Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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Exercise 61. Read and translate text 5 using the vocabulary at the end of the manual.

Text 5. Inspection Procedures


After the components have been cleaned, they are visually and, when necessary, dimensionally inspected to establish their general condition and then further inspected for cracks. The inspection for cracks includes magnification, magnetic, or penetrant inspection techniques, used either alone or consecutively, depending on the components being inspected and the degree of inspection necessary.

The dimensional inspection consists of measuring specific components to ensure that they are within the limits and tolerances given in the Table of Limits. Some of the components are measured at each overhaul because only a small amount of wear or distortion is permissible. Other components are measured only when the condition found during visual inspection requires dimensional verification. The tolerances laid down for overhaul, supported by service experience, are often wider than those used during original manufacture.


Exercise 62. Make up questions on text 5.
Exercise 63. Learn the terms referring to “Engine Cleaning”.

cleaning agent

рідина для очищення


жидкость для очист-

ки


cleaning solution

розчин для очищення

раствор для очистки

organic solvent

органічний розчинник

органический раст-

воритель



degrease

знежирювати;

розчиняти мастило



обезжиривать;

растворять смазку



paint-stripping

solution

розчин для видалення

фарби


раствор для

удаления краски



acid

кислота

кислота

scale

накип

накипь

carbon

вуглець

углерод









Exercise 64. Read, translate and give the gist of text 6.

Text 6. Cleaning


The cleaning agents used during any engine overhaul range from organic solvents to acids, and other chemical cleaners, and extend to electrolytic cleaning solutions. Organic solvents include kerosene for washing, trichloroethane for degreasing, and paint-stripping solutions which can generally be used on the majority of components for carbon and paint removal. The more restricted and sometimes rigidly controlled acids and other chemical cleaners are used for removing corrosion, heat scale, and carbon from certain components. To achieve the highest degree of cleanliness needed to perform the detailed inspection that is considered necessary for certain major rotating parts, such as turbine disks, electrolytic cleaning solutions are often used.

Exercise 65. Answer the questions on text 6.


1. What cleaning agents are used during any engine overhaul?
2. What are organic solvents? 3. What are acids used for? 4. When are electrolytic cleaning solutions used?
Exercise 66. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 7.

weld

зварювати

сваривать

welding

1. зварка 2. зварю-вальний

1. сварка 2. свароч-ный

machine

піддавати механіч-ній обробці

подвергать механи-ческой обработке

plate

покривати, наносити (металеве) покриття

покрывать, наносить (металлическое) покрытие

electroplate

гальванізувати, покривати металом за допомогою електролізу

гальванизировать, покрывать металлом с помощью электролиза

electroplating

гальванопокриття, гальваностегія

гальванопокрытие, гальваностегия

chromium plating

хромування

хромирование

stress

1. напруга; наванта-ження 2. піддавати напрузі

1. напряжение; нагрузка 2. подвергать напряжению

hardness

твердість

твердость

heat-treatment

термічна обробка

термическая

обработка



fixture

затисний пристрій;

хомут; арматура



зажимное приспо-

собление; хомут;

арматура


undersize

зменшувати розмір

уменьшать размер

bore

1. отвір; канал 2. діаметр отвору або каналу 3. бур
4. сверлити; розто-чувати

1. отверстие; канал 2. диаметр отверстия или канала
3. бур 4. сверлить; растачивать

shim

прокладка

прокладка

grind

1. роздрібнювати
2. шліфувати
3. заточувати
4. притирати(ся)

1. измельчать
2. шлифовать
3. затачивать
4. притирать(ся)


Exercise 67. Read, translate and give the gist of text 7.

Text 7. Engine Repair


To ensure that costs are maintained at the lowest possible level, a wide variety of techniques are used to repair engine parts to make them suitable for further service. Welding, machining, and electroplating are some of the techniques employed during any repair of engine parts.

Some repair methods, such as welding, may affect the properties of the materials, and, to restore the materials to a satisfactory condition, it may be necessary to heat-treat parts to remove the stresses, reduce the hardness of the weld area, or restore the strength of the material in the heat-affected area. Heat-treatment techniques are also used for removing distortions after welding. The parts are heated to a temperature sufficient to remove the stresses, and, during the heat-treatment process, fixtures are often used to ensure that the parts maintain their correct configurations.

Electroplating methods are also widely used for repair purposes. These methods range from chromium plating, which can be used to provide a very hard surface, to application of thin coatings of copper or silver plating, which can be applied to such areas as bearing locations on a shaft to restore a fitting diameter that is only slightly worn.

Many repairs are effected by machining diameters and/or faces to undersize dimensions or boring to oversize dimensions and then fitting shims, liners, or metal spray coatings of wear-resistant material. The affected surfaces of engine parts are then restored to their original dimensions by machining or grinding.

The inspection of parts after they have been repaired consists mainly of penetrant or magnetic inspection. However, further inspection may be required for parts that have been extensively repaired; this inspection may involve pressure testing or x-ray inspection of welded areas.
Exercise 68. Answer the questions on text 7.

1. What techniques are used to repair engine parts? 2. What is welding? 3. What is machining? 4. What are heat-treatment techniques used for? 5. What electroplating methods are used for repair purposes? 6. What methods are used to restore the affected surfaces of engine parts to their original dimensions? 7. What are the methods for inspection of extensively repaired parts?


Exercise 69. Divide text 7 into logical parts and write a topical sentence for each part.

Exercise 70. Read, translate text 8 and copy out special terms referring to the topic “Engine Overhaul” from the text.

Text 8. Engine Overhaul


Requirements for the engine overhaul. The overhaul of a gas-turbine engine is as exacting as any other mechanical operation involving precision equipment. For this reason, it is necessary that the proper tools, equipment, and facilities be available before starting an overhaul. Overhaul of jet engines is accomplished in large civilian shops. In these shops, the manufacturer’s instructions are carried out in detail.

Overhaul Procedures. Briefly, the overhaul of a typical engine may utilize the following procedures:

1. Mounting the engine on the proper type of the overhaul stand.

2. Removing all dirt, grease, and foreign matters.

3. Following manufacturer’s instructions, removing the electrical harness, ignition units, case-mounted accessories, air-bleed units, fuel lines and units, control rods and mechanisms, and all other externally mounted parts.

4. Removing all parts to the rear of the turbine wheels. Placing parts in suitable racks or stands.

5. Removing turbine wheels and nozzles in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. This procedure usually includes the removal of the turbine shaft.

6. Removing the outer combustion-chamber case and liners.

7. Disassembling the compressor section. Methods for accomplishing this operation will vary considerably, depending upon the type of the casing which encloses the compressor. Great care must be taken in handling the compressor parts, because the compressor rotor and stator blades are easily damaged. Besides, the sharp edges of the blades can cause serious personal injury.

8. After the complete engine disassembly, all parts should be cleaned as specified and prepared for the inspection.

9. The inspection should include the magnetic inspection of steel parts. Some alloy-steel cannot be magnetized and these must be inspected by penetrant techniques, X-ray. All fits and clearances must be checked with precision gauges to see that they are within the limits set in the manufacturer’s table of limits.

10. Obtaining all new gaskets and seals for the assembly. It is usually not advisable to reuse any gasket or seal, because the resilience of such materials is destroyed by pressure and heat.


Exercise 71. Answer the questions on text 8.

1. What are the requirements to the engine overhaul? 2. What are the major procedures of the engine overhaul? 3. What are the main methods for accomplishing the engine dissassembly? 4. Where is the engine assembly performed after the complete engine disassembly?


5. What are the methods of disassembling the compressor section?

.

.



.

.
Exercise 72. Read, translate and entitle text 9.


Text 9

The state enterprise the “Motor” plant is a leading enterprise of Ukraine in the field of repairing aviation turbojet engines of the third and fourth generations.

At present “Motor” plant is providing the following services:

- overhaul of AL-21FZ aviation engines and all their components;

- guarantee and post-guarantee maintenance of the equipment repaired;

- technical assistance in operating this equipment;

- theoretical and practical training of aviation engine repair and overhaul experts.

High quality of aviation engine repair, its reliability and reasonable prices are ensured due to the availability of highly skilled personnel, unique production base and equipment, many-year repair experience. In 2000 the enterprise received the International Quality System Certificate.

All the above as well as strict observance of contract terms secures high competitiveness and successful long-term cooperation with national and foreign partners. The enterprise has mastered and applied the most progressive methods of aviation engine repair and restoration..

Modern procedures of overhaul and control combined with different types of tests following the repair make it possible to considerably extend the engine service life and enhance reliability of repaired parts.


Exercise 73. Compress the information of text 9 to no more than 5 sentences.
Exercise 74. Memorize the names of engine failure warning indicators.

maximum vibra-

tion limit warning indicator

аварійний сигналіза-

тор максимально допустимого

рівня вібрації


аварийный сигнали-

затор максимально допустимого уровня вибрации



low oil pressure

warning indicator

аварійний сигналіза-

тор мінімального тиску масла



аварийный сигнали-

затор минимального давления масла



low oil level

warning

indicator

аварійний cигна-

лізатор мінімаль-

ного залишку

масла


аварийный сигна-

лизатор минимального остатка масла



emergency oil

remaining warning

indicator

сигналізатор аварій-

ного залишку

масла


сигнализатор

аварийного остатка масла



chips-in-oil

warning

indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор появи мета-

левої стружки в

маслі


аварийный сигнали-

затор появления металлической стружки в масле



oil overheating

warning

indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор перегріву

масла


аварийный сигнали-

затор перегрева

масла


emergency gas

temperature

warning indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор небезпечної

температури газу


аварийный сигнали-

затор опасной

температуры газа


low fuel pressure

warning

indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор мінімального тиску палива



аварийный сигнали-

затор минимального давления топлива



engine overheat

warning

indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор перегріву

двигуна


аварийный сигнали-

затор перегрева

двигателя


fire warning

indicator

аварійний сигналі-

затор пожежі (все-



редині двигуна)

аварийный сигнали-

затор пожара (внутри



двигателя)


Exercise 75. Read and translate text 10 in a written form.
Text 10. Engine Failure Warning Indicators

Engine flaws and defects are detected with the aid of warning devices installed on board an aircraft. Warning devices give all necessary information to the crew in flight. The crew take measures required to prevent any destruction of the engine. There are following engine failure warning indicators: maximum vibration limit warning indicator, low oil pressure warning indicator, low oil level warning indicator, emergency oil remaining warning indicator, chips-in-oil warning indicator, oil overheating warning indicator, emergency gas temperature warning indicator, low fuel pressure warning indicator, engine overheat warning indicator, fire warning indicator.


Exercise 76. Match the Ukrainian / Russian-English equivalents.

1. аварійний сигналізатор пожежі /

аварийный сигнализатор пожара



a) destruction of the engine

2. аварійний сигналізатор мініма-

льного залишку масла/ аварийный сигнализатор минимального остатка масла



b) emergency gas tempera-

ture


3. аварійний сигналізатор перегрі-

ву двигуна/ аварийный сигнализатор перегрева двигателя



c) low fuel pressure

4. руйнування двигуна/ разруше-

ние двигателя



d) chips in oil

5. небезпечна температура газу/

опасная температура газа



e) engine overheat warning

indicator



6. мінімальний тиск палива/

минимальное давление топлива



f) low oil level warning

indicator



7. металева стружка в маслі/

металлическая стружка в масле



g) fire warning indicator


Exercise 77. Find synonyms of the following words in text 10.

Fault, break-up, malfunction, help, mount, lubricant, warning light.


Exercise 78. Divide the words into groups according to the parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and verb forms).

Information, indicator, limited, overheating, device, vibration, prior to, down, without, installed, remaining, equipment, preventive, destruction, manually, warning, prevention, human, during, low, predetermined, necessary, required, with, immediately, throughout, failure, measure.


Exercise 79. Complete the sentences using the words given in brackets. Translate the sentences.

engine failures, warning devices, flight deck, crew, engine

1. Engine flaws and defects are detected with the aid of … .


2. Warning devices are installed in the... . 3. Warning devices give all necessary information to the... . 4. The crew take measures required to prevent destruction of the... 5. Engine warning indicators indicate ... .
Exercise 80. Answer the questions on text 10.

1. What is used to detect engine defects? 2. What devices are engine flaws and defects detected by? 3. What information do warning devices give to the crew? 4. Who takes measures to prevent destruction of the engine in flight? 5. What measures must the crew take in case of any engine failure? 6. What warning indicators are installed on board an aircraft? 7. Where are warning devices installed?


Exercise 81. Put questions to the italicizes words.

1. Engine defects are detected with the aid of warning devices.


2. Warning devices give all necessary information to the crew in flight. 3. Warning devices are installed on board an aircraft. 4. The crew take measures required to prevent destruction of the engine in flight. 5. Engine failure warning indicators detect engine defects.
Exercise 82. Give the terms to the definitions.

1. A device indicating that the pressure in the oil system is below the predetermined level -... .

2. A device indicating that engine overheating takes place -... .

3. A device indicating that the pressure in the fuel system is below the predetermined level that is dangerous for the engine operation - … .

4. A device indicating that the amount of oil in the oil system is below the predetermined level - ... .

5. A device indicating that there are chips in the oil system -... .

6. A device indicating that the vibration of the engine casing is above the predetermined level -... .
Exercise 83. Give definitions of the following terms.

Fire warning indicator, low oil pressure warning indicator, engine overheat warning indicator, low fuel pressure warning indicator, low oil level warning indicator, chips-in-oil warning indicator, maximum vibration limit warning indicator.


Exercise 84. Nаmе emergency situation that need warning and indication to the crew.
Exercise 85. Compress the information of text 10 to 1complex sentence.
Exercise 86. Divide text 11 into logical parts and write a topical sentence for each part.
Text 11. Warning Indicators Response

The mechanical deformation or damage of gas turbine engine rotating parts leads as a rule to increasing vibration of the engine casing. The maximum vibration limit warning indicator is on in case of:

- compressor, turbine or nozzle diaphragm blades detaching;

- turbine disk damage;

- compressor damage;

- bearing damage;

- compressor rotor jamming;

- accessory drive assembly breakdown.

Troubles in the oil system operation may cause the engine shaft bearing damage with the consequent oil leakage and oil jets clogging.

The following troubles result in the “low oil pressure warning indicator” response:

- loss of sealing in oil lines;

- pipelines damage;

- loss of sealing in oil cooler;

- internal engine damage;

- reduction valve failure;

- bearings damage.

The low oil level warning indicator is on in case of the following troubles:

- oil pump drive breakdown;

- turbine bearing damage;

- labyrinth packing defect.


The chips-in-oil warning indicator is illuminated when there is:

- bearing seat damage;

- transmission internal damage;

- rotor breakdown;

- accessory drive shaft damage;

- coking.

The engine overheat and fire warning indicators are illuminated in case of:

- engine rotor bearing damage;

- labyrinth packing breakdown;

- engine drive damage;

- fuel or oil system failure;

- compressor blades and turbine buckets damage;

- turbine disks breakdown;

- combustion chamber components breakdown.

To prevent the engine from further destruction it should be immediately shut down in the event of any warning indicator illuminating.
Exercise 87. Make use of the suggested terminological vocabulary below in order to present the topic “Warning indicators response”.

detaching

обрив, від’єднання

обрыв, разъединение

jamming

заклинювання

заклинивание

oil jet

масляна форсунка

масляная форсунка

clogging

засмічення, забиття

засорение, забивание

response

спрацювання

срабатывание

sealing

1. ущільнення 2. ізоляція 3. герметизація, усунення негерметичності

1. уплотнение 2. изоляция 3. герметизация, устранение негерметичности

oil cooler

маслорадіатор

маслорадиатор

labyrinth packing

лабіринтне

ущільнення



лабиринтное

уплотнение



coking

нагароутворення

нагарообразование

shut down

вимикати, зупиняти

(двигун)



выключать, останав-

ливать (двигатель)



shutdown

зупинка, вимкнення

(двигуна)



останов, выключе-

ние (двигателя)



choking

засмічення, забиття

засорение, забивание

reduction valve

редукційний клапан

редукционный

клапан



Exercise 88. Match the equivalents.

1. choking

a) packing

2. breakdown

b) malfunction

3. sealing

c) clogging

4. trouble

d) damage

5. switch on

e) signal

6. activate

f) be on

7. illuminate

g) actuate

8. warn

h) turn on


Exercise 89. Translate universal words. Mind the difference in their pronunciation, spelling in English and Ukrainian/Russian.

Deformation, rotation, maximum, vibration, limit, component, indicator, compressor, diaphragm, assembly, operation, labyrinth, transmission, rotor, construction, functional, system, element, process, phase, activities.


Exercise 90. Give derivatives of these words with reference to
text 11.

Operate, proper, adequate, collide, warn, vibrate, coke, pack, lose, seal, respond, remain, heat, form, rotate, increase, case, detach, break, clog, press, indicate, follow, transmit, fail, far.


Exercise 91. Find English equivalents of the following terms in text 11.

Пошкодження двигуна/ повреждение двигателя; максимально допустимий рівень вібрації/ максимально допустимый уровень вибрации; аварійний залишок масла/ аварийный остаток масла; небезпечна температура газу/ опасная температура газа, мінімальний тиск палива/ минимальное давление топлива; обрив лопатки/ обрыв лопатки; поява металевої стружки в маслі/ появление металлической стружки в масле; псування диска турбіни/ повреждение диска турбины; заклинювання ротора компресора/ заклинивание ротора компрессора; витік масла/ утечка масла; засмічення форсунок/ засорение форсунок; порушення герметичності в магістралях системи змащення/ нарушение герметичности в магистралях системы смазки; пошкодження ущільнень/ повреждение уплотнений; руйнування підшипника/ разрушение підшипника; коксування масла/ коксование масла; руйнування привода двигуна/ разрушение привода двигателя; зупинення двигуна/ останов двигателя; пожежа в двигуні/ пожар в двигателе.


Exercise 92. Give Ukrainian/Russian equivalents.

Engine overheat, mechanical deformation, engine casing, fire indication, loss of sealing, oil lines, bearing damage, reduction valve failure, labyrinth packing defect, fire warning, engine drive damage, fuel system failure, turbine disks breakdown.


Exercise 93. Translate the terms using a dictionary if necessary.

Pipe breakdown, engine destruction, autopilot imperfection, drive shaft damage, tank rupture, engine stopping, surface crack, pressurization problem, fuel exhaustion, fuel spill, engine disintegration, engine tearway, oil leakage, compressor stall, oil starvation, oil exhaustion, engine surge, asymmetrical thrust reversal.


Exercise 94. Match attributes (b) and nouns (a) to make as many nominative word combinations as possible.

a) defect, failure, device, deformation, damage, cooler, overheat, breakdown, indicator;

b) engine, oil, bearing, mechanical, warning, rotor, system, packing.
Exercise 95. Complete the sentences with reference to text 11.

1. The mechanical deformation or damage of gas turbine engine rotating parts leads as a rule to ... . 2. Troubles in oil system operation may cause ... . 3. The engine overheat warning indicator is illuminated in case of... . 4. The maximum vibration limit warning indicator is on in the event of… . 5. To prevent the engine from further destruction it should be ... .



Exercise 96. Make up sentences using the following verbs.

To be equipped (with), to depend (on), to be designed (for), to serve (for), to lead (to), to be caused (by), to result (in), to result (from), to prevent (from), to be on, to be illuminated (in case of).

.

.

Exercuse 97. Play the role of an interpreter.



- Як виявити відмови

двигунів?/ Как обнаружить

отказы двигателя?


- Engine failures are detected with the aid of warning devices.

- В якому випадку необхідне

вимкнення двигуна в

польоті?/ В каком случае необходимо выключить двигатель в полете?


- In the event of any warning

indicator illuminating the

engine should be immediately

shut down to prevent it from

further destruction.


- Що може спричинити

підсилення вібрації

корпусу двигуна?/ Что может вызвать усиление вибрации корпуса двигателя?


- As a rule, increasing vibration

of the engine casing results

from mechanical deforma-

tion or damage of gas

turbineengine rotating parts.


- Чим небезпечні дефекти в

системі змащення двигуна?/ Чем опасны дефекты в

системе смазки двигателя?


- Troubles in oil system operation

may lead to engine shaft bearing

damage and oil jets clogging.


- Коли спрацьовує аварійний

сигналізатор “Мінімальний

тиск масла”?/ Когда срабатывает аварийный сигнализатор “Минимальное давление масла”?


- The “low oil pressure warning

indicator” response is caused by .

the loss of sealing in oil lines

and pipelines damage.




- Мабуть, найнебезпечнішою

є пожежа в двигуні, чи не

так?/ Наверное, самое

опасное – это пожар в

двигателе, не так ли?


- Exactly. When the engine is

on fire this may even lead to

engine detaching.



Exercise 98. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice.

1. They are carrying out the visual examination of fire detectors. 2. We may detect engine defects with the aid of engine failure warning indicators. 3. This device indicates the vibration of the engine casing.


4. Human errors in the cockpit have caused the engine failure. 5. Foreign objects in engine ducts may cause vibration and fairing breakdown. 6. The flight engineer must test the chips-in-oil warning indicator.7. The crew could have taken measures to prevent the engine destruction.
Exercise 99. Change the sentences into the Past and Future
Indefinite Passive.

Model:

Engine defects are detected with the aid of warning devices.

Engine defects were detected with the aid of warning devices.

Engine defects will be detected with the aid of warning devices.


1. Engine failure warning indicators are installed on board an aircraft. 2. The engine overheat and fire warning indicators are illuminated in case of the fuel or oil system failure. 3. The left engine is cut off. 4. The fire is extinguished. 5. The visual inspection of the fire-extinguishing equipment is carried out each month. 6. The cause of coking is investigated. 7. This device is used for indicating pressure in the oil system. 8. Flight conditions are complicated by engine failures.
Exercise 100. Use the verbs in brackets’ an appropriate tense and voice form.

1. Engine defects (to detect) with the aid of warning devices.


2. Engine failure warning indicators (to install) on board an aircraft last month. 3. The engine overheat warning indicator (to illuminate) in case of the engine rotor bearing damage. 4. The pipelines damage (to result) in the “low oil pressure warning indicator” response. 5. The fire warning indicator (to illuminate) in case of drive damage.
Exercise 101. Answer the questions on text 11.

1. What may the mechanical deformation or damage of gas turbine engine rotating parts lead to? 2. What does oil leakage or oil jets clogging result in? 3. What will cause engine overheat and warning indicators illuminating? 4. What indicator must be on in case of oil coking? 5. What may lead to engine shaft bearing damage? 6. What may compressor rotor jamming be caused by?


Exercise 102. Translate into English.

1. З руйнуванням обертових

елементів газотурбінного двигуна збільшується рівень вібрації корпусу двигуна.



1. При разрушении вращающих-

ся элементов газотурбинного двигателя, увеличивается уровень вибрации корпуса двигателя.



2. Порушення роботи маслосистеми призводить до руйнування опор двигуна, течі масла та засмічення форсунок.

2. Нарушения в работе маслоси-

стемы приводят к разрушению опор двигателя, утечке масла и засорению форсунок.



3. У разі спрацьовування одного

із аварійних сигналізаторів, необхідно вимкнути двигун, аби запобігти його подальшому руйнуванню.



3. Для предотвращения даль-

нейшего разрушения двигателя в случае срабатывания одного из аварийных сигна-лизаторов, необходимо вык-лючить двигатель.



4. У разі руйнування опор рото-

ра двигуна спрацьовує сигналізація “Пожежа всередині двигуна”.



4. В случае разрушения опор

ротора двигателя срабатывает сигнализация “Пожар внутри двигателя”.



5. Порушення в роботі системи

змащення можуть призвести до руйнування турбопроводу та підшипників.



5. Нарушение работы системы

смазки может привести к повреждению трубопровода и подшипников.



6. Двигун слід вимкнути також у

випадку витікання масла.



6. Двигатель следует выключить

и в случае утечки масла.



7. Через пожежу в двигуні мож-

ливий його обрив.



7. Из-за пожара в двигателе воз-

можен его обрыв.



8. Витікання палива в лівому

двигуні.


8. Утечка топлива в левом

двигателе.



9. Для виявлення відмов двигу-

на на борту встановлюється аварійна сигналізація.



9. Для обнаружения отказов

двигателя на борту устанавливается аварийная сигнализация.



10. Аварійні сигналізатори,

встановлені на борту літака, надають інформацію екіпажу.



10. Аварийные сигнализаторы,

установленные на борту самолета, выдают информацию экипажу.



11. Екіпаж вживає заходів, аби

запобігти руйнуванню

двигуна.


11. Экипаж принимает меры для

предотвращения разрушения двигателя.


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