Навчальний посібник з англійської мови за професійним спрямуванням "Professional English. Aircraft Design and Maintenance"




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Fig. I.1.8. An-32

Crew

3

Capacity

42 paratroopers/50 passengers/24 casualties on stretcher with 3 medical personnel

Length

23.78 m (78 ft 0¾ in)

Wing span

29.20 m (95 ft 9½ in)

Height

8.75m (28 ft 8½ in)

Wing area

75 m² (807 ft²)

Empty weight

16,800 kg (37,038 lb)

Maximum take-off weight

27,000 kg (59,400 lb)

Power plant

2 × ZMKB Progress AI-20DM turboprop

Maximum speed

530 km/h (286 knots, 329 mph)

Cruising speed

470 km/h (254 knots, 292 mph)

Range

2,500 km (1,350 nmi, 1,553 mi)

Service ceiling

9,500 m (31,165 ft)


Exercise 55. Translate the following passages, using a dictionary and give the key-note of each in Ukrainian/Russian and English.

1. The multipurpose biplane An-2 is the only aircraft in the world in serial production for more than 60 years. Each aircraft that followed, An-8 cargo plane, An-10 passenger plane, and An-12 military-transport plane, marked a new stage in the history of Soviet and world aviation. 1959 is the year of maiden flight of An-24, the regional passenger plane that became “work horse” of many airlines across the world. It has also became a basis for an exclusively successful An family: An-26 freighter, An-30 aerial photographer, and An-32 intended for operation from/to mountain airfields. 1965 saw the debut of the world’s first wide-body cargo plane An-22 Antaeus. 1977 started the history of An-72 and An-74. The best creations of the Antonov Design Bureau are


An-124 Ruslan and An-225 Mriya that remain the world’s largest aircraft and holders of hundreds of world records. They are widely used as cargo carriers throughout the world.

2. An-72 cargo compartment and cargo hatch dimensions allow to carry bulky cargoes, wheeled vehicles, motor-cars of the UAZ, RAF, “Geep” type.

3. An-124-100M-150 modification differs from the basic model in the payload increased from 120t to 150t, increased take-off and landing weights and greater operating range. The important feature of An-124-100M-150 is a more simplified and accelerated loading/unloading operation for cargoes up to 150t with the structure of the front cargo ramp strengthened. An-124-100M-150 is piloted by the crew of 4 instead of usual 6 persons.

The An-124-100 Ruslan and An-225 Mriya jumbo jets perform hundreds of impressive operations, including the transportation of solid blocks of industrial equipment up to 180 tons and huge parts of space rockets that no other plane in the world could carry.

4. The An-70, the most perfect STOL (short take-off and landing) aircraft in the world, can lift cargoes up to 20 tons from 6,600 km long runway and carry them to destinations up to 3,000 km away. Its high capacity fuselage can hold 98 percent of cargoes which are normally transported by much larger planes.

5. The 52-seat turboprop plane An-140, flying along local lines in East Siberia, easily lands on unpaved and ice runways and still is as comfortable as modern planes.

6. The 80-seat An-148-100 has proven airworthy in the temperature range from – 550C to + 450C. The basic version of the An-148 Regional Jet is designed for the transportation of 68-85 passengers on short and medium-haul routes of up to 4,600 km.

7. High comfort, low noise, safety and economy add distinguishable traits to the collective portrait of the new generation of ANTONOV passenger planes.

8. The An-32P is the fire fighting version of An-32, which is the only transport aircraft designed to operate from high-altitude airfields over 4,000 m. This plane can discharge eight tons of fire extinguishing liquid at a time and has proven its exceptional efficiency many times. The An-32P is not just a fire fighter. It is a versatile instrument of response to various emergencies: it can not only extinguish, but also deliver rescuers and urgent cargoes to accident sites, evacuate the injured, and monitor disaster areas.

9. The Be-200 is the most effective fire fighting aircraft developed today. Scooping up 12 tons of water from seas with waves up to 1.2 m high it will quickly reach (faster than any other amphibian) and repeatedly attack fires with an unprecedented intensity (an example of a typical mission: one Be-200 will drop 360 tons of water and/or foam prior to returning for refuelling, having flown 200 km from the base to the fire zone and 200 km back to the base, the fire zone is located 10 km away from a suitable water scooping area). The Be-200 is effective in its other roles, including passenger and/or cargo transportation (it is quickly changed from fire fighter to cargo version), as well as pollution control/ environmental protection, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) patrol, Search And Rescue (SAR), Maritime Patrol and Ambulance.


Exercise 56. Act as a guide showing the An-140 principal structural units and describing its performance data (Figure I.l.9).


Fig. I.l.9. An-140 three views

Crew

2

Capacity

52 passengers

Length

22.60 m (74 ft 2 in)

Wing span

24.505 m (80 ft 5 in)

Height

8.23 m (27 ft 0 in)

Wing area

51 m² (549 ft²)

Empty weight

12,810 kg (28,240 lb)

Max take-off weight

19,150 kg (42,220 lb)

Power plant

2 × Klimov TV3-117VMA-SBM1 turboprops, 1,838 kW (2,466 shp) each

Alternate power plant

Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127A turboprops, 1,900 kW (2,500) each

Maximum speed

575 km/h (310 knots, 357 mph)

Cruising speed

460 (250 knots, 290 mi)

Range

1380 km / 2420 km (745 nm, 860 mi / 1307 nm, 1504 mi)

Service ceiling

7600 m (25,000 ft)

Rate of climb

6.83 m/s (1,345 ft/min)



Exercise 57. Answer the questions.

1. Which Antonov aircraft has the highest maximum take-off speed? 2. Which Antonov aircraft has the maximum take-off weight?


3. Which Antonov aircraft has the longest flight range? 4. Which Antonov aircraft has the largest cargo capacity? 5. Which is the largest of Antonov aircraft? 6. Which of Antonov’s family can operate from grass strips? 7. What aircraft are used for fire fighting? 8. Which Antonov aircraft is the only aircraft in the world in serial production for more than 60 years? 9. Which Antonov aircraft can carry solid blocks of industrial equipment and huge parts of space rockets? 10. Which are Antonov military-transport aircraft?
Exercise 58. Make up an advertisement on one of the present-day aircraft and present it to your group. Decide whose presentation is the best.
Exercise 59. Put questions to the italicized words.

1. An-24, the regional passenger plane, became “work horse” of many airlines across the world. 2. An-124 Ruslan and An-225 Mriya remain the world’s largest aircraft. 3. The An-32P can extinguish fire, deliver rescuers and urgent cargoes to accident sites, evacuate the injured, and monitor disaster areas. 4. 1965 is the year of maiden flight of the world’s first wide-body cargo plane An-22 Antaeus. 5. The basic version of the An-148 Regional Jet is designed for the transportation of 68-85 passengers on short and medium-haul routes of up to 4,600 km.





Exercise 60. Speak on:

  1. Principal Structural Units of Aircraft.

  2. Aircraft Performance Data.


Exercise 61. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 5.

civil airplane

літак цивільної авіації

самолет гражданской авиации

mail-carrying airplane

поштовий літак

почтовый самолет

agricultural airplane

літак для обслуговування сільсь-кого господарства

самолет для обслуживания сельского хозяйства

experimental airplane

експериментальне повітряне судно

экспериментальное воздушное судно

ambulance airplane

санітарний літак

санитарный самолет

aerial photographic airplane

літак для аерофотозйомки

самолет для аэрофотосъемки

fire-fighting airplane

пожарний літак, «пожежник»

пожарный самолет, «пожарник»

sporting/sports airplane

спортивний літак

спортивный самолет

transport airplane

транспортний літак

транспортный самолет

instructional airplane

навчально-трену-вальне повітряне судно

учебно-тренировочное воздушное судно

research airplane

дослідне повітряне судно

исследовательское воздушное судно

search and rescue operations

пошуково-рятувальнi роботи

поисково-спасательные работы

land airplane

літак наземного базування

самолет наземного базирования

land-based airplane

літак наземного базування

самолет наземного базирования

general aviation

авіація загального призначення

авиация общего назначения

carrier-based airplane

літак авіаносного базування

самолет авианосного базирования

seaplane

гідролітак

гидросамолет

amphibious airplane

літак-амфібія

самолет-амфибия

flying boat

літаючий човен

летающая лодка

float plane

літак з поплавковим шасі

самолет с поплавковым шасси

twin-engine

дводвигуновий

двухдвигательный

wheeled airplane

літак з колісним шасі

самолет с колесным шасси

skiplane

літак з лижним шасі

самолет с лыжным шасси

conventional take-off and landing aiplane

літак звичного зльоту і посадки

самолет обычного взлета и посадки

vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aiplane

літак вертикального зльоту і посадки

самолет вертикального взлета и посадки

subsonic airplane

дозвуковий літак

дозвуковой самолет

supersonic airplane

надзвуковий літак

сверхзвуковой самолет

space shuttle

човночний повітряно-космічний корабель

челночный воздушно-космический корабль

military airplane

військовий літак

военный самолет

fighter

винищувач

истребитель

bomber

бомбардувальник

бомбардировщик

combat airplane

винищувач-бомбардувальник

истребитель-бомбардировщик

attack airplane

штурмовик

штурмовик

strafing airplane

літак-штурмовик

самолет-штурмовик

interceptor

перехоплювач

перехватчик

missile-carrier

ракетоносець

ракетоносец

reconnaissance airplane

літак-розвідник

самолет -разведчик

tanker airplane

літак-паливозаправ-ник

самолет–топливозап-равщик

flying tanker

паливозаправник (в повітрі)

топливозаправщик (в воздухе)

airplane carrier

авіаносець

авианосец


Exercise 62. Read, translate and make a short summary of text 5.

Text 5. Types of Airplanes

There is a wide variety of airplane types. Land airplanes, carrier-based airplanes, seaplanes, amphibians, vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) airplane, short take-off and landing (STOL) airplane, and space shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology, but their capabilities and uses make them seem only distantly related.



Land Airplanes

Land airplanes are designed to operate from a hard surface, typically a paved runway. Some land airplanes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. A land airplane usually has wheels to taxi, take off, and land, although some specialized aircraft operating in the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. The wheels are sometimes referred to as the undercarriage, although they are often called, together with the associated brakes, the landing gear. The landing gear may be fixed, as in some general aviation airplanes, or retractable, usually into the fuselage or wings, as in more sophisticated airplanes in general and commercial aviation.



Carrier-Based Aircraft

Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of the land airplane designed for take-off from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure, including their landing gear, to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted take-off, in which the craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult; and arrested landings, made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier.



Seaplanes

Seaplanes, sometimes called float planes or pontoon planes, are often ordinary land airplanes modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. A number of seaplanes have been designed from scratch1 to operate only from water bases. Such seaplanes have fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. Known as flying boats, they may have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water, but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull.



Amphibians

Amphibians, like their animal namesakes, operate from both water and land bases. In many cases, an amphibian is a true seaplane, with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. Historically, some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear, a system of cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft, which then allowed the aircraft to be rolled onto land.



Vertical Take-off and Landing Airplanes

Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines, pointed down at the Earth, to take off and land straight up and down. After taking off, a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-home flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft, but there are very few VTOL airplanes. One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor, which has large, propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wing tips. For take-off and landing the engines and rotors are positioned vertically, much like a helicopter. After take-off however, the engine/rotor combination tilts forward, and the wing takes on the load of the craft. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier, a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps, as well as in Spain, Italy, India, and United Kingdom, where it was originally developed, the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships, or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops, it supports in its ground-attack role.



Short Take-off and Landing Airplanes

Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during take-off and landing, as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes, although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well.



Space Shuttle

The space shuttle, flown by the USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside the Earth's atmosphere. When the space shuttle takes off, it flies like a rocket with wings, relying on the 3,175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up, through and out of the atmosphere. During landing, the shuttle becomes the world's most sophisticated glider, landing without propulsion.

Note:

1 from scratch – з самого початку/с самого начала.

Exercise 63. Copy out aviation terms from text 5.
Exercise 64. Match the definitions in the left column with the terms in the right column.

1. A vehicle that can operate from both water and land bases.

a) land plane

2. A vehicle that is designed to go into space and return to the Earth several times.

b) seaplane

3. An airplane that can function on relatively short runways.

c) space shuttle

4. An airplane that uses the jet thrust from the engines, pointed down at the Earth, to take off and land straight up and down.

d) STOL airplane

5. An airplane that can take off and alight on water.

e) VTOL airplane

6. An airplane that can operate from a hard surface, typically a paved runway.

f) amphibian


Exercise 65. Match the synonyms.

1. seaplane

a) carrier airplane

2. land-based airplane

b) hydroplane

3. space shuttle

c) amphibious vehicle

4. carrier-based airplane

d) spacecraft

5. amphibian

e) land plane
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