Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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S. And what is the angle of attack?

T. The angle of attack is the angle between the chord of the wing (which is the distance between the leading edge and the trai­ling edge of the wing) and the direction of the relative wind.

S. I can draw it.

Fig.1.3.4. The angle of attack

Is that right?

T. Quite right. We have already mentioned that the wing creates lift. In what way can lift be increased?

S. To my mind by increasing the angle of attack.

T. Right. There is one more wing angle. It is the angle of incidence (“кут установки крила/угол установки крыла“). It is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the wing chord. The angle of incidence is fixed. It cannot be changed by the pilot.

Now look at Figure I.3.5. The airplane may have parasol, low-wing, mid-wing and high-wing construction. (Fig.I.3.5.)



low-wing mid-wing high-wing

Fig. I.3.5. Types of wing construction

The number of wings may vary. I am sure you know what the airplane with one wing is called?



S. It is called a monoplane (моноплан/моноплан) and the airplane with two wings is called biplane (біплан/биплан).

T. Yes. A multiplane has many wings. The prefix "multi-" means "many". Will you translate the words "multinational, multifunctional"?

S."Багатонаціональний/многонациональный, багатофункціональний/ многофункциональный"

T. That’s correct. Depending on the design of the aircraft the wing may be made of metal, wood or fabric.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Wing Design

The wing is the principal structural unit of an airplane. It is designed to produce lift when moved rapidly through the air. So, the function of the wing is to provide lift and to support the airpla­ne in the air. The wing has a leading edge, a trailing edge, tips and a root.

The length of the wing between its tips is called the span. The chord is the distance between the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wing.

The shape of the wing may be rectangular, triangular, elliptical and swept back. The amount of the sweepback angle depends upon the type of the airplane and its design. The sweepback angle is the angle between the wing and a perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane. High-speed jet aircraft have greater sweepback angle.

The dihedral angle is the angle between the wing and a hori­zontal plane. The angle of attack is the angle between the chord of the wing and the direction of the relative wind. When an airplane’s angle of attack is so steep that the airflow over the upper surface of the wing breaks, lift is lost and drag increases. The angle of incidence is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the wing chord. The angle of incidence is measured by the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage. The angle of incidence is fixed and can­not be changed by the pilot. The position of the wing may vary. The airplane may have a pa­rasol, high-wing, mid-wing and low-wing construction.

The airplanes may be divided according to the number of wings into monoplanes, biplanes and multi-planes. Monoplanes have one wing, biplanes have two wings and multi-planes have more than two wings.

The wing may be made of metal, wood, fabric or composite material which depends on the design of the airplane.
Exercise 4. Translate the following universal words without a dictionary. Mind the difference in spelling, pronunciation and meanings of such words in English and Ukrainian/Russian.

Airplane, fuselage, helicopter, aerodynamic, reaction, lift, attack, turbulence, act, negative, positive, chord, fix, metal, distance, design, perpendicular, elliptical, composite, type, component, centre, mechanical, result, temperature, control, monoplane, limit, gravity, balance, calculation, definition.


Exercise 5. Find in text 1 fifteen words that can be used both as a noun and a verb. Give the translation of the pairs.

Model:

Noun

Verb

house - будинок / дом

to house - вміщувати / вмещать


Exercise 6. Translate word combinations with the term “wing”.

Low wing, cambered wing, delta wing, high wing, flapped wing, flapless wing, fixed wing, port wing, starboard wing, sweptback wing, tapered wing, cantilever wing, one-piece wing, single-spar wing, multi-spar wing, low-lift wing, high-lift wing, sharp leading edge wing, zero-aspect-ratio wing, high-aspect-ratio wing.


Exercise 7. Find English equivalents in text 1.

Форма крила / форма крыла; тип та конструкція літака / тип и конструкция самолета; високоплан / высокоплан; середньоплан / среднеплан; низькоплан / низкоплан; передня кромка / передняя кромка; задня кромка / задняя кромка; закінцівка / законцовка; коренева частина / корневая часть; кут установки / угол установки; біплан / биплан; моноплан / моноплан; горизонтальна площина / горизонтальная плоскость; кут поперечного V / угол поперечного V; повздовжня вісь / продольная ось; відстань між / расстояние между; реактивний літак / реактивный самолёт; поверхня крила / поверхность крыла; кут стрілоподібності / угол стреловидности; відносний повітряний потік / относительный воздушный поток.


Exercise 8. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents of the following word combinations.

Structural unit, leading edge, trailing edge, wing tip, wing root, wing chord, shape of the wing, airfoil section, parasol type, high-wing, mid-wing, low-wing, sweepback angle, dihedral angle, steep angle of attack, longitudinal axis, horizontal plane, relative wind, angle of incidence, airplane design, fixed angle, composite material, jet airplane.


Exercise 9. Match the terms with their definitions.

1. angle of attack

a) The aerodynamic force acting on an aircraft during flight in the direction opposite to aircraft motion

2. monoplane

b) The point where the wing joins the fuselage

3. angle of incidence

c) The angle between the wing chord and the direction of the relative wind

4. trailing edge

d) The front edge of an airfoil

5. biplane

e) The angle between the wing and a perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the airplane

6. dihedral angle

f) An airplane with two main planes of uniform size that offers good maneuverability and short take-off run

7. drag

g) The length of the wing between its tips

8. wing root

h) The angle between the wing and a horizontal plane

9. leading edge

i) The distance from the leading to the trailing edge of a wing

10. wing tip

j) An airplane with only one wing

11. sweepback angle

k) The angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord of the wing

12. chord

l) The rearmost edge of the airfoil

13. span

m) The outer end of the outboard panel


Exercise 10. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. Is the wing a principal structural unit of the airplane? 2. What is the function of the wing? 3. What does the wing consist of? 4. What shapes can the wing have? 5. What is the sweepback angle? 6. What is the dihedral angle? 7. What angle is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the wing chord? 8. What is the angle of attack? 9. Does the position of the wing vary? 10. What types of airplanes do we distinguish according to the number of wings? 11. What materials is the wing usually made of?


Exercise 11. Give definitions to the following terms:

monoplane, wing tip, biplane, leading edge, angle of attack, chord, span, trailing edge, dihedral angle, sweepback angle, drag, angle of incidence, wing root.



Exercise 12. Memorize the active vocabulary.

spar

лонжерон

лонжерон

stringer

стрингер (повздовжній підсилюючий елемент)

стрингер (продольный усиливающий элемент)

stiffener

ребро жорсткості, профіль підсилення

ребро жесткости, профиль усиления

bulkhead

перегородка, суцільний шпангоут

перегородка, сплошной шпангоут

rib

нервюра

нервюра

skin

обшивка, покриття

обшивка, покрытие

covering

обшивка

обшивка

camber

кривизна, вигнутість

кривизна, выпуклость

extend out

виходити зовні

выходить наружу

main plane

крило, несна площина

крыло, несущая плоскость

port

1. отвір 2. лівий (борт)

1. отверстие 2. левый (борт)

starboard

праве (напівкрило)

правое (полукрыло)

aileron

елерон

элерон

flap

закрилок

закрылок

box type wing

крило коробчаcтого/ кесонного типу

крыло коробчатого/ кессонного типа

wing box

кесон крила

кессон крыла

multi-spar wing

багатолонжеронне крило

многолонжеронное крыло

box-beam type wing

крило з коробчастим лонжероном

крыло с коробчатым лонжероном

box-spar wing

крило з коробчастим лонжероном

крыло с коробчатым лонжероном

sandwich type

багатошаровий тип

многослойный тип

airfoil

аеродинамічна поверхня/профіль

аэродинамическая поверхность/ профиль

span-wise member

повздовжний елементи (конструкції)

продольный элемент (конструкции)

chord-wise member

поперечний елемент

(конструкції)

поперечный элемент (конструкции)

cross-section

поперечний переріз

поперечное сечение

framework

рама, каркас

рама, каркас

stress

1. напруга; навантаження 2. піддавати напрузі

1. напряжение; нагрузка 2. подвергать напряжению

stressed skin

працююча обшивка

работающая обшивка

honeycomb core

сотовий заповнювач

сотовый заполнитель

fuel tank

паливний бак

топливный бак

seal

1. ущільнення, ущільнювач; ущільнюючий матеріал, ущільнювальна прокладка; ізолювальний шар; сальник, сальникове ущільнення 2. ізоляція 3. герметизація; герметик 4. ущільнювати; ізолювати 5. герметизувати

1.уплотнение, уплотнитель; уплотняющий материал, уплотняющая прокладка; изолирующий слой; сальник, сальниковое уплотнение 2. изоляция 3. герметизация; герметик 4. уплотнять; изолировать 5. герметизировать

adopt

приймати

принимать

incorporate

1. включати (до складу); 2. об’єднува-ти(ся)

1. включать состав); 2. объединять(ся)

additional

додатковий

дополнительный

Exercise 13. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue 2

Т. The main structural member of the wing is a wing spar or beam. It is shown in Figure I.3.6.

Fig.I.3.6. A spar



The terms “spar” and "beam" are synonyms. They mean “лон-жерон / лонжерон”. The spar runs along the length of the wing from the fuselage to the wing tip. The word "long" is an adjective. The correspondent noun is "length". Will you translate the phrase “to run along the length”, please.
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