Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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Exercise 52. Speak on:

1. The Tail Unit.

2. The Flight Control System.

3. The Primary Control Surfaces.

4. The Secondary Control Surfaces.

5. The Flight Control Mechanism.


I.5. Landing Gear
Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1:

auxiliary

допоміжний

вспомогательный


antiskid system

протиюзова система

противоюзовая система


brake

1. гальмо 2. гальмувати

1. тормоз 2. тормозить


parking brake

паркувальне гальмо

стояночный тормоз


centre of gravity

центр ваги

центр тяжести


disarm indicator

індикатор автоматичного керування

индикатор автоматического управления


directional control

керування за курсом

управление по курсу


indication light

сигнальна лампочка, світловий сигнальний пристрій

сигнальная лампочка, световое сигнальное устройство


nose over

капотування

капотирование


retraction

прибирання (шасі)

уборка (шасси)


selector lever

селекторний важіль

селекторный рычаг


steering

рульове керування (носовим колесом)

рулевое управление (носовым колесом)


steering wheel

рульове колесо, штурвальчик

рулевое колесо, штурвальчик


shock strut

амортизаційна стійка, амортстійка

амортизационная стойка, амортстойка


switch

1. перемикач 2. перемикати

1. переключатель 2. включать


tricycle landing gear

трьохопорне шасі (з носовим колесом)

трехопорное шасси (с носовым колесом)


visibility

видимість

видимость


manoeuvring

маневрування, виконання маневру

маневрирование, выполнение маневра


hydraulic power

гідравлічна енергія

гидравлическая энергия


sensor

сенсорний датчик, чуттєвий елемент

сенсорный датчик, чувствительный элемент


taxi

рулювати (аеродромом)

рулить (по аэродрому)


mode

режим (роботи)

режим (работы)


handle

1. ручка, руків’я; важіль управління 2. управляти; обслуговувати 3. обробляти, працювати (з чимось)

1. ручка, рукоятка; рычаг управления 2. управлять; обслуживать 3. обрабатывать; работать (с чем-либо)


inoperative

недіючий

недействующий



.

.

.



Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue 1

T. Our today’s topic is “The Landing Gear”. We discussed the function and general design of the landing gear while speaking about principal structural units of the airplane. Now answer the following questions, please. Does the landing gear support the airplane on the ground?

S. Yes, it does. It supports the airplane on the ground and on water.

T. What does it provide?

S. It provides take-off and landing.

T. What does the landing gear reduce during landing?

S. It reduces shocks of landing.

T. What are the functions of the landing gear?

S. The functions of the landing gear are to support the airplane on the ground, to provide take-off and landing and to reduce shocks of landing.

T. Good. And what types of the landing gear do you know?

S. There are retractable and non-retractable landing gears.

T. What does the landing gear consists of ?

S. It consists of main and auxiliary units.

T. Look at figure 1.5.1.

Figure 1.5.1. Landing Gear. General view.

The main landing gear is attached near the centre of gravity of the machine and forms the principal support of the airplane. The auxiliary landing gear may be either at the tail as a tail wheel or at the front of the fuselage as a nose wheel. You can see the landing gear with the nose wheel in the picture. What is it called?

S. It is called the tricycle landing gear (трьохопорне шасі з носовим колесом / трехопорное шасси с носовым колесом).

T. That’s correct. The tricycle landing gear is employed extensively, as it answers good stability of the plane during take-off run (розбіг під час зльоту / разбег при взлете) and landing roll (пробіг під час посадки / пробег при посадке) and prevents a plane from nosing over (капотування / капотирование) in landing.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Landing Gear

The landing gear or undercarriage is one of the main structural units of the airplane. The landing gear provides support for the airplane during static and ground manoeuvring conditions. Structurally it reacts to the airplane loads on three axes and the component forces that are generated during its motion.

The landing gear usually consists of the main and auxiliary units. The main landing gear is attached near the centre of gravity of an airplane and forms its principal support. The auxiliary landing gear forms an auxiliary support, and, as it is far away from the centre of gravity of the machine and less loaded, it is made comparatively light.

Present day airplanes have a tricycle type landing gear consisting of two main gears and a nose gear. This design has some advantages, namely: it improves visibility during taxiing, reduces the possibility of nose over, makes an airplane more stable during landing, as the centre of gravity is ahead of the main wheels.

Airplanes having a tricycle type landing gear employ air/oil shock struts. Hydraulic power is used for normal gear extension and retraction. In a large number of airplanes the gear may be extended manually. Shock strut compression is used for air / ground sensing control and utilizes solid state sensors as does the indication and warning system. Nose wheel steering is available to taxy and take off and for directional control when the airplane is on the ground. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and right steering capability.

Brakes are installed on the main gear and may be operated in either manual or automatic mode; an antiskid system is used to increase braking effectiveness.

Landing gear control and indication components include: the landing gear selector lever and indication lights, manual extension handles, parking brake lever and indicator, nose gear steering control wheel, antiskid control switch and inoperative indicator, and the autobrake control switch and disarm indicator.
Exercise 4. Say whether the following sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones using the following expressions.

The statement is false as …

I don’t agree with this …

As far as I know …

I am sure (that) …

To my mind …

I believe (that) …
1.The landing gear provides support for the airplane during air manoeuvring conditions. 2. The landing gear usually consists of the main and auxiliary units. 3. The auxiliary landing gear is attached near the center of gravity of an airplane. 4. The main landing gear is less loaded and is made comparatively light. 5. Present day airplanes have a tricycle type landing gear, that is consisting of two main gears and a nose gear. 6. Nose wheel steering is available for directional control when the airplane is in flight. 7. An antiskid system is used to decrease braking effectiveness. 8. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and right steering capability.
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the following words or word-combinations: shock strut, main gear, nose over, directional control, braking, manually, steering capability, hydraulic power, effectiveness.

1. The gear may be extended …. 2. A tricycle type landing gear reduces the possibility of … during landing. 3. … is used for normal gear extension and retraction. 4. … compression is used for air or ground sensing control. 5. The antiskid system is used to increase … . 6. A steering wheel gives up to about 78 degrees left and right … . 7. Nose wheel steering is available to taxi and take off and for …. 8. Brakes are installed on the … .


Exercise 6. Choose the correct answers.


  1. What is the function of the landing gear?

  1. to contain the equipment;

  2. to provide stability in flight;

  3. to support an airplane on the ground.

  1. How often is the tricycle landing gear employed now?

  1. never;

  2. extensively;

  3. not often.

  1. Why is the tricycle landing gear employed extensively now?

  1. it provides good stability during take-off run;

  2. it provides more clear space for the cabin;

  3. it prevents a plane from nosing over in landing.

  1. Why should the main landing gear be of robust design?

  1. it takes up to 85 per cent of the weight of an airplane;

  2. it increases visibility during take-off and landing;

  3. it provides stability during take-off.


Exercise 7. Finish the following sentences.

    1. The landing gear provides … 2. The landing gear usually consists of … 3. The main landing gear is attached to … 4. The auxiliary landing gear forms … 5. A tricycle type landing gear design has some advantages, namely: … 6. Hydraulic power is used for … 7. Nose wheel steering is available for … 8. Brakes are installed on … 9. An antiskid system is used to … 10. Landing gear control and indication components include …


Exercise 8. Match the English-Ukrainian/Russian equivalents.

1. retractable landing gear

a) капотування / капотирование

2. steering

b) паркувальне гальмо / стояночный тормоз

3. shock strut

c) протиюзова система / противоюзовая система

4. parking brake

d) перемикати; перемикач / переключать; переключатель

5. directional control

e) центр ваги / центр тяжести

6. indication light

f) допоміжний пристрій / вспомогательное устройство

7. centre of gravity

g) селекторний важіль / селекторный рычаг

8. antiskid system

h) амортизаційна стійка / амортизационная стойка

9. auxiliary unit

i) рульове керування / рулевое управление

10. nose over

j) трьохопорне шасі / трехопорное шасси

11. selector lever

k) управління за курсом / управление по курсу

12. switch

l) світловий сигнальний пристрій / световое сигнальное устройство

Exercise 9. Match words of the left and right columns to form as many word combinations as possible.

  1. directional

  2. selector

  3. nose

  4. indication

  5. shock

  6. disarm

  7. antiskid

  8. auxiliary

  9. steering

  10. hydraulic

  11. control

  12. manoeuvring

  13. air / oil

  14. principle

  15. component

    1. support

    2. components

    3. conditions

    4. wheel

    5. lever

    6. over

    7. control

    8. strut

    9. forces

    10. light

    11. power

    12. system

    13. unit

    14. indicator

    15. strut


Exercise 10. Match terms and their definitions.

1. attach

a) something that is able to be used or can easily be bought or found.

2. auxiliary

b) the force that causes something to fall to the ground or to be attracted to another planet.

3. load

c) something that can be regarded as a sign of something else.

4. degree

d) to connect or fasten one object to another.

5. indicator

e) providing additional help or fulfilling secondary functions.

6. available

f) the level or amount of something, or a unit for measuring temperature.

7. gravity

g) a large quantity of something that is carried by a vehicle, person etc or a force acting on something.


Exercise 11. Translate into English.

1.Шасі забезпечує підтримку літака під час стоянки або маневрування на землі.

1. Шасси обеспечивает поддержку самолета во время стоянки или маневрирования на земле.

2. Основні стійки шасі знаходяться біля центру ваги літака та є його основною опорою.

2. Основные стойки шасси находятся возле центра тяжести самолета и являются его основной опорой.

3. Конструкція шасі з носовим колесом має декілька переваг, а саме: вона покращує видимість під час руління, зменшує можливість капотування та робить літак більш стійким під час приземлення.

3. Конструкция шасси с носовым колесом имеет несколько преимуществ, а именно: она улучшает видимость при рулении, снижает возможность капотирования и делает самолет более устойчивым при посадке.

4. У багатьох літаках шасі може випускатися вручну.

4. Во многих самолетах шасси может выпускаться вручную.

5. Гальма розташовані на основному шасі і можуть управлятися автоматично або вручну.

5. Тормоза расположены на основном шасси и могут управляться автоматически или вручную.


Exercise 12. Translate the words by adding prefix “re-“ and translate the pairs.


Model: write – rewrite

писати - переписувати / писать - переписывать



Read, tell, ask, make, construct, adjust, build, structure, consider, appoint, appear, animate, arm, assure, calculate, charge, fuel, direct, locate, model, move, place, phrase, plant.
Exercise 13. Derive adjectives by adding suffix “less” and translate the pairs.

Model: end – endless

кінець - нескінчений / конец - бесконечный



Hope, child, care, home, speech, sense, power, cheer, wire, point, aim, bound, mercy, use, fruit, shame, wing, name, art, arm, reck, joy, fault, cloud, brain, leaf, wood, tooth, life.
Exercise 14. Derive adjectives by adding adjective-forming suffix “able” and translate the pairs.

Model: move – movable

рухати(ся) – рухомий / двигать(ся) – подвижный



Discuss, read, translate, bear, unbear, comfort, stretch, check, calculate, count, admire, love, hate, eat, drink, fashion, forget, unforget, divide, solve, remove, cure, predict.
Exercise 15. Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets.

  1. Any person wishing to visit England must apply / be applied for a visa. 2. A new ring road (is being built / is building) in the capital of Ukraine. 3. The number of holiday makers to the Crimea (was increased / increased) last year. 4. A lot of people (suffer / are suffering) from air sickness. 5. A new guidebook to Poland (has just published / has just been published) in Ukraine. 6. The reconstruction of the stadium (will finish / will be finished) next year. 7. It is necessary to have a certain amount of cash with you when you travel abroad because travel checks (do not often accept / are not often accepted). 8. Landing gear must (check / be checked) before every flight. 9. Air passengers (give instructions / are given instructions) what to do in case of emergency. 10. New versions of all types of aircraft (are developed / are being developed) at present.


Exercise 16. Rewrite the sentences in Passive.

  1. We kindly request passengers to fasten their seat belts and keep them fastened during take-off.

Passengers _________________ .

  1. A lot of aviation companies have banned smoking on all flights according to recent regulations.

Smoking ______________________ .

  1. Passengers should keep hand baggage in the compartment above the seat.

Hand baggage ____________________ .

  1. Passengers can receive information about the flight from flight attendants.

Information __________________ .

  1. We have trained all members of the crew to deal with emergency situations.

All members ____________________ .

  1. The crew members will do everything to ensure that passengers have a pleasant trip.

Everything _________________ .
Exercise 17. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice.

  1. They ask us a lot of questions after the lecture. 2. Mechanics checked the landing gear before take-off and after landing. 3. Winners receive Nobel prizes every year. 4. They are building a new airport in this part of the country. 5. They have changed the time of taking off. 6. Passengers should keep the belts fastened during take-off and landing. 7. It is necessary to recline the seats to feel comfortable during a long flight. 8. Special services will handle the cargo in due course. 9. The flight attendant asked the passengers to take their seats.


Exercise 18. Open the brackets and put the verbs in a proper form.

  1. The life vest should (take) out of its package and (slip) over your head. 2. The long straps at the back should (bring) around your waist. 3. The aircraft take-off (expect) in ten minutes. 4. Passengers kindly (ask) to remain seated and make sure that the seat belts (fasten). 5. Electronic devices (not permit) (to use) during take-off and landing. 6. Smoking and using mobile phones (prohibit) during the whole flight. 7. Each of emergency exits (mark) with a red exit sign. 8. The cabin light will (turn off) during take-off and landing. 9. The safety information card must (study) carefully. 10. Until the number of passengers (check), please, don’t leave your seats until the check (complete).


Exercise 18. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 2:

maintenance

технічне обслуговування, технічна експлуатація

техническое обслуживание, техническая эксплуатация

tire

шина, пневматик

шина, пневматик

blade seal

обтюратор

обтюратор










cavity

пустота, пустотілість; порожнина

пустота, пустотелость; полость

spare part

запасна частина

запасная часть

axis (pl. axes)

вісь

ось

beam hanger

вузол кріплення лонжерону

узел крепления лонжерона

damper

демпфер

демпфер

bogie

візок (шасі)

тележка (шасси)

bogie beam

балка візка (шасі)

балка тележки (шасси)

bracket

кронштейн

кронштейн

door

1. двері 2. стулка (ніші шасі)

1. дверь 2. створка (ниши шасси)

down lock

замок висунутого положення (шасі)

замок выпущенного положения (шасси)

up lock

замок прибраного положення (шасі)

замок убранного положения (шасси)

actuator

привід; виконавчий механізм; силовий циліндр

привод; исполнительный механизм; силовой цилиндр

actuating cylinder

силовий циліндр

силовой цилиндр

link

1. зв'язок; з'єднання 2. куліса; передатний важіль; сережка; шатун; шарнір 3. тяга (сполучний елемент важільної системи) 4. зв'язувати; з’єднувати

1. связь; соединение 2. кулиса; передаточный рычаг; серьга; шатун; шарнир
3. тяга (соединительный элемент рычажной системы) 4. связывать; соединять

spring

пружина

пружина

spring bungee

складаний підкіс

складывающийся покос

drag strut

діагональний підкіс

диагональный подкос

trunnion

цапфа

цапфа

trunnion link

кільце цапфи

кольцо цапфы

bearing

підшипник

подшипник

jack

домкрат

домкрат

jacking point

точка встановлення на домкрат

точка установления на домкрат

malfunction

несправність

неисправность

mechanical position indicator

механічний індикатор положення (шасі)

механический индикатор положения (шасси)

(push)rod

тяга

тяга

rubber

1. гума 2. гумовий

1. резина 2. резиновый

service life

строк експлуатації, ресурс

срок эксплуатации, ресурс

piston

поршень

поршень

side strut

боковий підкіс

боковой подкос

shimmy damper

демпфер коливань (носового колеса шасі)

демпфер колебаний (носового колеса шасси)

shuttle valve

човниковий клапан

челночный клапан

skid detector

детектор автомату гальмування; датчик юза

детектор автомата торможения; датчик юза

torsion

кручення, скручування

кручение, скручивание

torsion link

кільце шліц-шарніра

кольцо шлиц-шарнира

warning light

світловий сигнальний пристрій, сигнальна лампочка

световое сигнальное устройство, сигнальная лампочка

wheel well

ніша колеса (шасі)

ниша колеса (шасси)


Exercise 19. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue

T. Look at fig.1.5.2. Would you characterize the landing gear design as a simple or complicated unit?

S. I would call it a very complicated unit.

T. Why is the landing gear of a very complicated design?

S. Because this structural unit is a multifunctional element.

T. Yes, you are right. The main landing gear retracts up and inboard into the wheel well. In the up and locked position it fairs with the contour of the airplane. Why is it so essential?

S. From my point of view, it is necessary to provide streamlined surface to reduce drag in flight.

T. You are absolutely right. This is why, closure is complicated by blade seals (обтюраторами / обтюраторами) which fit around the outboard wheels when the gear is retracted. And it is necessary to mention, that components of the main landing gear are designed to provide maximum service life.


Fig. 1.5.2. Main Landing Gear and Doors
Exercise 20. Read, translate and give the gist of text 2.
Text 2. 737 Main Landing Gear

The main gear is a simple, dual-wheel, conventional landing gear specifically designed to increase operation reliability and minimize maintenance.

The main gear retracts up and inboard into the wheel well. The inboard side of the outboard tire, in the up and locked position, fairs with the contour of the airplane (blade seals) to form the main gear wheel well closure. As a result, landing gear doors and associated linkages and actuators are not required. Closure is completed by blade seals which fit around the outboard wheels when the gear is retracted. The only doors used on the main gear installation are small segmented doors attached to the shock strut and hinged to the wing. The doors enclose the spanwise wing cavity when the gear is retracted.

Components of the main landing gear are designed to provide maximum service life and minimum spares inventory. The simplified geometry of the main gear has resulted in identical right and left gear components.

Simplified main gear design and installation offer the operator the following advantages:


  1. Elimination of the main gear doors reduces parts and provides easy access to the main gear wheel well.

  2. Manual gear release from the flight compartment initiates gear free fall to the down and locked position.

Exercise 21. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.


  1. axis

  2. down lock

  3. down lock actuator

  4. bracket




  1. drag strut




  1. blade seal




  1. beam hanger

  2. bogie damper




  1. jacking point




  1. lever

  2. forward trunnion bearing

  3. bogie beam

    1. вузол кріплення / узел крепления

    2. вісь / ось

    3. балка візка шасі / балка тележки шасси

    4. передній підшипник цапфи / передний подшипник цапфы

    5. демпфер візка шасі / демпфер тележки шасси

    6. замок висунутого положення / замок выпущенного положения

    7. важіль / рычаг

    8. точка встановлення на домкрат / точка установления на домкрат

    9. діагональний підкіс / диагональный подкос

    10. обтюратор / обтюратор

    11. кронштейн / кронштейн




    1. гідроциліндр замка випущеного положення шасі / гидроцилиндр замка выпущенного положення шасси



Exercise 22. Make questions for each answer below, with reference to text 2, using the question word given in brackets.

1. The landing gear should be designed to increase operation reliability (How?) 2. The main gear retracts up and inboard into the wheel well (Where?) 3. Landing gear doors and associated linkages and actuators are not required (What?) 4. The only doors used on the main gear installation are small segmented doors (What kind of?) 5. Closure is completed by blade seals (What …by?) 6. Blade seals fit around the outboard wheels (What?) 7. The doors enclose the spanwise wing cavity when the gear is retracted (When?) 8. The simplified geometry of the main gear has resulted in identical right and left gear components (What …in?) 9. Elimination of the main gear doors provides easy access to the main gear wheel well (What?) 10. Manual gear release initiates gear free fall to the down and locked position (What?)


Exercise 23. Finish the following statements.

1. The main gear is a simple, dual-wheel, conventional landing gear specifically designed to … . 2. The main gear retracts up and …. 3. Closure is completed by blade seals which … 4. The only doors used on the main gear installation are … 5. Components of the main landing gear are designed to... 6. Elimination of gear doors reduces … and provides … 7. Manual gear release from the flight compartment initiates …


Exercise 24. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. The main landing gear is a complicated, four-wheel, conventional landing gear. 2. It is specifically designed to decrease operational reliability and maximize maintenance. 3. The main gear retracts up and outboard into the wheel well. 4. Closure is completed by blade seals which fit around the outboard wheels when the gear is retracted.


Exercise 25. Answer the following questions on text 2.

1. What is the main landing gear of Boeing 737 like? 2. Where does the main gear retract to? 3. What fairs with the contour of the airplane to form the main gear wheel closure? 4. What is closure completed by? 5. What are the only doors, used on the main gear installation, attached to? 6. What has the simplified geometry of the main gear resulted in? 7. What provides easy access to the main gear wheel well? 8. What is designed to improve passenger comfort?


Exercise 26. Look at fig. 1.5.2 and make a list of all Main Gear Components in Ukrainian / Russian.
Exercise 27. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 3.

clamshell

двостулковий

двухстворчатый

torsion

кручення, скручування

кручение, скручивание










valve

1. клапан 2. кран, розподільний кран, вентиль 3. заслінка; затвор

1. клапан 2. кран, распределительный кран, вентиль 3. заслонка; затвор

towing

буксирування

буксировка

override

1. коректувати вручну 2. блокувати автоматичну систему керування 3. переходити на ручне керування 4. відміняти 5. перевизначати

1. корректировать вручную 2. блокировать автоматическую систему управления 3. переходить на ручное управление 4. отменять 5. переопределять

centering cam

центрувальний кулачок, кулачковий диск

центрирующий кулачок, кулачковый диск


Exercise 28. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.

Text 3. Nose Landing Gear

The nose gear is a conventional dual-wheel type which retracts forwards and up into the nose gear well.


Features of the nose gear installation include:

  • A single up and down lock link operated by a single actuator.

  • Two clamshell doors are mechanically actuated by bellcranks and pushrods. The doors remain open any time the gear is extended.

  • Integral shimmy damping by transmitting nose gear torsion loads directly into the nose gear hydraulic steering cylinders.

  • Nose gear steering through the rudder pedals (7 degrees).

  • Nose gear steering, using the steering wheel located on the captain’s side panel (78 degrees).

  • Nose gear steering control, on the copilot’s side panel, is available.

Utilization of the steering depressurization valve allows nose gear towing throughout the full steering range with system A pressurized and without disconnecting the torsion links.

Nose gear steering is hydraulically powered by system A through the landing gear hydraulic down line. Hydraulic System B can be used as an alternative steering pressure source.



Steering is controlled by the steering wheel on the captain’s side panel, or by the rudder pedals. Using the steering wheel, 78 degrees of steering in each direction is available. Rudder pedal steering provides 7 degrees in each direction for small directional changes during takeoff, landing and taxiing. The steering wheel overrides the rudder pedal input. Rudder pedal steering is deactivated 10 seconds after the nose gear strut becomes extended (air/ground sensing). Centering cams inside the nose gear strut center the gear before retraction.
Exercise 29. Look at fig. 1.5.3. and make a list of the Nose Gear Components in Ukrainian / Russian.


Fig. 1.5.3. Nose Landing Gear
Exercise 30. Answer the following questions on text 3.

1. Where does the nose gear retract to? 2. How many actuators is an up and down lock link operated by? 3. What is actuated by two clamshell doors? 4. What is integral shimmy damping provided by? 5. What is available on the copilot’s side panel? 6. What allows nose gear towing? 7. What is steering controlled by?


Exercise 31. Fill in the blanks with proper terms:

nose gear towing, hydraulic down line, side panel, rudder pedals, nose gear strut, steering wheel, clamshell doors.

1. Nose gear steering is provided by the steering wheel located on the captain’s … 2. The … are mechanically actuated by bellcranks and pushrods. 3.Utilization of the steering depressurization valve allows … throughout the full steering range. 4. Steering is controlled by the … on the captain’s side panel, or by the rudder pedals. 5. Nose gear steering is hydraulically powered by the system through the landing gear … 6. Nose gear steering is provided through … 7. Centering cams inside the … center the gear before retraction.


Exercise 23. Translate into English.

1. Шасі, розташоване під шпангоутом кабіни екіпажу, забезпечує опору для передньої секції фюзеляжа.

2. Шасси, расположенное под шпангоутом кабины экипажа, обеспечивает опору для передней секции фюзеляжа.

2. Носова стійка приводиться в дію гідравлічно для забирання коліс вперед вгору в нішу шасі.

2. Носовая стойка приводится в действие гидравлически для подъема колес вперед вверх в нишу шасси.

3. Гідравліка використовується для звичайного випускання та забирання шасі.

3. Гидравлика используется для обычного выпуска и уборки шасси.

4. Керування носовим колесом здійснюється на землі під час руління та зльоту.

4. Управление носовым колесом осуществляется на земле при рулении и взлете.

5. На основному шасі встановлено гальма, що можуть керуватися вручну або автоматично.

5. На главном шасси установлены тормоза, которые могут управляться вручную или автоматически.


I.6. POWER PLANT
Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1.

propel

приводити до руху

приводить в движение

thrust

тяга

тяга

piston engine

поршневий двигун

поршневой двигатель

reciprocating

engine

поршневий двигун

поршневой двигатель

internal combus-

tion engine

двигун внутрішнього

згорання


двигатель внутреннего

сгорания


jet engine

реактивний двигун

реактивный двигатель

ram jet (engine)

прямоточний повітря-

но-реактивний двигун



прямоточный воздушно-

реактивный двигатель



fuel system

паливна система

топливная система

oil system

маслосистема, система змащення

маслосистема, система смазки

lubrication system

система змащення

система смазки

engine control system

система керування двигуном

система управления двигателем

engine starting system

система запуска двигуна

система запуска двигателя

fire extinguishing system

система пожежогасіння

система пожаротушения

cooling system

система охолодження

система охлаждения

fuel(l)ing

заправка паливом

заправка топливом

defuel(l)ing

зливання палива

слив топлива

fuel jettisoning

аварійний злив палива

аварийный слив топлива

fuel transfer

перекачка палива

перекачка топлива

friction

тертя

трение

detect fire

виявляти пожежу

обнаруживать пожар

warn fire

сигналізувати про пожежу

сигнализировать о пожаре

suppress fire

гасити пожежу

гасить пожар

overheat

перегрівати

перегревать

engine mount

моторна рама, моторама, рама кріплення двигуна

моторная рама, моторама, рама крепления двигателя

engine frame

моторна рама

моторная рама

cowl(ing)

капот (двигуна); обтікач

капот (двигателя); обтекатель

fairing

обтікач

обтекатель

engine nacelle

гондола двигуна, мотогондола

гондола двигателя, мотогондола

suction

всмоктування

всасывание

exhaust gas

відпрацьований/ вихлопний газ

отработанный/ выхлопной газ

antiicing system

система протизаледе-ніння/ протиобмерзання

противообледенительная система

auxiliary power unit (APU)

допоміжна силова установка (ДСУ)

вспомогательная силовая установка (ВСУ)

.

.

Exercise2. Practise out the dialogue.

Dialogue

T. Look at figure I.6.1., please. What is this in your opinion?


Fuel
system




Oil system




Engine control
system




Starting system




Cooling system




Fire-extinguishing system

Fig I.6.1. Power plant
S. This is a scheme of a power plant, isn’t this?

T. Yes, you are right. Now, let's consider the power plant as one

of the principal structural units of the airplane. I think you know the meaning of the term “power plant”.



S. Yes, I do. It means “силова установка / силовая установка”.

Т. What is the function of the power plant?

S. As far as I remember it provides power for flight.

T. Does it propel the airplane in flight?

S. Yes, of course.

T. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems. What is the essential part of the power plant?

S. Let me see. The engine provides power for flight, so it is the most essential part of the power plant.

T. Absolutely. I am sure you know there exist some types of engines. Can you name at least some of them?

S. I know two types of engines: piston and jet engines.

T. You are right. But you should know that jet engines are divided into three groups: gas-turbines, ram jets (прямоточний повітряно-реактивний двигун / прямоточный воздушно-реактивный двигатель) and rocket engines.

S. What about power plant systems?

T. As for the power plant systems you can see their names in the picture. Can you name them?

S. They are the fuel system, the oil system, the engine control system, the starting system, the cooling system, the fire-extinguishing system.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Power Plant

The power plant is one of the principal structural units of the airplane. The power plant is a source of power. It provides power for flight and propels the airplane, and drives various systems that support the operation of the airplane. The power plant contains an engine or engines, a propeller or air screw (for piston and turboprop engines), the engine mount, cowlings, fairings, the engine nacelle, devices for air suction and exhausting gases and some systems. The engine is the most essential part of the power plant. Its function is to provide thrust. So all aircraft are engine-driven.

There are two main types of aviation engines, namely: piston and jet engines. The piston engine is also known as reciprocating or internal combustion engine. All three terms may be used interchangeably.

Jet engines are divided into three main groups: gas turbines, ram jets and rocket engines.

As for the power plant systems they are the fuel system, the oil or lubrication system, the engine control system, the engine starting system, the fire-extinguishing system, the cooling system and some others.

The function of the fuel system is to provide fuelling, defuelling, fuel jettisoning and fuel transfer.

The oil system serves for supplying oil to the engine and reducing friction between moving parts.

The engine control system is used to control the engine power or thrust.

The function of the engine starting system is to start the engine operation. The engines are started by means of an air turbine starter. The starter is actuated by the APU (auxiliary power unit) or external ground supply (a ground source).

The fire-extinguishing or fire-fighting system is used to detect fire, warn and suppress fire.

The function of the cooling system is to protect the engine assembly and different systems from overheating.
Exercise 4. Translate “noun + noun” cоllосаtions.

Engine power, piston engine, engine thrust, ram jet, jet engine, rocket engine, starting system, fire suppression, engine nacelle, engine mount, air suction, ground source, turbine starter, engine shaft, power unit, ground supply, engine overheating, power plant.



Exercise 5. Find English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.

1. source

a) тертя / трение

2. thrust

b) прямоточний повітряно-реактивний двигун / прямоточный воздушно-реактивный двигатель

3. internal combustion engine

c) система пожежогасіння / система пожаротушения

4. fuel system

d) тяга / тяга

5. fuel jettisoning

e) приводити до руху / приводить в движение

6. friction

f) джерело / источник

7. ram jet engine

g) двигун внутрішнього згорання / двигатель внутреннего сгорания

8. propel

h) аварійний злив палива / аварийный слив топлива

9. fuel transfer

i) паливна система / топливная система

10. fire-extinguishing system

j) перекачка палива / перекачка топлива


Exercise 6. Match the synonyms.

1. extinguish fire

a) alarming

2. accommodate

b) lubricant

3. detect

c) internal combustion engine

4. piston engine

d) supply

5. oil

e) find

6. component

f) house

7. several

g) essential

8. provide

h) fluid

9. warning

i) part

10. considerable

j) supress fire

11. liquid

k) some


Exercise 7. Translate the antonyms.

Thrust - drag, fuelling - defuelling, movable - fixed, main - auxiliary, similar - different, cool - heat, reduce - increase, internal – external, inboard-outboard, forward-backward, front-rear, lower-raise, upperlower, up-down, liquid-solid.


Exercise 8. Translate verb combinations.

To provide power for flight, to propel an airplane, to cool an engine, to suppress fire, to start an engine, to consist of engines and systems, to produce thrust, to overheat an engine. to fuel an engine, to drive an engine and various systems, to control engines and systems, to supply air, to reduce friction, to detect fire, to warn pilots about the fire, to extinguish fire, to support the operation of an airplane, to protect the engine assembly from overheating.


Exercise 9. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. What is the power plant? 2. What does the power plant contain? 3. What is the essential part of the power plant? 4. What provides thrust? 5. What is the function of the engine starting system? 6. What systems of the power plant can you name? 7. What is the function of the fuel system? 8. What system is used to control the engine power? 9. What system serves for cooling the engine assembly? 10. What system serves for reducing friction between moving parts? 11. What types of aviation engines are used in modern airplanes? 12. What is the function of the fire-extinguishing system? 13. What system is actuated by means of an air turbine starter?


Exercise 10. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. The wing is a source of power .2. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems. 3. Jet engines are divided into two groups. 4. The function of the fuel system is to provide aircraft take-off and landing. 5. The oil system is used for supplying oil to the fuel tanks. 6. The function of the starting system is to suppress fire. 7. The function of the cooling system is to provide thrust. 8. All the aircraft are engine-driven. 9. The engines are started by means of the APU. 10. There are three main types of aviation engines.


Exercise 11. Translate text 2 in a written form using a dictionary.
Text 2

The 737 airplanes are powered by two wing-mounted CFM 56-3 turbofan engines at several thrust ratings.

Power for aircraft and engine accessories is provided by the main gearbox side-mounted on the fan case. The gearbox is driven by the high-speed engine shaft.

The A-310 is a widebody transport powered by two turbofan engines. CFM-56-5 engines are installed under the wing.



The APU is located in the aft end of the fuselage, behind the pressure bulkhead and below the horizontal stabilizer. The APU provides an alternate source of electric power both on the ground and in flight.
Exercise 12. Copy out aviation terms from text 2.
Exercise 13.Translate into English.

У силову установку входять:

В силовую установку входят:

1. двигуни з агрегатами і системами запуску і управління;

1. двигатели с агрегатами и системами запуска и управления;

2. повітряний гвинт (для силових установок з поршневими і турбогвинтовими двигунами);

2. воздушный винт (для силовых установок с поршневыми и турбовинтовыми двигателями);

3. моторна рама і кріплення двигуна до конструкції літака;

3. моторная рама и крепление двигателя к конструкции самолета;

4. капоти, обтікачи, гондола двигуна;

4. капоты, обтекатели, гондола двигателя;

5. паливна система;

5. топливная система;

6. масляна система;

6. масляная система;

7. системи охолоджування двигуна та його агрегатів;

7. системы охлаждения двигателя и его агрегатов;

8. протипожежна система;

8. противопожарная система;

9. системи керування і контролю;

9. системы управления и контроля;

10. пристрої для всмоктування повітря (окрім силових установок з ракетними двигунами) і вихлопу відпрацьованих газів;

10. устройства для всасывания воздуха (кроме силовых установок с ракетными двигателями) и выхлопа отработанных газов;

11. пристрої протизаледеніння.

11. противообледенительные устройства.


Exercise 14. Speak on "Aircraft Power Plant".
UNIT II. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE GAS

TURBINE ENGINE

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