Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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II.1. MAIN SECTIONS OF THE ENGINE


Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary.


inlet duct and guide vane

вхідний направний апарат (BHA)

входной направляющий аппарат (BHA)

сompress

cтискати

cжимать

сompression

cтиснення

cжатие

compressor

компресор

компрессор

diffuser

дифузор

диффузор

burn

спалювати, горіти

cжигать, гореть

burner

камера згорання

камера сгорания

afterburner

форсажна камера

форсажная камера

bottom

нижня частина, низ

нижняя часть, низ

bucket

лопатка (турбіни)

лопатка (турбины)

direct

1. прямий, безпосередній 2. направляти

1. прямой, непосредственный 2. направлять

drive

1. привод, передача, тяга 2. приводити в дію

1. привод, передача, тяга 2. приводить в действие

expand

розширювати(ся)

расширять(ся)

extract

вилучати, відбирати

извлекать, отбирать

flow

1. потік, течія, рух

2. текти


1. поток, течение, движение 2. течь

locate

розміщувати; встановлювати

размещать; устанавливать

need

1. необхідність, потреба; 2. мати потребу

1. необходимость, потребность; 2. иметь необходимость

strike (p.,p.p. struck)

наштовхуватися; вдаряти

сталкиваться; ударять

velocity

швидкість (векторна)

скорость (векторная)

expel

виштовхувати

выталкивать

accessory section

відсік агрегатів, секція допоміжних агрегатів

отсек агрегатов, секция вспомогательных агрегатов

аir stream

повітряний потік

воздушный поток

pressure ratio

1. ступінь стискання 2. перепад тиску

1.степень сжатия 2. перепад давления

nozzle diaphragm

сопловий апарат

сопловой аппарат

nozzle vane

лопатка соплового апарата

лопатка соплового аппарата

jet stream

реактивний потік

реактивный поток

transition

перехід

переход

exhaust cone


конус реактивного сопла

конус реактивного сопла

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.

.

Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue 1

T. As you know, one of the principal structural units of the airplane is an engine. The engine is the largest and the most important part of the airplane. What does the engine provide?

S. The engine provides power and propels the airplane.

T. That’s right. What types of airplane engines do you know?

S. As far as I remember there are two types of engines: piston and jet engines.

T. Quite right. Jet engines are divided into some groups; gas-turbine engines are among them. We’ll consider the major components of the gas-turbine engine. Any gas-turbine engine consists of three main sections and some additional components. The main sections are the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section. “Combustion” means “згорання”. So, what are the main sections of a gas-turbine engine?

S. Any gas-turbine engine consists of three main sections: the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section.

T. Absolutely. The compressor is located after the inlet duct. The term “inlet duct” is translated as “вхідний спрмямовуючий апарат/входной направляющий аппарат.” At the front section of the engine there is an opening or a hole. The air enters the engine through this opening called “inlet”. What does the engine inlet mean?

S. “Вхідний пристрій двигуна/входное устройство двигателя”.

T. That’s quite right. The engine air inlet consists of the opening with a passage. Such passage is called “a duct” (труба, канал/труба, канал). So we may say that air enters the engine through the inlet duct. What does the inlet duct do?

S. The inlet duct helps the air enter the engine.

T. That’s right. It’s better to say: it supplies air to the engine. The passage or the duct leads the air through the guide vanes (спрямовуючі лопатки/направляющие лопатки) that serve to direct the air to the compressor. What form does the inlet duct have?

S. It seems to me the inlet ducts may have different forms.

T. Yes, it depends upon the design of the airplane. From the inlet duct with the help of guide vanes the air flows to the compressor where it is compressed. The verb “to compress” means “стискати/сжимать”. Is the compressor that section of the engine where the air is compressed?

S. Yes, it is. The compressor is the major component of any gas-turbine engine. Its function is to compress the air.

T. Besides, the compressor provides necessary pressure ratio (ступінь стиснення/степень сжатия). From the compressor section through the diffuser the compressed air flows to the combustion section where it is burned with the fuel. What does the term “combustion” mean?

S. The term “combustion” means “згорання/сгорание”.

T. So, the process of combustion takes place in the combustion section or to be more exact combustion chamber (камера згорання/камера cгорания) and what is the function of the diffuser located between the compressor and the combustion chamber?

S. To my mind the function of the diffuser is to direct the air from the compressor to the combustion chamber.

T. That’s right. The other function of the diffuser is to change air pressure and velocity. The gases from the combustion chamber through the nozzle diaphragm (сопловий апарат/сопловой аппарат) go to the turbine section. The turbine section is designed to extract power from the gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories. The word “accessories” means “допоміжні агрегати/вспомогательные агрегаты”. So, what does the turbine wheel do?

S. The turbine wheel extracts power from the jet stream and drives the compressor and accessories.

T. That’s correct. And what is the purpose of the nozzle diaphragm located between the combustion chamber and the turbine section?

S. The purpose of the nozzle diaphragm is to increase velocity of heated gases.

T. Right you are. But not only to increase velocity but also to direct heated gases to strike the turbine buckets at the proper angle.

S. Is there any additional section behind the turbine wheel?

T. Yes, it is the exhaust cone (конус реактивного сопла/конус реактивного сопла). It serves to collect discharged gases from the turbine wheel and expel them at the correct velocity.

Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.



Text 1. Main Sections of the Engine
Any gas turbine engine consists of three main sections: the compressor section, the combustion section and the turbine section. The air enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes.

The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to supply air to the engine inlet under all conditions of operation. Aircraft engine inlet ducts have various shapes. From the inlet duct the air flows to the compressor. The compressor is located after the inlet duct. The function of the compressor is to compress the air and to provide the required pressure ratio. From the compressor section through the diffuser the compressed air flows to the combustion section. There the combustion chamber is located.

The function of the combustion chamber is to expand the air by burning fuel in the air stream. The turbine section of the engine is located after the combustion chamber between two additional components: the nozzle diaphragm and exhaust cone. The turbine section is designed to extract power from the jet stream to drive the compressor and accessories.

The diffuser, the nozzle diaphragm, the exhaust cone, the afterburner and the accessory section serve to provide transition from one main section to another. The diffuser directs air from the compressor to the combustion chamber and serves to change air pressure and velocity. A typical nozzle diaphragm consists of a group of nozzle vanes. The function of the nozzle diaphragm is to increase the velocity of the heated gases and to direct them to strike the turbine buckets at the proper angle.

The exhaust cone is located directly behind the turbine wheel and its main function is to collect burned gases from the turbine wheel and expel them at the correct velocity. In many cases the afterburner is used with turbojet engines. The afterburner serves for burning additional amount of fuel to increase power.
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.

.

Exercise 4. Make sure you remember the сonstruction of the gas turbine engine.

Inlet duct and guide vanes



Comp-ressor





Diffuser




Combustion section





Nozzle diaph-ragm





Turbine section





Exhaust cone





































































After-burner


Exercise 5. Read, translate and remember.

In front of, at the nose, before, after, between, behind, below, beyond, near, down, above, inside, outside, round, towards, under, up, with, from, through, to, at the bottom, at the top.


Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions.

1. … the inlet duct the air flows … the compressor. 2. The compressor is located … the inlet duct. 3. … the compressor section … the diffuser the compressed air flows … the combustion section. 4. The combustion section is located … the diffuser and the nozzle diaphragm. 5. The turbine section of the engine is located … the combustion chamber … two additional components: the nozzle diaphragm and exhaust cone. 6. The exhaust cone is located … the turbine wheel. 7. The afterburner may be located … the turbine wheel to increase power.


Exercise 7. Define parts of speech and translate the derivative chains.

To compress - compression - compressor – compressed, to heat – heater – heated, to diffuse – diffuser – diffused, to collect – collection -collector – collected, to construct – construction - constructor – constructed, to extract – extraction – extractor - extracted, to ignite – ignition – ignited, to redirect – redirection – redirected, to expand – expansion – expanded.


Exercise 8. Translate the antonyms.

To compress – to expand, to heat – to cool, to flow – to outflow, to widen – to narrow, to increase – to reduce, to add – to extract, to expel – to collect, to construct – to destroy, to fuel - to defuel, to lower – to raise, hot – cold, inside – outside, inboard - outboard, above – below, with – without, from the bottom – to the top.


Exercise 9. Combine the following words into sentences.

Model: The inlet duct supplies air to the engine inlet.




inlet duct

to supply air to the compressor.




compressor

to compress the air.

to provide the required pressure ratio.






diffuser

to direct air from the compressor to the combustion chamber.




combustion chamber

to expand the air by burning fuel in the air stream.

The

nozzle diaphragm

to increase the velocity of the heated gases.




turbine section

to extract power from the gas stream to drive the compressor and accessories.




afterburner

to burn additional amount of fuel after the turbine to increase power.




exhaust cone

to collect burned gases from the turbine wheel and expel them at the correct velocity.


Exercise 10. Complete the following sentences.










supply …




inlet duct




direct …




guide vanes




compress …




compressor




provide …




diffuser




serve …

The function of the

combustion chamber

is to

change …




nozzle diaphragm




expand …




turbine section




accelerate …




exhaust cone




extract …




afterburner




burn …




accessory section




drive …










expel …


Exercise 11. Combine the words from a) with the words in b) to make as many word combinations as possible.

a) major, various, additional, proper, normal, correct, perfect, auxiliary, basic, common, main, typical, principal;

b) velocity, amount, operation, part, stream, condition, shape, section, function, advantage, component, angle.
Exercise 12. Translate “noun + noun” collocations.

Inlet duct, guide vanes, compressor section, engine inlet, combustion section, pressure ratio, air stream, engine operation, turbine section, jet stream, turbine bucket, air pressure, turbine wheel, engine bottom, aircraft operation, combustion chamber, exhaust cone, operation mode, flight range, engine thrust.


Exercise 13. These words are used both as verbs and nouns. Translate the pairs.

To guide – guide, to function – function, to supply – supply, to shape – shape, to charge – charge, to extract – extract, to drive – drive, to flow – flow, to stream – stream, to heat – heat, to discharge – discharge, to increase – increase, to need – need, to fuel - fuel.


Exercise 14. Give corresponding nouns and translate the pairs.

1. To burn, to compress, to expand, to extract, to provide, to locate, to drive, to direct, to press, to transmit, to fuel, to change, to increase, to heat, to collect, to supply, to operate.


Exercise 15. Match the English – Ukrainian/Russian equivalents.

1. turbine wheel

a) секція допоміжних агрегатів/секция вспомогательных агрегатов

2. combustion chamber

b) конус реактивного сопла/конус реак-тивного сопла

3. nozzle diaphragm

c) напрямна лопатка/направляющая лопатка

4. turbine bucket

d) вхідний отвір двигуна/входное отверстие двигателя

5. nozzle vane

e) ступінь стискання/степень сжатия

6. pressure ratio

f) лопатка соплового апарата/лопатка соплового аппарата

7. exhaust cone

g) колесо турбіни/колесо турбины

8. engine inlet

h) сопловий апарат/сопловой аппарат

9. guide vane

i) камера згорання/камера сгорания

10. accessory section

j) лопатка турбіни/лопатка турбины

Exercise 16. Give English equivalents.

Колесо турбіни/колесо турбины; необхідний ступінь стиснення/необходимая степень сжатия; відпрацьований газ/отработанный газ; реактивний потік/реактивный поток; камера згорання/камера сгорания; секція допоміжних агрегатів/секция вспомогательных агрегатов; додаткова кількість палива/дополни-тельное количество топлива; конус реактивного сопла/конус реак-тивного сопла; вхідний отвір двигуна/входное отверстие дви-гателя; сопловий апарат/сопловой аппарат; форсажна камера/ форсажная камера.


Exercise 17. Match synonyms.

1. bucket

2. combustion chamber

3. air inlet

4. air stream

5. afterburner

6. exhaust gas



a) air intake

b) air flow

c) blade

d) burner

e) burned gas

f) reheat unit




Exercise 18. Make up sentences using the following verb-combinations.

To enter the engine, to supply air, to have various shapes, to expand air, to compress air, to provide the required pressure ratio, to burn fuel, to extract power, to drive the compressor, to provide transition, to increase the velocity, to strike the turbine buckets, to change air pressure, to collect burned gases.


Exercise 19. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.

1. Any gas turbine engine consists of four main sections. 2. The air enters the engine through the compressor section. 3. The compressor is located between the inlet duct and the combustion chamber. 4. The function of the combustion chamber is to burn fuel in the air stream. 5. The turbine section of the engine is used to expel the exhaust gases into the ambient atmosphere. 6. The auxiliary sections are used to provide continuous transition of the process from one main section to the next.



Exercise 20. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. What main sections does any gas turbine engine consist of ?

2. What enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes?

3. Where is the compressor located? 4. What is the function of the compressor? 5. What air flows through the diffuser to the combustion chamber? 6. Does the diffuser direct the air to the compressor or to the combustion chamber? 7. What is located after the combustoin chamber? 8. What section is designed to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories? 9. What components serve to provide transition from one main section to another? 10. What does the exhaust cone serve for? 11. What is the function of the combustion chamber? 12. What does the nozzle diaphragm serve for? 13. Where is the afterburner located? What does it serve for? 14. Where is the nozzle diaphragm located?


Exercise 21. Put questions to the italicized words.

1. The air enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes. 2. The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to supply air to the engine inlet under all conditions of operation. 3. The compressor is located after the inlet duct. 4. The compressor provides air compression of different pressure ratios. 5. The diffuser directs air from the compressor to the combustion chamber. 6. The diffuser serves to change air pressure and velocity. 7. A typical nozzle diaphragm consists of a group of nozzle vanes. 8. The nozzle diaphragm is designed to increase the velocity of the heated gases. 9. The combustion chamber provides the expansion of the air by burning fuel in the air stream.

10. The turbine section of the engine is located after the combustion chamber. 11. The turbine section is designed to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories.
Exercise 22. Add question tags and answer them.

1. The air enters the engine through the inlet duct and guide vanes, …? 2. The function of the inlet duct and guide vanes is to supply air to the engine inlet under all conditions of operation, …? 3. The compressor can’t provide high pressure ratio in a single stage, …? 4. The diffuser directs compressed air from the compressor to the combustion chamber, …? 5. The combustion chamber expands the air by burning fuel in the air stream, …? 6. The turbine section of the engine is located after the combustion chamber, …? 7. The turbine section is designed to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories, …?


Exercise 23. Give information about the main and additional sections of the gas turbine engine.

The name of the section

The location

The function

1. The inlet duct and guide vanes

2. The compressor

3. The diffuser

4. The combustion chamber

5. The nozzle diaphragm

6. The turbine wheel

7. The exhaust cone

8. The afterburner










Exercise 24. Use the verb in brackets in the correct tense and voice.

1. The engine (to be) the largest and the most important part of the airplane. 2. Any gas-turbine engine (to consist) of three main sections and some additional components. 3. The air (to enter) the engine through the inlet duct. 4. Guide vanes (to serve) to direct the air to the compressor. 5. The guide vanes (to locate) in the inlet duct. 6. The inlet ducts (to have) different configurations. 7. The compressor (to provide) necessary pressure ratio. 8. The combustion chamber (to burn) fuel-air mixture. 9. The turbine section (to design) to extract power from the jet stream for driving the compressor and accessories. 10. The inlet duct, the diffuser and the nozzle diaphragm (to serve) to provide transition from one main section to another.


Exercise 25. Translate into English.


1. Призначення повітрозабирача - подавати повітря до двигуна.

1. Назначение воздухозаборника - подавать воздух в двигатель.

2. Повітрозабирачі можуть мати різні форми.

2. Воздухозаборники могут быть разной формы.

3. Конструкція повітрозабирача доволі проста.

3. Конструкция воздухозабор-ника довольно простая.

4. Напрямні лопатки спрямо-вують повітря в компресор.

4. Направляющие лопатки направляют воздух в компрессор.

5. Конструкція повітрозабирача має багато переваг.

5. Конструкция воздухозабор-ника имеет много преимуществ.

6. Повітрозабирач складається із зовнішнього та внутрішнього кожухів.

6. Воздухозаборник состоит из внешнего и внутреннего кожу-хов.

7. Компресор – це та частина двигуна, де повітря стискається до певного ступеня.

7. Компрессор – это та часть двигателя, где воздух сжимается до определенной степени.

8. Камера згорання знаходиться між дифузором і сопловим апаратом.

8. Камера сгорания находится между диффузором и сопловым аппаратом.

9. Функція камери згорання – розширювати повітря шляхом спалювання палива в повітря-ному потоці.

9. Функция камеры сгорания – расширять воздух путем сжигания топлива в воздушном потоке.

10. Секція турбіни двигуна призначена для того, щоб вилучати енергію з високошвидкісних газів, що залишають камеру згорання, для приведення в дію компресора та допоміжних агрегатів.

10. Секция турбины двигателя предназначена для того, чтобы извлекать энергию из высокоскоростных газов, покидающих камеру сгорания, для приведения в действие компрессора и вспомогательных агрегатов.


Exercise 26. Translate and entitle text 2.

Text 2

There are many types of aviation gas-turbine engines. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages. But for the operation of any gas-turbine engine three principal functions should be provided: 1) the compression of air; 2) the expansion of the air by burning fuel; 3) the extraction of power from the jet stream of the engine to drive the comp-

ressor and accessories. Thus, we may say, that a gas-turbine engine includes three main sections: the compressor section, the combustion section, the turbine section and the accessory section.

The accessory section is located at the nose of the engine or at the bottom of the engine. The accessory section includes the accessories needed for engine operation and also those required for the operation of the aircraft. Some gas-turbine engines have but one accessory power section, while others may have more. Accessories provide the normal operation of the engine.


Exercise 27. Write out from text 2 all the terms referring to the topic “Major Components of the Gas-turbine Engine”.
Exercise 28. Put key-questions to text 2.

Exercise 29. Speak on:

1. Major components of the gas-turbine engine: location and functions. 2. Additional components of the gas-turbine engine.


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