Тренувальні вправи




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CONTENTS

Agricultural Land Area and Major Crops 2

The purpose and use of soil classification and mapping 5

Soils and Crop Rotation 8

Surveying 11

Transit-tape survey 15

Leveling 20

Tacheometric survey 24

Conventional sings on plans. Reading plans. 28

Making up a plan of the transit-tape survey 31

Privatization and sale of land in Ukraine 35

Agricultural land parcels in Ukraine 36

Problems of Rational Agricultural Land Use in Ukraine 38

Land reform agricultural economics in Britain 39

Тренувальні вправи. 41




Agricultural Land Area and Major Crops


The climate of Ukraine is roughly similar to that of Kansas: slightly drier and cooler during the summer and colder and wetter during the winter, but close enough for comparison. The weather is suitable for both winter and spring crops. Average annual precipitation is typically higher in western and central Ukraine and lower in the south and east.

Of Ukraine's total land area of 60 million hectares, roughly 42 million is classified as agricultural land, which includes cultivated land (grains, technical crops, forages, potatoes and vegetables, and fallow), gardens, orchards, vineyards, and permanent meadows and pastures. Winter wheat, spring barley, and corn are the country's main grain crops. Sunflowers and sugar beets are the main technical, or industrial, crops. 1/3 of the world's fertile black soil (chernozem) belongs to Ukraine. Domestic agricultural enterprises are able to capitalize on economies of scale as land acquisition is not limited by low provision as in European countries.

The land plots of the cities and towns and the land plots of agricultural purpose located outside the cities and towns are subject to the ‘normative pecuniary valuation’ every 5-7 years; the land plots of non-agricultural purpose located outside the cities and towns are subject to the ‘normative pecuniary valuation’ every 7-10 years.

Word List


Dry - сухий

Wet - вологий

Suitable - відповідний

Spring crops – ярові культури

Precipitation- опади

High/ low- високий/ низький (малий)

Total land area – загальна кількість угідь

Hectare - гектар

Agricultural land – сільськогосподарські землі

Cultivated land – землі, які обробляються




Fallow - пар

Meadows - луки

Grain crops – зернові культури

Technical crops – технічні культури

Fertile soil – родючий грунт

Agricultural enterprises - сільськогосподарські підприємства

Low provision – недостатня кількість

Land plots - ділянки

Outside – за межами

normative pecuniary valuation – нормативна грошова оцінка




Вправа 1

Перекладіть словосполучення українською мовою:

slightly drier, to be suitable for, average annual precipitation, total land area, technical crops, agricultural land, fertile black soil, domestic agricultural enterprises, low provision, land plots, non-agricultural purpose.



Вправа 2

Вставте пропущені слова:

  1. Comparing to Kansas the climate slightly ……

  2. The weather in Ukraine is …….. for crops.

  3. In western and central Ukraine ………. is typically higher.

  4. ………… are the main technical, or industrial, crops.

  5. The ‘normative pecuniary valuation’ every 5-7 years should be made on ……….of agricultural purpose located outside the cities and towns.


Вправа 3

Знайдіть в тексті еквіваленти слів і словосполучень:

Ярові культури, сади, луки, пасовища, технічні культури, основні зернові культури, не бути обмеженим, нормативна грошова оцінка, розташовуватись за містом



Вправа 4

Розмістіть речення таким чином, щоб вони були планом прочитаного тексту:

  1. Agricultural land includes cultivated land and gardens, orchards, meadows and pastures.

  2. Comparing to Kansas the climate slightly drier and cooler.

  3. The objects of the ‘normative pecuniary valuation’ every 5-7 years are the land plots of agricultural purpose

  4. Ukraine's total land area is of 60 million hectares.

  5. Both winter and spring crops are grown in Ukraine because the weather is suitable for them.

  6. The great part of the world's fertile black soil is in Ukraine.

Вправа 5

Дайте відповіді на запитання:

  1. What are the weather conditions in Ukraine for crop growing?

  2. In what regions average annual precipitation is higher?

  3. What is the greatest part of Ukraine's total land area?

  4. What crops are common in Ukraine?

  5. What kind of lands is Ukraine famous for?

  6. What are the objects of ‘normative pecuniary valuation’?


Вправа 6

Складіть діалог, використовуючи запитання з вправи 5.

The purpose and use of soil classification and mapping


Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use.

While in some countries of the world soil classification is an important and integral part of agricultural planning and development, in other countries it is no being used to a similar extent as a guide for proper land use. Modern soil classification is based upon the nature of the soil section or soil profile, which reflects the influence of the various factors of soil formation, including climate and vegetation, drainage and the parent material from which the soil was derived. The essence of modern soil classification is the recognition of individual soil types as natural units, and an appreciation of their properties and productive capacities.

The most practical purpose of soil classification and mapping is to provide a systematic basis for the study of crop and soil relationship with the view to increasing productivity and to help in soil conservation and reclamation. This purpose embraces a number of widely recognized aspects, including the prediction of crop and soil behavior on new land for agricultural production, fertilizer requirements on both old and new land. According to the classification individual soil types may be identified and mapped in detailed soil surveys, or the individual soil types may be mapped as groups in reconnaissance surveys.

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