will have to be repaired.

5. You have to attend all the lectures.

6. Airfoils have always got a distinctive cross-section shape.

7. We have a lot of highly skilled aircraft designers in Ukraine.

d) shall/will:

1. We shall have the English lesson tomorrow.

2. Powerful radar will watch for other aircraft and storms.

3. I shall be twenty tomorrow.

4. Shall I translate the text “Aircraft design”?

5. Will you clean the blackboard, please?

6. I will go to our University Museum of Aviation on Tuesday.
Exercise 15. Use the proper form of the verb “to be”.

1. The main units of aircraft … the fuselage, wings, the tail unit, the power plant and the landing gear. 2. The fuselage … the central body of the airplane. 3. The wing … the most important lift-producing element of an aircraft. 4. The aircraft … heavier than air. 5. The function of the tail unit … to provide stability and control of an airplane in flight. 6. The landing gear … a structure that supports the aeroplane on the ground. 7. There … many forces and structural stresses acting on an aircraft in flight. 8. The function of the power plant … to supply power for flight. 9. There … different types of aircraft. 10. Terms “airplane” and “aircraft” … widely used to mean the same thing. 11. There … a helicopter and two airplanes at the parking.


Exercise 16. Write questions after the models.

Model 1:

general

question


1. The airplane consists of five main units.

- Does the airplane consist of five main units?

2. The wings lift and support the airplane in the air.
- Do the wings lift and support the airplane in the air?

3. The wings are attached to the fuselage.

- Are the wings attached to the fuselage?


1. The landing gear absorbs the forces imposed on the aircraft by take-offs and landings. 2. Airplane manufacturers operate under strict quality control and government regulations. 3. The fuselage carries wings and empennage. 4. The wing is an aluminum structure. 5. Airplanes are heavier-than-air vehicles.

Model 2:

special

question


1. The airplane consists of five main units.

- (a) What does the airplane consist of?

- (b) What units does the airplane consist of?

2. The wings lift and support the airplane in the air.

- What do the wings lift and support in the air?

3. The wings are attached to the fuselage.

- What are the wings attached to?


1. The tail unit includes two horizontal surfaces and a vertical surface. 2. The elevators control the climb and descent of an airplane.
3. The airplane gets lift from the wing. 4. The wing is covered with aluminum skin panels. 5. The main undercarriage is located at the centre of gravity of an airplane.

Model 3:

subject

question

1. The airplane consists of five main units.

- What consists of five main units?

2. The wings lift and support the airplane in the air.

- What lifts and supports the airplane in the air?

3. The wings are attached to the fuselage.

- What is attached to the fuselage?



1. The Be-200 multipurpose amphibious aircraft is the latest design of the Beriev Design Bureau. 2. The power plant systems provide proper engine operation. 3. The landing gear supports the aeroplane weight on the ground. 4. The fuselage is the central body of the airplane.5. High-speed and high-altitude aircraft are powered by jet engines.

Model 4:

alternative

question

1. The airplane consists of five main units.

- Does the airplane consist of five or seven main units?

2. The wings are attached to the fuselage.

- Are the wings attached to the fuselage or to the tail unit?

3. The power plants propel the aircraft.

- Do the power plants or wings propel the aircraft?



1. The rear part of the fuselage is called a baggage compartment.
2. Modern aircraft use high-performance engines. 3. The function of the power plant is to deliver thrust. 4. The airplane is a flying vehicle with wings and engines. 5. The landing gear supports the airplane on the ground.

Model 5:

disjunctive

question

1. The airplane consists of five main units.

- The airplane consists of five main units, doesn’t it?

- The airplane doesn’t consist of two main units,
does it?

2. The wings lift and support the airplane in the air.

- The wings lift and support the airplane in the air,

don’t they?

3. The wings are attached to the fuselage, aren’t they?



1. The fuselage contains the cockpit (or flight deck), passenger cabins and cargo compartments. 2. The tail unit is mounted on the aft portion of the fuselage. 3.There are many aircraft systems. 4. The piston engines are used in light general aviation aircraft. 5. The wing is one of the most important elements of an aircraft. 6. There are passenger and cargo planes. 7. The wings include port and starboard main planes.
8. The wings have movable surfaces. 9. The wings usually house the fuel tanks. 10. The power plant provides thrust.
Exercise 17.Put subject questions to the following sentences.

1. The glider is a light plane that flies without an engine. 2. The airplane wing has a distinctive shape called an airfoil. 3. On-board computers check and recheck the airplane operations in flight. 4. The flight deck of Boeing 777 incorporates colour liquid crystal displays. 5. Pilot sends commands electrically through computers and wires instead of using mechanically-connected cables to move control surfaces. 6. The giant cargo planes Ruslan and Mriya are the special pride and the company’s visiting card of the Antonov complex.


Exercise 18. Put general questions to the sentenses in the Simple Past Tense.

Model:

Aircraft designers did the design of the 777 completely on computers.

Did aircraft designers do the design of the 777 completely on computers?

1. Antonov’s team developed more than a hundred types and modifications of passenger, transport and special purpose aircraft.
2. Airline people worked side-by-side with Boeing people from the very beginning of the 777 development process. 3. The ideas of more than 200 airline pilots went into the design of flight deck alone. 4. Engineers used computers to electronically “assemble” the entire aircraft instead of building a full-size model. 5. O.K. Antonov founded his enterprise in 1946 and headed it until 1984. 6. The first aircraft, the multipurpose biplane An-2 (marked with logo) took off in 1947.
Exercise 19. Paraphrase the sentences according to the model.

Model:

The airplane carries passengers and cargo.

The airplane serves for carrying passengers and cargo.

The airplane is used to carry passengers and cargo.

The function of the airplane is to carry passengers and cargo.


1. The landing gear supports aircraft weight on the ground. 2. The power plant provides power for flight. 3. The tail unit gives stability to aircraft. 4. The landing gear allows aircraft to taxi, take off and land.


5. The fuselage houses passengers, crew, cargo and equipment. 6. The power plant propels the airplane. 7. The landing gear reduces shocks of landing. 8. The wings develop the major portion of the lift of a heavier-than-air aircraft. 9. The landing gear absorbs the shocks of landing.
10. The fuselage structure carries the wing, the tail unit, the nose landing gear and the engine in some designs.
Exercise 20. Match the definitions in the left column with the terms in the right column.

1. A vehicle that flies in the air, has wings and one or more engines.




a) airframe

2. A source of power that propels the airplane.




b) airplane

3. A surface used to produce lift for flight through the atmosphere.




c) propulsion system

4. A mechanical structure of a fixed-wing aircraft.




d) wing

5. A structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi, take off and land.




e) fuselage

6. Aircraft main body that houses flight crew, passengers, cargo, controls and most of the accessories.




f) landing gear

Exercise 21. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. What is a vehicle that flies in the air and has wings and one or more engines? 2. Are aircraft heavier than air? 3. What is an airplane?


4. Are airplanes technically called fixed-wing aircraft? Why? 5. What is an airframe? 6. What is the mechanical structure of a fixed-wing aircraft? 7. How are airplanes technically called? 8. What are aircraft driven by? 9. What does the airplane consist of? 10. What does the airframe contain? 11. The airframe doesn’t include the propulsion system, does it? 12. What is the airframe fabricated from?
Exercise 22. Give definitions of the following terms:

airframe, airplane, propulsion system, wing, fuselage, landing gear.


Exercise 23. Change the following sentences into the Past and Future Simple. Add other words indicating past and future moments. Mind the forms of irregular verbs.

Model:

- The first-year students study the topic “Airframe

Design”.


- The students studied the topic “Airframe Design” last year.

- The students will study the topic “Airframe Design”



next week.

1. The airplane flies in the air by the action of the air against its wings. 2. The airframe consists of the fuselage, wings, stabilizers, flight control system and the landing gear. 3. The main body gives space for crew, passengers and cargo. 4. The wing provides lift for flying.
5. The propulsion system propels the airplane. 6. The wings usually house the fuel tanks. 7. Passenger compartments accommodate passengers. 8. The An-148 covers the distance from Kyiv to Simpheropol in 2 hours. 9. The crew of Boeing 737 consists of two members. 10. The present-day airframe designs combine aerodynamics, materials technology and manufacturing methods to achieve balances of performance and reliability.
Exercise 24. Choose the proper verb combinations below describing the functions of the main parts of aircraft to fill in this table.


fuselage

wing

tail assembly

power plant

landing gear
















To drive the aircraft; to support in the air; to provide power for flight; to propel the aircraft; to house crew and passengers; to develop lift; to support control surfaces; to lift the aircraft; to give stability to aircraft; to taxi on the ground; to provide space for cargo, controls and most of the accessories; to keep the aircraft in the air; to support aircraft on the ground; to reduce shocks of landing; to take off; to carry loads.
Exercise 25. Translate into English.

1. Планер – це механічна конструкція літака в цілому за винятком двигуна.

1. Планер – это механическая конструкция самолета в целом за исключением двигателя.

2. Літак – літальний апарат, що використовує аеродина-мічну підіймальну силу планера і тягу силової установки.

2. Самолет – летательный аппарат, использующий аэродинамическую подъемную силу планера и тягу силовой установки.

3. Крило літака – поверхня для створення підіймальної сили.

3. Крыло самолета – поверхность для создания подъемной силы.







4. Фюзеляж – корпус літального апарату. Він зв'язує між собою крила, оперення і шасі.

4. Фюзеляж – корпус летательного аппарата. Он связывает между собой крылья, оперение и шасси.

5. Оперення літального апарату – це аеродинамічні поверх-ні, що забезпечують його стій-кість та керованість в польоті.

5. Оперение летательного аппарата – это аэродинамические поверхности, обеспечивающие его устойчивость и управляемость в полете.

6. Шасі літального апарату забезпечує його пересування по аеродрому при зльоті, посадці та рулінні.

6. Шасси летательного аппарата обеспечивает его передвижение по аэродрому при взлете, посадке и рулении.
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