Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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I.4. TAIL UNIT


Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary.

tail cone

хвостовий конус / обтікач

хвостовой конус / обтекатель

elevator

кермо висоти

руль высоты

stabilizer

стабілізатор

стабилизатор

fin

кіль

киль

rudder

кермо напрямку / повороту

руль направления / поворота

airframe

планер / корпус літального апарату

планер / корпус летательного аппарата

directional control

керування за курсом

управление по курсу

longitudinal stability

повздовжня стійкість

продольная устойчивость

steady

1. стійкий, сталий; 2. робити стійким

1. устойчивый; 2. делать устой-чивым

attach

кріпити, прикріплю-вати, приєднувати

крепить, прикреплять, присоединять

control

1. керування; 2. орган керування; 3. керувати, регулювати

1. управление; 2. орган управления; 3. управлять, регулировать

deflect

відхиляти(ся)

отклонять(ся)


Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.

Dialogue 1

T. As you already know the empennage or the tail assembly is one of the principal structural units of the aircraft (Fig.I.4.1). What else can you tell us about it?

Fig. I.4.1. Tail unit



S. The tail assembly is located at the rear of any aircraft. The tail unit consists of symmetrical airfoil sections: vertical and horizontal. Each of them is divided into two parts, the front, fixed, and the rear, movable, in the form of a flap. The vertical surface is known as “fin”. The horizontal surface is called “stabilizer”. The tail unit provides directional and longitudinal stability of the aircraft in flight.

T. You are quite right. Look at the picture (Fig. I.4.2.) Can you point at the tail unit and its sections?

Fig. I.4.2. Tail assembly



S. Sure. Here they are.

T. O.K. But today our topic isn’t just tail assembly. We’ll be speaking about flight control surfaces (площини керування/ плоскости управления). The primary (основні/основные) flight control surfaces include ailerons (елерони/элероны), elevators and rudder. Elevators and rudder are the elements of the empennage, and ailerons are parts of the wing.

At the rear of the airplane there is the tail assembly or empennage. It is composed of a fin which is not movable, and the rudder which is attached to the fin. Here it is in Fig. I.4.3.



Fig. I.4.3. Rudder

The rudder is a movable part hinged to the trailing edge of the tail’s vertical fin. It is designed to control the yawing action (рискання/ рыскание) around the vertical axis of the aircraft. The rudder can be deflected to the right or to the left or lie in line with the fin. If it is necessary to turn the airplane to the left, the rudder is pushed to the left.

So, what can you say about the rudder?



S. The rudder is movable and, if it is deflected to the right the tail turns towards the left by the action of airflow and the nose of the airplane turns to the right. So the plane makes a right turn.

T. Absolutely! And where should the pilot deflect the rudder to make the airplane turn to the left?

S. I think, to make a left turn the rudder must be turned to the left.

T. You are quite right. The control surfaces are actuated by means of control mechanisms, consisting of the controls in the cockpit together with the linkage (проводка керування / проводка управления) and accessories. Do you know what the rudder is controlled by?

S. It is controlled by rudder pedals, isn’t it?

T. Yes, of course. To make a right turn the pilot presses the right pedal and to turn to the left he has to press the left pedal.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Tail Unit

Tail section or empennage is one of the principal structural units of the aircraft and the element of airplane airframe. Tail assembly consists of a tail cone, fixed surfaces, and movable surfaces. One is vertical and the other is horizontal. They are of symmetrical airfoil section. Each is divided into two parts, the front and the rear. The front part is fixed and helps to steady the aircraft. The rear part is a movable surface made in the form of a flap that helps to direct an aircraft’s flight. The vertical surface is called the “fin”. It provides directional stability and control of the aircraft in flight. The horizontal surface is known as the “stabilizer”.

Both the fin and the stabilizer are very similar to the wings in construction. They are usually of all-metal construction. The vertical stabilizer or fin provides directional stability of the aeroplane in flight. It also serves as the base to which the rudder is attached. The rudder is a movable surface hinged to the trailing edge of the fin. It provides directional control of the airplane in flight, being deflected to the right or left. The horizontal stabilizer provides longitudinal stability of the aeroplane in flight. It serves as a support for the elevators.

Elevators are movable airfoils, hinged to the trailing edge of the tail’s horizontal stabilizer. They can deflect downwards and upwards. The elevators control the climb and descent of the airplane, that is the motion of the aircraft about the lateral axis. To cause the aeroplane to climb it is necessary to deflect them upward. When the elevators are lowered the aircraft begins to descend.


Exercise 4. Match English - Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.

1. actuate

a) подібна конструкція / подобная констру-кция

2. climb

b) хвостове оперення / хвостовое оперение

3. descend

c) відхиляти(ся) / отклонять(ся)

4. deflect

d) кіль / киль

5. tail assembly

e) поперечний переріз аеродинамічного профілю / поперечное сечение аэродинами-ческого профиля

6. airfoil section

f) кермо висоти / руль высоты

7. control stick

j) кермо повороту / руль поворота

8. all-metal construction

h) набирати висоту / набирать высоту

9. similar constru- ction

i) приводити в дію / приводить в действие

10. rudder

j) знижуватися / снижаться

11. elevator

k) ручка керування / ручка управления

12. fin

l) суцільно металева конструкція / цельно металлическая конструкция


Exercise 5. Translate the combinations with the words rudder, stabilizer.

Aerodynamic rudder, movable rudder, fixed rudder, split rudder, fully deflected rudder, two-section rudder, fabric-covered rudder; adjustable stabilizer, horizontal stabili­zer, mechanical stabilizer, vertical stabilizer.


Exercise 6. Define the parts of speech the following words belong to and translate the derivative chains.

Direct, direction, director, directional;

vary, variety, variation, variability, variant, various;

apply, application, applicant, appliance, applicable;

extend, extension, extensive, extensively;

define, definition, definite, indefinite, definitely;

move, motion, movement, movable, mobile;

assemble, disassemble, assembly, assemblage, assembler;

construct, construction, constructive, constructional;

relate, relation, relationship, relative, relatively;

act, action, activity, active, inactive, activate, actively;

elevate, elevation, elevated, elevator;

coordinate, coordination, coordinator;

deflect, deflection, deflected, deflector;

actuate, actuation, actuator.
Exercise 7. Make word combinations using the words given in lines 1 and 2.

1) movable, tail, trailing, longitudinal, horizontal, control, vertical, lateral;

2) axis, stabilizer, stick, assembly, rudder, surface, edge, pedal, unit, mechanism.
Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with the words and word combinations given below.

Stabilisers, empennage, directional stability, lateral, rudder, climb and descent, movable, longitudinal stability.

1. The vertical stabilizer or fin provides … of the aeroplane in flight. 2. Both … are very similar to the wings in construction. 3. … is located at the rear of the aeroplane. 4. The elevator is a … airfoil. 5. The vertical stabilizer also serves as the base to which the … is attached. 6. The elevators control the … of the airplane. 7. The horizontal stabilizer provides … of the airplane in flight. 8. The climb and descent of the aeroplane are the motions of the aircraft about the … axis.


Exercise 9. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. The tail unit is the element of airplane frame. 2. Tail assembly consists generally of four surfaces. 3. Surfaces constituting the empennage aren’t of symmetrical airfoil section. 4. Both fin and stabilizer are divided into two parts, the front and the rear. 5. Horizontal and vertical stabilizers are very similar to the wings in construction. 6. The fixed surfaces are usually a rudder and elevators. 7. The vertical stabilizer or fin provides longitudinal stability of the aircraft in flight. 8. The rudder provides directional control of the airplane in flight, being deflected upwards or downwards. 9. Elevators are movable airfoils hinged to the trailing edge of the tail’s vertical stabilizer. 10. The elevators control the motion of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis. 11. When the elevators are lowered the aircraft begins to descend.


Exercise 10. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. Where is the tail unit or empennage located? 2. How many surfaces does the tail assembly consist of? 3. What parts constitute the horizontal surface? 4. What parts does the vertical surface consist of? 5. What is the stabilizer similar in design to? 6. What does the vertical stabilizer or fin provide? 7. What provides longitudinal stability of the aeroplane in flight? 8. Elevators are attached to the leading edge of the tail’s horizontal stabilizer, aren’t they? 9. How can the elevators deflect? 10. Are elevators lowered or raised when the aircraft begins to descend? 11. What is hinged to the fin? 12. How can the rudder be deflected?


Exercise 11. Put questions to the italicized words.

1. In order to control the aircraft while in flight, it is necessary to equip it with movable control surfaces or airfoils. 2. The primary group includes ailerons, elevators and the rudder. 3. The axis that runs from the nose to the tail is called the longitudinal axis. 4. Rotation about the longitudinal axis is called “roll”. 5. Rotation of the aircraft about the lateral axis is called” “pitch. 6. Flying crew carry out work connected with aircraft flight. 7. The rudder serves for changing the attitude of the aeroplane about the vertical axis.


Exercise 12. Comment on the text “Tail Unit” using such constructions as:


It is a common knowledge …

Загально відомо, що ... / Обще-известно, что ...

In my opinion …

На мою думку... / По моему мнению ...

The point is (that) …

Справа в тому, що ... /Дело в том, что …

As far as I know …

Наскільки мені відомо ... / Насколько мне известно ...

I think ...

Я вважаю, що.../Я полагаю, что...

I believe…

Я вважаю, що.../Я полагаю, что...



Exercise 13. Memorize the active vocabulary.


control surface

площина керування, кермо

плоскость управления, руль

primary control surface

основна площина керування

основная плоскость управления

secondary control surface

допоміжна площина керування

вспомогательная плоскость управления

control column

ручка/колонка керування

ручка/колонка управления

control stick

ручка керування

ручка управления

control mechanism

механізм керування

механизм управления

attitude

положення в прос-торі

положение в прост-ранстве

roll

крен (обертання відносно повздовжньої осі), “бочка” (авіаційна фігура)

крен, (вращение вокруг продольной оси), “бочка”(авиа-ционная фигура)

pitch

тангаж (обертання відносно поперечної осі); кут тангажу

тангаж (вращение вокруг поперечной оси); угол тангажа

pitchdown

пікірування

пикирование

pitchup

кабрування

кабрирование

pitching

зміна кута тангажу

изменение угла тангажа

yaw

рискання, відхи-лення від курсу

рыскание, отклоне-ние от курса

actuate

приводити в дію

приводить в действие










bank

1) віраж, розворот, крен 2) виконувати віраж

1) вираж, разворот, крен 2) выполнять вираж

rudder pedal

педаль руля пово-роту

педаль руля поворота

interconnected

взаємопов’язаний

взаимосвязанный

rotate

обертати(ся)

вращать(ся)

assist

допомагати

помогать

push

1. нажим, поштовх 2. натискати, штовхати

1. нажим толчок 2. нажимать, толкать

cable

1. трос 2. кабель

1. трос 2. кабель

linkage

проводка керування

проводка управления

pulley

блок, шків, ролик

блок, шкив, ролик

turnbuckle

стяжна муфта

стяжная муфта

fair-lead

вивідна трубка

выводная трубка

accessorу

допоміжний агрегат

вспомогательный агрегат

simultaneously

одночасно

одновременно

vice versa

навпаки

наоборот


Exercise 14. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue 2

T. The control stick or column and rudder pedals through the linkage actuate all control surfaces. The linkage consists of cables with turnbuckles (стяжнi муфти / стяжные муфты). The cables are guided through fair-leads (вивідні трубки / выводные трубки) and over pulleys (блоки, шківи, ролики / блоки, шкивы, ролики).

So, what are control surfaces actuated by?



S. By control column and rudder pedals through a special linkage, as we have just heard.

T. So, by pushing the left pedal, the pilot makes the rudder move to the left causing the airplane to turn to the left around its vertical axis. Pressure on the right pedal turns the airplane to the right. The primary purpose of the rudder is to coordinate with the ailerons the movement of the aircraft when the plane is banking.

Now, look at this picture (Fig.I.4.4). These are elevators. The elevators are



Fig. I.4.4. Elevators

movable airfoils attached to the trailing edge of the tail's horizontal stabilizer. They control the pitch.

S. Is it the rotation of the aircraft around the lateral or pitch axis?

T. Yes, it is. To cause the aeroplane to climb it is necessary to deflect them upward. When the elevators are lowered the aircraft begins to descend.

S. Do the flight control surfaces include rudder and elevators?

T. Flight control system consists of primary and secondary flight control surfaces. The primary group includes: ailerons, elevators and rudder. And the secondary group includes some types of tabs (тримери / триммеры).
Exercise 15. Read, translate and give the gist of text 2.
Text 2. Flight Control Surfaces

In order to control the airplane while in flight, it is necessary to equip it with movable control surfaces or airfoils. The airfoils designed to be moved by the pilot in order to change the attitude of the airplane during flight are known as primary or main and secondary or auxiliary control surfaces. The primary group serves to change the attitude of the aircraft about the vertical, lateral and longitudinal axes. The primary group includes ailerons, elevators and rudder. Ailerons are movable control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of both wings. Elevators are attached to the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. The rudder is hinged to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer. Primary control surfaces are similar in construction and vary only in size, shape and methods of attachment.

The ailerons are interconnected in the control system to operate simultaneously in opposite directions. Ailerons help to bank the airplane, that is, they control the roll, or movement around the longitudinal axis. Ailerons are so connected that when the aileron on one wing is turned up to decrease lift, the aileron on the other wing automatically goes down and increases lift. If the pilot wants to roll to the right, he moves the stick to the right or turns the wheel to the right and the right aileron goes up and at the same time the left ailerons goes down increasing the lift on the left side, thereby assisting in the roll action to the right.

The elevators are movable airfoils. They are attached to the trailing edge of the tail’s horizontal stabilizer. The elevators control the pitch, that is, the rotation about the lateral or pitch axis. They can deflect downwards and upwards. To cause the airplane to climb it is necessary to deflect elevators upwards. When the elevators are lowered the airplane begins to descend.

The rudder is a movable part attached to the trailing edge of the tail’s vertical fin, and is designed to control the aircraft yawing action around the vertical axis. The rudder can be deflected to the right or to the left or lie in a line with the fin. If it is necessary to turn the airplane to the left the rudder is pushed to the left and vice versa.
Exercise 16. Read these words out loud, paying attention to the stress:

а) on the first syllable: aileron, surface, rudder, tail, similar, structure, metal, system, vertical, movable, opposite;

b) on the second syllable: construction, internal, externally, direction, control, controlled, about, without, connect, descend, rotation, auxiliary.

Translate the words.


Exercise 17. Translate the following according to the model.

Model:

to translate

translating

translated

перекладати /

переводить



перекладаючи(й) /

переводя(щий)



перекладений /

переведенный



To control – controlling – controlled; to protect – protecting – protected; to design – designing – designed; to instruct – instructing – instructed; to elevate – elevating – elevated; to carry – carrying – carried; to deflect – deflecting – deflected; to turn – turning – turned; to train – training – trained; to support – supporting – supported.
Exercise 18. Give English equivalent.

Виконувати віраж/выполнять вираж; набирати висоту/на-бирать высоту; штовхати/толкать; кріпити на шарнірах/крепить на шарнирах; штурвал/штурвал; аеродинамічний профіль/ аэродинамический профиль; повздовжня вісь/продольная ось; обертання відносно повздовжньої осі/вращение вокруг продольной оси; поперечна вісь/поперечная ось; обертання відносно поперечної осі/вращение вокруг поперечной оси; руль повороту/руль поворота; кіль/киль; рискання/рыскание; положення/положение; кутове положення/угловое положение; центр тяжіння/центр тяжести; ручка керування/ручка управления; знижуватися/снижаться; одночасно/одновременно; площина керування/плоскость управления.


Exercise 19. Match English – Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.

1. сlimb

a) приводити в дію/приводить в действие

2. descend

b) рухомий аеродинамічний профіль/подви-жный аэродинамический профиль

3. actuate

c) проводка керування / проводка управления

4. control mechanism

d) знижати(ся) / снижать(ся)

5. empennage

e) поперечна вісь / поперечная ось

6. turnbuckle

f) набирати висоту / набирать высоту

7. fair-lead

g) відхиляти(ся) / отклонять(ся)

8. pitch axis

h) хвостове оперення / хвостовое оперение

9. movable airfoil

i) вивідна трубка / выводная трубка

10. deflect

j) стяжна муфта / стяжная муфта

11. pulley

k) педаль руля повороту / педаль руля пово-рота

12. rudder pedal

l) горизонтальний політ / горизонтальный полет

13. yaw

m) руль висоти / руль высоты

14. bank

n) допоміжні агрегати / вспомогательные агрегаты

15. linkage

o) механізм керування / механизм управления

16. accessories

p) рискання, відхилення від курсу / рыскание, отклонение от курса

17. elevator

q) крен, віраж / крен, вираж

18. level flight

r) блок, шків / блок, шкив


Exercise 20. Answer the questions on text 2.

1. Why is it necessary to equip an airplane with movable control surfaces or airfoils? 2. What is used to change the attitude of the airplane during flight? 3. What do we call the airfoils designed to change the attitude of the airplane during flight? 4. What term determines the angular position of the airplane in relation to the horizontal, vertical and lateral planes? 5. What is the longitudinal axis? 6. The rotation about longitudinal axis is called “roll”, isn’t it? 7. What is called “pitch”? 8. What axis runs vertically through the aircraft centre of gravity? 9. What surfaces help to bank the airplane, that is, to control its movement around the longitudinal axis? 10. What must the pilot do if he wants to roll to the right? 11. What is it necessary to do to cause the airplane to climb? 12. When the elevators are lowered the airplane begins to climb, doesn’t it? 13. What surfaces are designed to control the aircraft yawing action around the vertical axis? 14. Where can the rudder be deflected? 15. What is to be done to turn the airplane to the left?



Exercisе 21. Match the terms with the definitions.

1. longitudinal axis

a) The angular position of the airplane in relation to the horizontal plane and the vertical plane

2. vertical axis

b) The axis that runs from one wing tip to the other

3. roll

c) The rotation of an airplane about lateral axis

4. lateral axis

d) The axis that runs vertically through the fuselage in its centre of gravity

5. primary group

e) The axis that runs from the nose to the tail of an airplane

6. yaw

f) The rotation of an airplane about longitudinal axis

7. pitch

g) The rotation of an airplane about vertical axis

8. attitude

h) The group that includes ailerons, elevators, and rudder

Exercise 22. Put questions to the italicized words.

1. The rudder controls the aeroplane motion about the vertical axis. 2. The control surfaces are actuated by means of a control mechanism. 3. Pressure on the left pedal turns the aircraft to the left. 4. The rudder is attached to the trailing edge of the tail’s vertical fin. 5. The rudder is designed to control yawing action of the aircraft. 6. The secondary group of control surfaces reduces the force required to actuate the primary group. 7. During low-speed flight all control surfaces operate to provide maximum stability.


Exercise 23. Give definitions of the terms: longitudinal axis, vertical axis, lateral axis, roll, yaw, pitch, primary group, secondary group, attitude.
Exercise 24. Fill in the blanks with the following words and word combinations.

Bank, wing, horizontal stabilizer, coordinate, rotation, control stick, tail assembly, yawing action, control mechanism.

1. The elevators are attached to the trailing edge оf the … … .

2. The elevators control the … around the pitch axis. 3. To cause the plane to turn to the right, the pilot moves the … to the right. 4. The ailerons help to … the airplane. 5. At the rear of the plane there is the … …. 6. The rudder is a movable part designed to control the … … around the vertical axis of the aircraft. 7. The control surfaces are actuated by means of … … . 8. The primary purpose of the rudder is to … with the ailerons the movement of the aircraft when the plane is banking. 9. Both stabilizers are very similar to the … in construction.
Exercise 25. Translate the sentences paying attention to the functions of the Infinitive.

1. To change the attitude and direction of flight, aircraft use another type of airfoils, called controls that comprise the rudder, the elevator, and the ailerons. 2. In order to create the required lift, these airfoils must move through the air with sufficiently high speed. 3. The rudder is used to deflect the movement of the aircraft to the left or to the right. 4. All heavier-than-air craft use aerodynamic surfaces or airfoils to develop the necessary supporting force. 5. The fin is a fixed or adjustable airfoil attached longitudinally to an aircraft to provide a stabilizing effect. 6. The ailerons are pairs of control surfaces hinged along the wing span and designed to roll the aircraft to the left or to the right by their differential movement. 7. To design means to make a drawing or plan of something that will be made or built.


Exercise 26. Translate into English.

1. Рухомі площини керування поділяються на основні та допоміжні площини керування.

1. Подвижные плоскости упра-вления делятся на основные и вспомогательные плоскости управления.

2. Основними площинами ке-рування є елерони, рулі висоти та руль повороту.

2. Основными плоскостями управления являются элероны, рули высоты и руль поворота.

3. Руль повороту – це рухома частина, що кріпиться до задньої кромки кiля.

3. Руль поворота – это подви-жная часть, которая крепится к задней кромке киля.

4. Руль повороту може відхи-лятися вправо, вліво або зна-ходитися в одній площині з кiлем.

4. Руль поворота может откло-няться вправо, влево или на-ходиться в одной плоскости с килем.

5. Руль повороту слугує для того, щоб змінювати поло-ження літака в польоті відно-сно вертикальної осі.

5. Руль поворота служит для изменения положения самолета в полете относительно вертикальной оси.

6. Рулі висоти кріпляться до задньої кромки горизонталь-ного стабілізатора.

6. Рули высоты крепятся к задней кромке горизонтального стабилизатора.

7. Рулі висоти можуть відхи-лятися вгору або вниз.

7. Рули высоты могут откло-няться вверх или вниз.

8. Рулі висоти слугують для того, щоб змінювати положен-ня літака в польоті відносно осі тангажу.

8. Рули высоты служат для изменения положения самолета в полете относительно оси тангажа.

9. Обертання літака відносно повздовжньої осі називається “крен“.

9. Вращение самолета вокруг продольной оси называется “крен“.

10. Обертання літака відносно поперечної осі, що простягається від однієї закінцівки крила до іншої, називається тангаж”.

10. Вращение самолета вокруг поперечной оси, которая проходит от одной законцовки крыла до другой, называется “тангаж”.

11. Усі площини керування приводяться в дію за допомогою проводки керування.

11. Все плоскости управления приводяться в действие при помощи проводки управления.

12. Проводка керування скла-дається з тросів зі стяжними муфтами, прокладених через вивідні трубки і шківи.

12. Проводка управления состоит из тросов со стяжными муфтами, проложенных через выводные трубки и шкивы.


Exercise 27. Translate text 3 in a written form.
Text 3. Elevators

The elevators are movable airfoils hinged to the horizontal stabilizer and used by the pilot to move the airplane around the lateral or pitch axis. They are used to make the aircraft climb or dive, and also to obtain sufficient lift from the wings to keep the aircraft in level flight at various speeds. The elevator can be moved either up or down. If one wants to change the attitude of the airplane and descend, he places the forward pressure on the control stick. This, due to the system of cables connecting the stick to the elevators, lowers the trailing edge of the elevators, causing the increase of lift at the tail. As a result, the tail of the airplane moves up and the nose moves downwards. Lowering the aircraft’s nose increases forward speed, and raising the nose decreases it.



The backward pressure on the control stick raises the trailing edge of the elevators and causes the nose of the aircraft to move upwards.
Exercise 28. Memorize the active vocabulary.

trim

врівноважувати, регулювати, балансувати

уравновешивать, регулировать, балансировать

apply

прикладати, застосовувати

прилагать, применять

tab

1. тример 2. щиток 3. пластина

1. триммер 2. щиток 3. пластина

trimmer / trim tab

тример

триммер

servo tab

cервотример/ сервокомпенсатор

cервотриммер/ сервокомпенсатор

balance tab

компенсатор

компенсатор

elevon

елевон (обєднує функціі елерона і керма висоти)

элевон (сочетает функции элерона и руля высоты)

crank

кривошип, коліно; колінча(с)тий важіль

кривошип, колено; коленчатый рычаг

bend

1. стрічка, полоса 2. згинати, вигинати

1. лента, полоса 2. сгибать, выгибать

lever

важіль

Рычаг

abnormal attitude

відхилення від правильного положення (літака в повітрі)

отклонение от правилього положения (самолета в воздухе)

adjust

регулювати

регулировать

landing roll

пробіг під час приземлення

пробег при посадке

opposite

протилежний

противоположный

extra

1. додатковий 2. надлишковий

1. дополнительный 2. излишний

obstruct

перешкоджати; затримувати

препятствовать; задерживать

in conjunc-tion (with)

сумісно (з), разом (з)

совместно (с), в сочетании (с)

vary

відрізнятися, різнитися; варіюватися, міняти(ся)

отличаться, разниться; варьировать(ся), (из)менять(ся)

facilitate

сприяти

способствовать

trim wheel

штурвальчик керування тримером

штурвальчик управления триммером


Exercise 29. Practise out the dialogue.

Dialogue 3

T. As we know control surfaces are divided into primary and secon­dary surfaces. What are the primary control surfaces used for?

S. They are used to control the motion of the airplane around the three main axes.

T. You are right. Secondary control surfaces are used to trim the airplane. Look at this picture (Fig.I.4.5.)

Fig. I.4.5. Secondary control surfaces



These are the secondary control surfaces. The secondary control surfaces include: trim tabs, servo tabs and balance tabs. Where are the secondary control surfaces located?

S. As I can see in the picture they are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of the primary control sur­faces.

T. Look at this picture (Fig.I.4.6.)

Fig. I.4.6. Elevator trim tab

This is the elevator trim tab. The elevator trim tab is usually adjustable (регулюється / регулируется) from inside the cabin in flight by turning a trim wheel or crank.

Look at this picture (Fig. I.4.7.) That is the rudder trim tab.



Fig. I.4.7. Rudder trim tab

Trim tab permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead without application of pressure on the control wheel or rudder pedals. So, what can you say about the secondary control surfaces?

S. Secondary control surfaces are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of the primary control surfaces. They are used to assist the pilot to move large primary control surfaces and to correct any tendency of the aeroplane to abnor­mal attitude of flight without application of pressure to the control stick or the rudder pedals.

T. Good job, thank you.
Exercise 30. Read, translate and give the gist of text 4.
Text 4. Secondary Control Surfaces

The primary control surfaces are used to direct the airplane around the three main axes. Various other control surfaces are used to trim – adjust or balance the airplane and provide stabili­ty in flight. The secondary or auxiliary group of control surfaces consists of such members as trim tabs, balance tabs, servo tabs, spoilers and leading edge devices. The secondary control surfaces are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of the primary control surfaces. Their purpose is to reduce the force required to actuate the primary controls, to trim and balance the aircraft in flight, to reduce landing speed or shorten the length of the landing roll, and to change the speed of the aircraft in flight.

All aircraft, except a few of the very light types, are equipped with tabs that can be controlled from the cockpit. A trim tab is used to correct any tendency of the aeroplane to abnormal attitude of flight without application of pressure to the control stick or the rudder pedals.

The balance tab decreases the force which must be exerted by the pilot to deflect a primary control surface. The balance tab is so connected that when the prima­ry control surface is moved in any direction, the tab rotates in the opposite direction.

A servo tab is used to assist in moving a large primary airfoil and holding it in the desired position with the help of a special servo mechanism.

Wing flaps are used to give the aircraft extra lift. They reduce the landing speed, thereby shortening the length of the landing rollout to facilitate landing in small or obstructed areas.

Spoilers are auxiliary wing flight control surfaces mounted on the upper surface of each wing, which operate in conjunction with the ailerons to provide lateral control.

The secondary control surfaces are actuated by levers, wheels or cranks or by connection with the controls of the primary sur­faces.

The elevator trim tab is usually adjustable from inside the cockpit cabin in flight by turning a trim wheel or crank.

Trim tabs on the rudder may be either adjustable from inside the plane or they may be small sections that must be adjusted on the ground by bending the section in the proper direction.

The rudder trim tab permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead without pressure on the control wheel or rudder pedals.
Exercise 31. Translate the following words without a dictionary.

Aerodynamic (a), aileron (n), centre (n), class (n), vertical (a), comfortable (a), engineer (n), fuselage (n), cabin (n), horizontal (a), moment (n), pilot (n,v), problem (a), effectiveness (n), design (n,v.), mechanism (n).


Exercise 32. Read out aloud and translate the words with the stress on the second syllable:

a) attach, connect, control, assist, direct, adjust, correct, permit, apply, decrease, exert, actuate, rotate, obstruction, direction, stability;

or the first syllable:

b) axis, surface, airfoil, edge, pitch, tendency, attitude, trim, force, lever, crank, balance, wheel, pressure, length, cockpit, bend, trim tab, servo tab, balance tab, press.


Exercise 33. Translate the following two- and three- word combinations.

Control surface, control mechanism, pitch control, pitch axis, wing area, rudder pedal, control wheel, landing speed, control stick; movable control surface, simple wing flap, elevator trim tab, rudder trim tab, trim control surface, primary control surface, lift decreasing devices, adjustable trim tab, leading edge flaps, high-lift devices.


Exercise 34. Define by suffixes the parts of speech, the following words belong to, and translate them.

Provision, various, relatively, stability, attachment, abnormal, application, lateral, direction, special, actuation, adjustable, usually, analyze, specific, various, pressure, widely, protective, trimmer, equal, sensitive, movement, different, conventional, continuous, extension, principally, retraction, spoiler, difference, actuate.



Exercise 35. Find synonymous expressions among these words and write them out in pairs.

Ailerons, elevators and the rudder; purpose; pitch axis; primary control surfaces; aerodynamic surface; tail unit; lateral axis; trim tabs; aim, secondary control surfaces; airfoil; empennage.


Exercise 36. Find English equivalents in text 4.

Основні площини керування / основные плоскости управления; компенсатор / компенсатор; тример руля повороту / триммер руля поворота; ручка керування / ручка управления; протилежні напрямки / противоположные направления; педалі руля повороту / педали руля поворота; стійкість в польоті / устойчивость в полете; допоміжні площини керування / вспомогательные плоскости управления; сервокомпенсатор / сервокомпенсатор; пробіг під час приземлення / пробег при посадке; прикладати зусилля / прилагать усилие; неправильне положення в повітрі / неправильное положение в воздухе; штурвальна колонка / штурвальная колонка.


Exercise 37. Match the terms and definitions.

1. elevator

a) The fixed vertical part of an aircraft’s tail assembly

2. elevon

b) A movable airfoil, usually attached to the tail of a plane that causes an airplane to dive or to climb

3. fin

c) Small auxiliary airfoil that mechanically or electronically manipulates the rudder, elevator and ailerons to help stabilize the plane

4. trim tab

d) Control surface that combines the task of ailerons and elevators, aiding in lateral control and vertical movement


Exercise 38. Fill in the blanks with the words and word combinations below.

Rudder trim tab; trim tabs; elevator trim tab; abnormal attitude; secondary control surfaces; rudder pedals.

1. … … are relatively small airfoils attached to the trailing edges of the primary control surfaces. 2. A trim tab is used to correct any tendency of the airplane to ... ... of flight without application of pressure to the control stick or… …. 3. ... ... ... is usually adjustable from inside the cabin in flight by turning a trim wheel or crank. 4. … … on the rudder may be adjustable from inside the plane. 5. … … … permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead without pressure on the control wheel or rudder pedals.


Exercise 39. Give definitions of the terms elevator, rudder, aileron, elevon, fin, trim tab, stabilizer.
Exercise 40. Say whether the following sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. Elevators are pairs of movable surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the wing, near the wing tips. 2. Large aircraft may use all-metal ailerons, except for fiber glass trailing edges. 3. Flight control devices are hinged or movable surfaces through which the attitude of an aircraft is controlled during takeoff, flight and landing. 4. Secondary control surfaces are similar in construction and vary only in size, shape, and methods of attachment. 5. Ailerons, trim tabs permit the aircraft fly straight ahead. 6. Servotabs are so connected that when a primary surface moves in one direction the tab deflects in the opposite direction.


Exercise 41. Answer the questions on text 4.

1. What are the secondary control surfaces? 2. What do the secondary control surfaces include? 3. What are trim tabs used for? 4. Does the rudder trim tab permit the aircraft to fly straight ahead without application of pressure to the control wheel or rudder pedals? 5. Is the balance tab so connected that when the primary control surface is moved in any direction the tab rotates in the opposite direction?


6. How does a balance tab work? 7. What are the secondary control surfaces actuated by? 8. How is the elevator trim tab adjusted? 9. What is adjusted by bending the section in the proper direction?
10. What trim tab permits the aircraft to fly straight ahead?
Exercise 42. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Допоміжні площини керування – це відносно малі аеродинамічні поверхні, прикріплені до задньої кромки основних площин керування.

1. Вспомогательные плоскости управления – это относительно маленькие аэродинамические поверхности, которые крепятся к задней кромке основных плоскостей управления.

2. Призначення допоміжних площин керування – допомагати пілоту пересувати основні площини керування.

2. Назначение вспомогательных плоскостей управления – помогать пилоту передвигать основные плоскости управления.

3. Допоміжні площини керу-вання – це тримери, серво-тримери та компенсатори.

3. Вспомогательные плоскости управления – это триммеры сервотриммеры и компенсаторы.

4. Тример використовується для виправлення будь-якої тенденції літака до відхилення від потрібного положення в польоті.

4. Триммер используется для исправления любой тенденции самолёта к отклонению от нужного положения в полёте.

5. Тример руля висоти зазви-чай приводиться в дію з кабіни пілота поворотом штур-вальчика.

5. Триммер руля высоты обычно управляется из кабины пилота поворотом штурвальчика.

6 Тример руля повороту дозволяє літаку летіти прямо вперед без прикладання зусилля на штурвал або педалі руля повороту.

6. Триммер руля поворота дает возможность самолету лететь прямо вперед без приложения усилия на штурвал или педали руля поворота.

7. Допоміжні площини керування приводяться в дію важілями, штурвальчиками або шляхом приєднання їх до механізмів керування основними площинами.

7. Вспомогательные плоскости управления приводятся в действие рычагами, штурвальчиками или путем присоединения их к механизмам управления основными плоскостями.


Exercise 43. Translate the following words with negative prefixes un-, in-, im-, dis-, mis-, non-, ir-.


in- :

invisible, inactive, incompressible, inadequate, in­correct, independent, incapable, indirect, ineffective, inefficient, inaccessible, insufficient, inaccuracy, instability, inoperative, incomplete, indefinite, insignificant;

un- :

unsymmetrical, unaccelerated, unbalanced, uncontrolled, uncertain, unload, unemployed, unconventional, unable, unguided, unreliable, unreadable, unlimited, unstable, unusual;

non-:

non-axial, non-aggressive, non-standard, non-flammable, non-stop; noncommercial, nonexpendable, nonrigid, nonresistant, nonvolatile, nontoxic, nonsimilarity, nonattendance;

ir- :

irregular, irrational, irreplaceable, irresistible, irrelative, irreparable, irresponsible;

il- :

illegal, illegible, illegitimate, illicit, illiterate, illogical;

іm- :

impractical, impossible, immaterial, immature, immovable, immobile;

mis- :

mispronounce, misapproach, misunderstand, mislead, mistrim, misalignment, mis-spell (the word);

dis- :

disconnect, disadvantage, disappear, disproportion, discharge, discount, dislike, disembark, displacement.


Exercise 44. Form the opposites of the following words by adding a negative prefix. Translate the pairs.

Connect, direct, possible, significant, operative, agree, important, efficient, ascend, advantage, regular, normal, legal, definite, balance, like, mount, assemble.


Exercise 45. Translate the following words. Mind that suffix -ward in adverbs means movement towards a particular direction or place.

Model: downward movement – рух донизу/движение вниз.

Northward, southward, westward, eastward, forward, homeward, upward, downward, rearward, backward, straightforward.
Exercise 46. Put the verbs in brackets in the proper Voice form (Present Active or Passive).

1. The number and type of auxiliary wing surfaces on an aircraft (vary) widely, depending on the type and size of aircraft. 2. Aircraft requiring extra wing area to aid lift often (use) Fowler flaps. 3. Wing area (increase) when the flaps are extended. 4. Tabs on some aircraft are usually adjustable only when the aircraft (be) on the ground. 5. The rudder (operate) by foot pedals on all types of aircraft. 6. The use of flaps during take-off (reduce) the length of the take-off run. 7. The ailerons and elevators generally (operate) from the cockpit by a control stick on single-engine aircraft. 8. A tab (mount) on or (attach) to a movable control surface and causes easier movement or better balance of the control surface.
Exercise 47. Give definitions to the following terms.

Rudder, fin, aileron, elevator, empennage, roll, pitch, yaw, flight control system, primary control surfaces, secondary control surfaces, control stick, rudder pedals, pilot.


Exercise 48. Translate text 5 in a written form.
Text 5. Flight Controls

Unlike automobiles and ships, airplanes do not travel on a flat surface. To keep an airplane stable in the air, the pilot must be able to control movement about three axes: pitch (pointing the nose up or down), roll (banking of the wings), and yaw (horizontal movement to the left or right). The control surfaces comprise the rudder, the elevators, and the ailerons.

Pitch is controlled by the elevators, which point the nose of the plane up or down. Elevators are usually a part of the tail assembly hinged to the horizontal stabilizer. When the control stick is moved forward, the elevators lower, and the airplane dives, and vice versa. Many newer aircraft possess a different method of controlling the pitch. This method combines the horizontal stabilizer and the elevators into a single surface known as the controllable horizontal tail.

Roll is controlled by ailerons on the trailing edge of a wing that cause one wing to rise while the other tilts downwards. Yaw is controlled by a rudder on the tail of the plane. The rudder steers the plane to the left or right. The ailerons and the rudder work together to turn and bank the plane.


Exercise 49. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the translation of the modal verbs may and can.

1. This wing of box type can house several fuel tanks. 2. Can flight #1834 be expected to arrive in time? 3. The airplane can’t be landed in Heathrow as it is snowing there. 4. The thrust may be developed by rotating propellers or by throwing back masses of air. 5. If I had a good dictionary and a little more experience in this field, I could translate those articles. 6. All the necessary certification procedures may be started next month. 7. You may not find any errors in this wing structure. 8. The passenger you are looking for may be waiting for you at the 2nd gate. 9. That aeroplane may have already arrived in Tripoli. 10. I shall give him the Manufacturer’s instructions so that he can examine them. 11. He might know something about the flight control system. 12. If the mechanic had tried, he might have repaired the damaged ailerons in time. 13. The rudder can’t control the motion of the aeroplane about the vertical axis, can it? 14. The helicopter can take off without running along the ground.


Exercise 50. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning and ways of translation of the modal verbs need, must, should, have to and be to.

1. The airplane must be very thoroughly prepared by the ground crew. 2. The repair of the tail assembly must be completed as soon as possible. 3. The balance tab decreases the force which must be exerted by the pilot. 4. Powerplant technicians should analyze a problem in detail using special instruments. 5. You must have left the books at the University. 6. One ought to be very attentive and careful when testing the flight control system of the aircraft. 7. Flight engineer should know the specifics of the control surfaces operation. 8. In this device the pilot had to operate movable wings with the help of his arms and feet. 9. Students should be familiar with the definition of terms “pitch”, “yaw” and “roll”. 10. The cargo needn’t have been sent by airplane. 11. The crew was to finish the flight at 6.30 in the evening. 12. According to the contract, the goods are to arrive at the Lebanon airport at the end of next week. 13. Need he test the flight control and stabilizing surfaces of the aeroplane immediately? 14. Make sure that the landing gear can move up and down as it should. 15. Rockets are vehicles which do not need air for support.


Exercise 51. Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the translation of the modal verbs.

1. Механік повинен регулярно перевіряти стан системи керування літаком в польоті.

1. Механик должен регулярно проверять состояние системы управления самолётом в полёте.

2. Студенти мають знати, що рухомі площини керування діляться на основні та допо-міжні площини керування.

2. Студентам следует знать, что подвижные плоскости управления делятся на основне и вспомогательные плоскости управления.

3. Йому не слід було говорити на екзамені, що передкрилки не належать до площин керування.

3. Ему не следовало говорить на экзамене, что предкрылки не относятся к плоскостям управления.

4. Щоб керувати літаком в польоті, пілоту необхідно оперувати його рухомими площинами керування.

4. Чтобы управлять самолетом в полёте, пилот должен опери-ровать его подвижными плос-костями управления.

5. Положення літального апа-рата відносно вертикальної, поперечної та повздовжньої осей можна змінити за допомогою елеронів, рулів висоти і руля повороту.

5. Положение летательного аппарата относительно верти-кальной, поперечной и продо-льной осей можна изменить при помощи элеронов, рулей высоты и руля поворота.




6. Студенти першого курсу можуть не знати принцип роботи механізму керування.

6. Студенты первого курса могут не знать принцип работы механизма управления.

7. Ви повинні запам’ятати термін, що означає обертання літака відносно поперечної осі.

7. Вы должны запомнить тер-мин, который означает враще-ние самолета относительно поперечной оси.

8. Тримери слід відносити до допоміжних площин керуван-ня.

8. Триммеры следует относить к дополнительным плоскостям управления.

9. Авіаційний спеціаліст спо-чатку повинен був пояснити стажисту, як оглядати літак.

9. Авиационный специалист сначала должен был объяснить стажёру, как осматривать самолет.

10. Пілот повинен був повер-нути літак вліво та знизитись.

10. Пилот должен был повернуть самолет влево и снизиться.

11. Студент сказав, що може пояснити, як створюється підіймальна сила.

11. Студент сказал, що может объяснить, как создается подъемная сила.

12. Він зможе зробити доповідь на конференції з теми: “Допо-міжні площини керування “.

12. Он сможет сделать доклад на конференции по теме: “Вспомогательные плоскости управления“.

13. Він повинен був пригадати, з яких елементів складається основна система керування літаком в польоті.

13. Он должен был вспомнить, из каких элементов состоит основная система управления самолетом в полете.

14. Механіки могли б оглянути аеродинамічні профілі хвос-тової частини, якби мали час.

14. Механики могли бы осмотреть аэродинамические профили хвостовой части, если бы имели время.

15. Пілот зрозумів, що він повинен негайно задіяти елерони.

15. Пилот понял, что он должен незамедлительно задействовать элероны.
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