Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"

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T. This is a fuselage. It is the largest element of the airplane. The fuselage is a rigid framework (жорсткий каркас / жесткий каркас). The rigid framework is built of tubular steel and metal rings. ‘Tubular steel’ means ‘трубчата сталь / трубчатая сталь’. So, what is the fuselage built of?

S. The fuselage is a rigid framework built of tubular steel and metal rings.

T. Quite right. The framework is covered with a skin, which should be thin-walled (тонкостінна / тонкостенная). I am sure that you know what material the skin may be made of. What material?

S. The skin may be made of fabric, metal or other material.

T. You are right. Now look at the picture (Fig.1.2.2) where you can see the internal construction of the fuselage. The framework consists of longitudinal and transversal members. The longitudinal members are longerons or beams and stringers.

Fig.1.2.2. Internal fuselage construction.

Stringers serve to stiffen the skin. ‘To stiffen’ means ‘надавати жорсткості / придавать жесткость’ Transversal members are formers and bulkheads. ‘ Former’ means ‘шпангоут / шпангоут’. ‘Bulkhead’ is ‘перегородка / перегородка’. Formers and bulkheads are used to maintain the circular cross section (поперечний переріз / поперечное сечение) of the fuselage. The formers serve as a support for stringers and skin. Longitudinal and transversal members make the contour of the fuselage.
Exercise 3. Translate the words from text 1 without using a dictionary.

Fuselage, central, element, nose, machine, design, structure, compartment, steel, metal, section, contour, modern, construction, type, tube.

Exercise 4. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Fuselage Construction

The fuselage is the central body of the airplane and the largest element of it. The fuselage extends from the nose to the tail of the machine. The fuselage is divided into the front fuselage, central fuselage and rear fuselage.

Fuselages of all airplanes are similar in general design, location and outline. All fuselages are round structures and have streamlined shape to reduce drag. They vary principally in size and in the arrangement of compartments.

The fuselage is a rigid framework built of tubular steel and metal rings. The framework is covered with a thin-walled skin. The framework consists of longitudinal members (longerons and stringers) and transversal members (formers and bulkheads). Stringers serve to stiffen the skin. Formers and bulkheads are used to maintain the circular cross section of a fuselage. These longitudinal and transversal members will make the contour of the fuselage. Fuselages of modern aircraft are of all-metal construction.

There are two main types of fuselage construction: monocoque design and semimonocoque. Monocoque is a structure made in the form of a shell. It is a hollow construction. In the monocoque design the skin provides its own structural strength, eliminating the need for internal bracings.

The longitudinal members are held apart by bulkheads and formers. Such a construction is called the semimonocoque type of construction. The reinforced monocoque design uses complete metal formers, normally of welded tubular steel, covered with a metal skin.

The fuselage contains a cockpit or flight deck, passenger cabins, baggage compartments and equipment. Pressurized cabins are used in modern aircraft. Cabin windows, canopy, hatches and doors are the most vital parts of the pressurized cabin.
Exercise 5. Translate the word combinations with the terms ‘fuselage’, ‘cabin’, ‘deck’.

  1. Pressurized fuselage, unpressurized fuselage, truss fuselage, monocoque fuselage, semimonocoque fuselage, floating fuselage, slim fuselage, stringered fuselage, stub fuselage, round fuselage, ventral fuselage, slender fuselage.

  2. Coke-bottle fuselage, double-bubble fuselage, droop-nose fuselage, egg-shaped fuselage, oval-section fuselage, pod-type fuselage, rectangular-section fuselage, sharply-nosed fuselage, two-deck fuselage, beam-type fuselage, hull-type fuselage, area-ruled fuselage, welded steel-tube fuselage, slab-sided fuselage.

  3. Luggage cabin, freight cabin, crew cabin, airtight cabin, baggage cabin, cargo cabin, passenger cabin, soundproof cabin, forward cabin, bubble cabin, glazed cabin, hermetic cabin, tail cabin, upper-deck cabin, two-seat cabin, two-aisle cabin.

  4. Aircraft deck, cargo deck, flight deck, upper deck.

Exercise 6. Match the equivalents.

  1. жорсткий каркас / жесткий каркас

  1. pressurized cabin

  1. тонкостінна обшивка / тонкостенная обшивка

  1. transversal members

  1. шпангоут / шпангоут

  1. longitudinal members

  1. переборка / перегородка

  1. canopy

  1. конструкція фюзеляжа з працюючею обшивкою / конструкия фюзеляжа с работающей обшивкой

  1. bracing

  1. повздовжні елементи / продольные элементы

  1. semimonocoque fuselage

  1. розтяжка / растяжка

  1. monocoque fuselage

  1. ліхтар (кабіни екіпажу) / фонарь кабины экипажа

  1. bulkhead

  1. балочно-стрінгерний фюзеляж / балочно-стрингерный фюзеляж

  1. former

  1. поперечні елементи / поперечные элементы

  1. thin-walled skin

  1. герметична кабіна / герметичная кабина

  1. rigid framework

Exercise 7. Match the synonyms.

  1. fuselage

a) former

  1. cockpit

b) single shell

  1. skin

c) non-airtight fuselage

  1. frame

d) cargo

  1. pressurized

e) flight deck

  1. monocoque

f) central body

  1. luggage

g) aft fuselage

  1. rear fuselage

h) airtight

  1. unpressurized fuselage

i) baggage

  1. freight

j) hold

  1. compartment

k) covering

Exercise 8. Make a brief written summary of the monocoque, semimonocoque and reinforced fuselage designs.
Exercise 9. Use the following collocations in sentences of your own.

To extend from …to…; to divide into; to be divided into; to be similar in; to vary in; to be built of; to be covered with; to consist of; to be made in the form of; to be held apart by; to be called.

Exercise 10. Study the diagram and translate the following “noun+noun” structures from text 1.

N + N + N

liquid-propellant rocket


яка? ракета

на рідкому паливі

Термін: ракета, працююча на рідкому паливі.

N + N + N

aircraft control system


яка? система

чого? керування


Термін: система керування літака

Front fuselage, cross-section, fuselage construction, fuselage monocoque design, airplane flight deck, passenger cabin, baggage compartment, eye-brow cabin windows, metal formers.

Exercise 11. Make a question for each answer below with reference to text 1 beginning with the question words in brackets.

1. The fuselage is divided into nose fuselage, central fuselage and rear fuselage (What … into?)

2. Fuselages have streamlined shape to reduce drag (Why?)

3. Fuselages vary mainly in size and in the arrangement of compartments (What … in?)

4. The framework is covered with a thin-walled skin (What … with?)

5. Stringers serve to stiffen the skin (What … for?)

6. The longitudinal members are held apart by bulkheads and formers (What?) (2 questions).

7. The reinforced monocoque design uses complete metal formers (What?) (2 questions).

Exercise 12. Make a list of terms from the text characterizing the structure of the fuselage.
Exercise 13. Match the following definitions and terms.

1. The process of making a drawing, or a drawing that shows how something will be made, or what it will look like.

  1. framework

2. A smooth shape, so that it moves easily through the air or water producing as little drag as possible.

  1. size

3. How big or small something is

  1. reinforce

4. A layer that is an outside part of a vehicle, building, object etc.

  1. drag

5. A wall which divides the structure of a ship or aircraft into separate parts

  1. hollow

6. Something that is used to strengthen or support something, or to make it stiff

  1. skin

7. The main supporting parts of a building, vehicle, or object

  1. brace / bracing

8. Having an empty space inside

  1. design

9. To make part of a structure, building or its parts etc. stronger and more reliable

  1. streamlined

10. The force of air that pushes against an aircraft or a vehicle that is moving forward.

  1. bulkhead

Exercise 14. Complete the following sentences with their English equivalents of the words given in brackets.

1. All fuselages are round structures and have (обтічна форма / обтекаемая форма). 2. The fuselages vary principally in size and in the arrangement of (відсіки / отсеки). 3. The fuselage is a rigid framework built of tubular steel and (металеві кільця / металлические кольца). 4. The framework is covered with (тонкостінна обшивка / тонкостенная обшивка). 5. The framework consists of longitudinal members (лонжерони та стрингери / лонжероны и стрингеры) and transversal members (перегородки та шпангоути / перегородки и шпангоуты). 6. The fuselages of modern aircraft are of (цільнометалева конструкція / цельнометаллическая конструкция). 7. There are two types of the fuselage construction: monocoque design and (напівмонококова конструкція / полумонококовая конструкция). 8. In the monocoque design the skin provides its own structural strength, eliminating the need for internal (розтяжка / растяжка). 9. The most vital parts of the pressurized cabin are the cabin windows, doors, (ліхтар кабіни екіпажу та люки / фонарь кабины экипажа и люки).

Exercise 15. Complete the following sentences.

  1. The fuselage extends …. 2. All fuselages are round …. 3. Formers and bulkheads are used to …. 4. In the monocoque design the skin …. 5. The reinforced monocoque design uses …. 6. The fuselage contains …. 7. The cabin windows, doors and hatches ….

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences.

1. Стрингери та шпангоути складають контур фюзеляжа.

1. Стрингеры и шпангоуты формируют контур фюзеляжа.

2. Стрингери необхідні для підсилення обшивки.

2. Стрингеры необходимы для усиления обшивки.

3.Шпангоути є поперечними елементами конструкції фюзеляжу.

3. Шпангоуты являются поперечными элементами конструкции фюзеляжа.

4. Існують два основних типи конструкцій фюзеляжу: монококова та напівмонокова.

4. Существует два основных типа фюзеляжа: монокок и полумонокок.

5. Напівмонококова конструкція фюзеляжу широко застосовується в сучасному виробництві, оскільки вона забезпечує міцність конструкції, використовуючи внутрішні силові елементи – лонжерони та шпангоути.

5. Полумонококовая конструкция фюзеляжа широко применяется в современном производстве, так как она укрепляет прочность конструкции, используя внутренние силовые элементы – стрингеры и шпангоуты.

6. В монококовій конструкції обшивка сама забезпечує міцність конструкції, усуваючи потребу у внутрішніх розчалках.

6. В монококовой конструкции сама обшивка обеспечивает прочность конструкции, исключая потребность во внутренних креплениях.

7. Основною перевагою монококової конструкції є додатковий простір, необхідний для розміщення вантажу та людей, оскільки така конструкція є пустотілою.

7. Основным преимуществом монококовой конструкции является дополнительное пространство, необходимое для размещения груза и людей, поскольку такая конструкция пустотелая.

8. В посиленій монококовій конструкції застосовуються суцільнометалеві шпангоути, як правило, зі звареної трубчатої сталі, вкриті металевою обшивкою.

8. В усиленной монококовой конструкции используются цельнометаллические шпангоуты, как правило, из сварной трубчатой стали, покрытые металлической обшивкой.

9. Всі органи керування польотом встановлюються в кабіні екіпажу.

9. Все органы управления полетом устанавливаются в кабине экипажа.

10. Герметичні кабіни застосовуються для забезпечення життєвих умов для екіпажу та пасажирів на великих висотах польоту.

10. Герметичные помещения используются для обеспечения жизненных условий для экипажа и пассажиров на большой высоте полета.

Exercise 17. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 2.


консольний, вільнонесний

консольный, свободнонесущий


1. стійка, опора; підкіс, розпірка; пілон 2. кріпити стійками; кріпити розпірками

1. стойка, опора; подкос, распорка; пилон 2. крепить стойками; крепить распорками


круговий, кільцевий, периферичний

круговой, кольцевой, периферический

pressure bulkhead




балка, лонжерон; брус

балка, лонжерон; брус





1. корабель, судно 2. посудина

1. корабль, судно 2. сосуд

honeycomb core

сотовий заповнювач

сотовый заполнитель

Exercise 18. Read, translate and entitle text 2.
Text 2

The 737 is a metal low-wing monoplane with full cantilever wing and tail surfaces, semi-monocoque fuselage and fully retractable landing gear. Its two power plants are located under the wings on short struts. The fuselage is a pressurized semi-monocoque structure formed from circumferential frames, longitudinal stringers and skin with “waffle” doublers, which act as tear stoppers. Pressure bulkheads at the forward and aft ends of the fuselage form a pressure vessel.

The fuselage is divided horizontally by the floor, which is built from beams and panels. The primary materials are aluminum alloys. The floor panels are fiberglass honeycomb.

Exercise 19. Make words with opposite meanings by adding negative prefixes il-, in-, im-, ir-, un-, dis-, non-, anti-. Translate the pairs.

Loyal, correct, regular, connect, replaceable, qualify, mount, just, effective, approve, believe, legal, like, metal, bend, audible, agree, do, integral, literate, comfortable, convenient, credit, dress, standard, respect, credit, fasten, commercial, essential.

Exercise 20. Transform the following verbs into nouns by adding -er/-or suffix (person who does something, or things which do a particular job) and translate them.

Work, write, speak, supervise, operate, play, wipe, produce, act, mix, shake, deal, promote, sail, design, contain, hold, divide, direct, heat, absorb, compress, process, combust, heat.

Exercise 21. Complete the sentences with much, many, a lot of, plenty of, little, a little, few, a few. Sometimes there are two possibilities.

1. The passenger cabin is almost empty. Only … seats are occupied so far. 2. Do you feel sad that you are leaving? Just … 3. Don’t disturb them. They’ve got … work to do before taking off. 4. We’ll easily find somewhere to stay. There are … hotels near the airport. 5. Would you like mineral water or juice? Orange juice, please. But only … and not very cold. 6. I don’t think Ann would be an excellent flight attendant. She has got … patience with people. 7. You can put your bag on the luggage rack. There is … room. 8. I enjoy my life here. Though I have … free time, I can meet … interesting people here, on board the airplane. 9. Only … students of our group like maths.

Exercise 22. Complete the sentences using a comparative form (-er or more).

  1. Pete is (experienced) than the other members of the group. 2. You are talking too loudly. Could you speak in a (low) voice? 3. My friends arrived (early) than we expected. 4. The instructions were very complicated. They could have been (simple). 5. Your hotel is (cheap) than the one you stayed in last year. 6. The journey by air is (comfortable) than by any other means of transport. 7. The weather is too cold in the country I live in. I’d prefer to live in (warm) climate. 8. It is becoming (hard) and (hard) to find a job in this country. 9. Your suitcase is (heavy) than mine. 10. Travelling by air has become (expensive) than it used to be some years ago.

Exercise 23. Put a tag question at the end of each sentence.


The fuselage is the central body of the airplane, isn’t it?

The fuselage houses passengers, doesn’t it?

The weather is not bad today, is it?

  1. The fuselage is a rigid framework, …? 2. Stringers serve to stiffen the skin, …? 3. In the monocoque design the skin provides its own structural strength, …? 4. There are two main types of the fuselage construction, …? 5. You can describe this principal structural unit, …? 6. Then you will mention this fact, …? 7. Let us switch on the light, …? 8. I am responsible for this piece of a job, …? 9. He cannot finish cleaning the passenger cabins for an hour, …? 10. The wind isn’t very cold today, …? 11. They will not land on time in such weather, …? 12. Not all airplanes are similar in design, …?

Exercise 24. Insert prepositions: by, with, of, in, for, from, to, up, through, during, into.

  1. The fuselage extends … the nose … the tail of the machine. 2. Formers serve as a support … stringers and skin. 3. Fuselages … all airplanes are similar … general design, location and outline. 4. The fuselage is divided … nose, centre and rear fuselage. 5. The framework is covered … a thin-walled skin. 6. The longitudinal members are held apart … bulkheads and formers. 6. All fuselages vary principally … size and … the arrangement … compartments. 7. The fuselage is divided horizontally … the floor which is built … beams and panels. 8. Access … this section is … a door. 9. The safety information card is … the seat pocket … front … you. 10. The seat belts must be fastened … take off and landing.

Exercise 25. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 3


1. заданий, розрахунковий 2. спеціальний, визначений 3. питомий

1. заданый, расчетный 2. специальный, определенный 3. удельный


бортова кухня

бортовая кухня




noise level

рівень шуму (величина шуму чи перешкод)

уровень шума (величина шума или помех)

oxygen feeding

постачання кисню

подача кислорода





прохід між рядами крісел

проход между рядами кресел


в ряд

в ряд

two-decked airliner

двопалубний літак

двухпалубный самолет




Exercise 26. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.
Text 3. Passenger Cabin

The passenger cabin must be as comfortable as possible in order that passengers would not be tired even if the flight is long.

The comfort of passenger cabin includes the following items: sufficient specific cabin volume (volume per passenger), comfortable seats, convenient arrangement and equipment of buffets, galley, wardrobes and toilets, good soundproofing, lowering the noise level of the cabin to available limit, oxygen feeding and maintaining air pressure, sufficient lighting (natural and artificial).

Passenger’s comfort is achieved only when all above-mentioned requirements are met.

The size of the passenger cabin is determined by volume per passenger. In modern aircraft specific volume is 1.4 – 2 cu.m. The designer must provide sufficient height of a cabin, width of gangways and such a seat arrangement which gives a free access to seat structure and enough room for passenger’s legs.

Seats may be arranged four, five and even six abreast (three seats on either side of the central gangway).

Let’s now consider the layout of interior compartments. To give passengers an impression of roominess, it is necessary to destroy any ‘tube’ effect. To meet this requirement, rectangular roof panels, long panels along the upper sidewalls and several partial bulkheads are used. The cabin can be divided into several parts: two or three passenger cabins, lobby, wardrobes, buffet or galley, toilet rooms, cargo holds.

Effective heating and ventilation, as well as oxygen feeding and maintaining normal air pressure, are usually achieved with air conditioning systems. Modern airliners are provided with hermetically sealed cabins with the normal air pressure.

Good soundproofing is achieved by using special panels and fabrics. Luggage holds are usually arranged in the fuselage nose and the rear. Two-decked airliners have under-floor cargo holds. Sometimes they have an unpressurized baggage compartments to the rear of the cabin with a large external door. In some airliners the seats in the rear compartments are made easily removable.
Exercise 27. Write out all word combinations characterizing passenger comfort on board an airplane.
Exercise 28. Answer the following questions.

  1. Why must the passenger cabin be very comfortable? 2. What is meant by the term ‘specific cabin volume’? 3. What should be taken into consideration to provide comfort for passengers? 4. How is the ‘tube’ effect destroyed in the airplane compartments? 5. What is achieved due to air conditioning system? 6. Where are luggage holds usually arranged?

Exercise 29. Put questions to the italicized words.

  1. All fuselages are round structures. 2. All fuselages have a streamlined shape to reduce the drag. 3. In the monocoque design the skin provides its own structural strength. 4. The longitudinal members are held apart by bulkheads and formers. 5. The fuselage serves as a support for the tail unit.

Exercise 30. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 4




reclined seat

відкидне крісло

откидное кресло

on a track

на рейках

на рельсах

sheep-skin cover

покриття з натуральної шкіри

покрытие из натуральной кожи


ремінь безпеки

ремень безопасности


лобове скло (кабіни екіпажу)

лобовое стекло (кабины экипажа)


лобове скло (кабіни екіпажу)

лобовое стекло (кабины экипажа)

eye-brow window

верхнє вікно (ліхтаря кабіни екіпажу)

верхнее окно (фонаря кабины экипажа)

large-scope wiper

склоочисник великого радіусу дії

стеклоочиститель большого радиуса действия


1. вид, видимість 2. зображення

1. вид, видимость 2. изображение

ice formation



fog formation



sliding window



Exercise 31. Read, translate and give the gist of text 4.
Text 4. Cockpit

The cockpit is one of compartments of the fuselage situated in its front part. It is a working place of the crew. It accommodates crew members. Apart from crew members, the cockpit houses computers, controls, instruments, systems and some equipment.

The modern cockpit must be comfortable and spacious. It must provide forward-facing (forward-looking) seating arrangement for the crew. Seats are designed for comfort, convenience and efficiency. They must be reclined and adjusted in horizontal and vertical directions. They are usually installed on a track to provide an easy exit and entry for the crew. It is recommended that seats for the crew should have sheep-skin covers. Each seat must be provided with a proper harness.

A glass part of the cockpit is called a canopy. It includes two kinds of windows: front windows and side windows. Front windows consist of a windscreen (windshield) and eye-brow windows. The windshield must be very strong. It is made of a special kind of glass which has good optical and aerodynamic characteristics. It must be provided with large-scope wipers and be large enough to provide good vision (view) to the crew. It is electrically heated to prevent ice and fog formation. Side windows are divided into sliding side windows (left and right) and fixed side windows (left and right).

Exercise 32. Answer the questions on text 4.

  1. What does the cockpit house? 2. Why must pilots’ seats be reclined? 3. What is a glass part of the cockpit called? 4. What provides good vision in the cockpit? 5. What provides good condition and efficient work of the crew on board an airplane? 6. What devices are essential to control an airplane?

Exercise 33. Match the terms and their definitions.

1. The area in a plane, small boat, or racing car where the pilot or driver sits

a) harness

2. Large room or house having plenty of space to move around in

b) slide

3. The quality of being suitable or useful for a particular purpose, especially by making something easier or saving your time

c) recline

4. To lower the back of the seat so that you can lean back in it

d) convenience

5. A set of bands used to hold someone in place or to stop them from falling

e) cockpit

6. To move smoothly over a surface while continuing to touch it, or to make something move in this way

f) spacious

Exercise 34. Finish the following sentences.

  1. Seats in the cockpit are designed for …

  2. Apart from crew members, the cockpit houses …

  3. Seats are installed on a track to provide …

  4. Seats are adjusted in …

  5. A glass part of the cockpit includes the following kinds of windows: ...

  6. The windshield is made of …

  7. The windshield is electrically heated to …

  8. Side windows are divided into …

Exercise 35. Translate into English.

1. Фюзеляж - це найбільша конструктивна частина літака.

1. Фюзеляж - это самая большая конструктивная часть самолета.

2. Фюзеляжі всіх літаків мають обтічну форму для зменшення лобового опору.

2. Фюзеляжи всех самолетов имеют обтекаемую форму для уменьшения лобового сопротивления.

3. Каркас фюзеляжу складається з повздовжніх та поперечних елементів і являє собою цільнометалеву конструкцію.

3. Каркас фюзеляжа состоит из продольных и поперечных элементов и является цельнометаллической конструкцией.

4. Повздовжні елементи утримуються на відстані шпангоутами та перегородками.

4. Продольные элементы удерживаются на расстоянии шпангоутами и перегородками.

5. Кабіна пілота, пасажирські салони, багажні відсіки та обладнання літака розміщені у фюзеляжі.

5. Кабина пилота, пассажирские салоны, багажные отделения и оборудование самолета расположены в фюзеляже.

6. Конструктор літака повинен забезпечити достатню висоту пасажирських салонів і ширину проходів між рядами крісел.

6. Конструктор самолета должен обеспечить достаточную высоту пассажирских салонов и ширину проходов между рядами кресел.

7. Доступ до цієї секції здійснюється через двері, які розташовані ліворуч.

7. Доступ в эту секцию осуществляется через дверь с левой стороны.

Exercise 36. Translate the text in a written form.

The true monocoque construction uses formers, frame assemblies, and bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage. However, the skin carries the primary stresses. Since no bracing members are present, the skin must be strong enough to keep the fuselage rigid. The biggest problem in monocoque construction is maintaining enough strength while keeping the weight within limits.

The vertical structural members are referred to as bulkheads, frames, and formers. The heavier vertical members are located at intervals to allow for concentrated loads. The stringers are smaller and lighter than longerons and serve as fill-ins. They have some rigidity but are chiefly used for giving shape and for attachment of skin. The strong, heavy longerons hold the bulkheads and formers. The bulkheads and formers hold the stringers. All of these join together to form a rigid fuselage framework. Stringers and longerons prevent tension and compression stresses from bending the fuselage.
Exercise 37. Speak on:

    1. Fuselage construction.

    2. Fuselage layout.

    3. What provides convenience for passengers.

    4. Cockpit design.

Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary.


повітряний потік

воздушный поток


підіймальна сила

подъемная сила


лобовий опір

лобовое сопротивление

leading edge

передня кромка (крила)

передняя кромка (крыла)

trailing edge

задня кромка

задняя кромка

wing tip

закінцівка крила

законцовка крыла

wing root

коренева частина крила

корневая часть крыла










sweepback angle

кут стрілоподібнocті

угол стреловидности

angle of attack

кут атаки

угол атаки

dihedral angle

кут поперечного V

угол поперечного V

angle of incidence

кут установки

угол установки


1.перпендикуляр 2. перпендикулярний

1. перпендикуляр 2. перпендикулярный

axis (pl.axes)



longitudinal axis

повздовжня вісь

продольная ось

lateral axis

поперечна вісь

поперечная ось


розмах (крила літака)

размах (крыла самолета)




relative wind

відносний повітряний потік

относительный воздушный поток


крутий, стрімкий



тканина, матерія

ткань, материал


сплав, композитний матеріал

сплав, композитный материал


відносне подовження (крила)

относительное удлинение (крыла)

Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue 1
T. What is a wing?

S. It is one of the principal structural units of the airplane.

T. And what is the function of the wing?

S. Its function is to provide lift and to support the airplane in the air.

T. Right you are. Look at Figure I.3.1. You see, any wing has the leading edge (1), the trailing edge (2), the tip (3) and the root (4).

Fig. I.3.1. Wing structure

The shape of the wing may be rectangular, triangular, elliptical and swept back. Sweep is irregular verb: sweep-swept-swept. ”To sweep” means “простягатися, тягтися/ простираться, тянуться”, so “sweepback angle” is “кут стрілоподібності/угол стреловидности”. Do you know what the amount of a sweep angle depends upon?

S. I think it depends upon the type of the airplane and its design, doesn’t it?

T. Yes, absolutely. The sweepback angle is the angle between the wing and a per­pendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane (Fig.1.3.2).

Fig. I.3.2. Sweepback angle

And what kind of aircraft has a greater sweepback angle?

S. High-speed jet aircraft have a greater sweepback angle, I guess.

T. That’s right. Now let’s speak about the dihedral angle (кут поперечного V/угол поперечного V). It is the angle bet­ween the wing and a horizontal plane (Fig.1.3.3). The dihedral angle may be either positive or negative.

Fig. I.3.3. Dihedral angle

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