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THE DIAMOND MAKER
Some business had kept me in the office until nine in the evening. I felt tired and hot and went down to the rive r for a walk. I was looking at the lights in the dark water, when a voice near me said: "A warm night, isn't it?"

I turned to look at the person who had spoken. Large, dark eyes in a tired face, not young. His clothes were old, there was no hat on hi s head and I could see that he was poor. I knew that if I answered him, he would ask for money. At first I didn't want to talk to him. But there was something I liked in his face, and I changed my mind. "Very warm", I said with a smile. "But not too warm for us here in London". "No", he said. "The air is pleasant enough". "It is good", he continued, "to find such a quiet place after a busy day. You must be tired too, but I don't think you can be as tired as I am. Sometimes I think I'll stop trying to become rich and famous. But I know I'll be sorry for the rest of my days".

He stopped, and I looked at him. It was very strange: the man was poorly dressed and dirty - and he was dreaming of becoming famous!. He saw that I didn't believe him and said: "I am forgetting myself. Of course, you don't understand". He looked at me with unhappy eyes. "I am sure you will not believe me, even if I tell you. But I want to tell somebody... anybody. The fact is I have discovered a way to make diamonds". He pulled a little bag from under his coat and took a brown stone out of it. He gave the stone to me and asked: "Do you know what that is?".

I studied science when I went to London University, so I knew something about such things. The stone that I held looked like a real diamond, though it was too large, almost as big as a small bird's egg. I took my knife and tried to scratch it, but couldn't. Then I tried it on my watch-glass and it scratched a white line across it. The man was watching me.

"It looks a little like a diamond", I said. "But if it is a diamond, it is the biggest I have ever seen. Where did you get it?'. "I have told you, I made it", he answered. He was angry now. "Give it back to me". He took it and pushed it back into the bag. "I'll sell it to you for one hundred pounds", he said in a quick low voice.

I felt that there was something wrong. Perhaps it wasn't a diamond? Other stones can be almost as hard as a diamond. Or, if it was a diamond, where did he get it, and why was he selling it for only one hundred pounds? We looked into each other's eyes. At that moment, I believed that it was a diamond. But I am not a rich man, a hundred pounds is a large sum to me, and no man in his right mind buys a "diamond at night, in the poor light of a street lamp. A diamond like that could cost thousands of pounds. Such diamonds are described in special books. No, the idea of buying it seemed foolish.

"How did you get it?" I asked. "I'm telling you the truth", he answered. "I made it". As I did not continue, he spoke again. "I will tell you something about myself. Perhaps then you will believe me". He looked up at the dark sky. "Diamonds", he began, and now his words sounded like the speech of a university professor, "can be made out of carbon at very high temperatures and under very high pressure. Scientists have known that for years, but nobody has found the right

pressure or the right kind of carbon.

"I began to work on the problem when I was seventeen", he continued. "And now I am thirty-two. I had about a thousand pounds when I was twenty-one. I thought that would be enough for my experiments. I had to be very careful with my money. I lived in a dark room with no air and slept with all my wires and apparatus around me. The money flew out of my hands, though I spent nothing on myself and bought only what I needed to improve my apparatus. I tried to give lessons, but I am not a good teacher, and I haven't any education except in chemistry.

"I never stopped working, though I often had nothing to eat. At last I began to think about the high pressure of an explosion in a closed cylinder. With my last money I got a strong cylinder, put my carbon and dynamite into it, put the cylinder on the fire, and. went out for a walk".

"Weren't you afraid to leave the cylinder on the fire , full of dynamite?" I asked. "Yes, it was dangerous", he said. "But I was sure the cylinder was strong enough. When I returned, everything was the same as I had left it. The explosion had taken place and I knew there were diamond crystals in the cylinder. How I had a new problem. You know that time is the main question in crystallization. I f you

open the cylinder too soon, the crystals are small - they grow larger only under high temperatures for a very long time. I decided to let the temperature go down very slowly for two years, and not to open the cylinder during that time. But I had no money to buy coal for the fire that I had to have for two whole years. And I had to pay for my room, and I had to eat".

I can't tell you all the things I have done to get a little money while I was making the diamonds. I have sol d newspapers, worked in a shop, carried bags at railway stations. Once, for a week I couldn't find any work at all. What a week that was! I met a young man who was walking with his girl, and he gave, me a little money - perhaps to show his girl how rich he was. I was hungry, but I spent the money on coal for my fire.

At last, three weeks ago, I took my cylinder out of the fire. I opened the cylinder when it was still hot. And I found three big diamonds and five small ones in it. I was examining them when the door opened and my neighbour came in. He was drunk - as he usually is. "You're an anarchist!" he said, his eyes full of hate. "What are you doing here, you drunken animal!" I shouted. "Ha, hah!" he laughed. He was enjoying himself. He began to talk about how he had gone to the police and told them he had noticed the fire in my room. And that he was sure I was an anarchist, and I was making some kind of dynamite. "And they wrote down everything" he said. "And they didn't call me an animal, they could see that I was a gentleman!"

"I saw at once what would happen. If the police came, they would make me tell them my secret, or they would arrest me as a dangerous anarchist. And the newspapers would tell the whole story, and the big companies would get my invention. What can a poor man do against a rich company? "I threw him out of my room. Then I put my diamonds in this bag and left the house, and I never went back there. The evening news-papers called my place the Kentish-Town Bomb Factory. And I can't sell my diamonds to anybody, though I have gone everywhere. "When I go into a shop and show them these diamonds, they tell me to wait. Then they say something quietly to one of the girls, and she runs out to look for a policeman. I don't explain what is the matter, but I say I can't wait, and go away. I am walking the streets with a hundred thousand pounds in diamonds in this bag, and no home or food. You are the first person I have told the story to. I liked your face, and I must find help somewhere".

He looked into my eyes. "I can't buy the diamond here", I said. "Besides, I don't carry hundred pounds with me every day. But I half believe your story, and if you come to my office tomorrow..." He took a step away from me. "You think I am a thief!" he said. "You will tell the police". "No, I am sure you aren't a thief. Here is my address. An pound with it. Come whenever you like, don't tell me when. So you can be sure the police will not be waiting for you when you come.

He took the address and the money. "I don't know...", he said. "But I'll pay you back the pound some day, and thank you. I hope you will keep my secret...don't follow me".

He walked across the road, and when he reached the corner, turned and went into a dark street. And I never saw him again. Once, he came to my office when I was out. He left no message, and my office boy described him as a very tired, dirty man who looked seriously ill. I often think of him. Was he a clever story-teller? Or had he really discovered a way to make diamonds? Perhaps he has died, and people threw the stones away - one, you remember, was almost as big as a bird's egg. Or perhaps he is still walking the streets, and can't find anybody to sell them to. Sometimes I am sorry I didn't give him the hundred pounds.


Vocabulary:
to change one's mind – змінити рішення

to discover - викрити

diamond - діаманд

to pull - тягнути

to scratch - царапати

I tried it on my watch-glass – Я спробував його на склі годинника

to sell - продавати

to cost - коштувати

to describe - описувати

pressure - тиск

careful - обережний

flow out - відпливати

except - зокрема

explosion - вибух

dangerous - небезпечний

neighbour - сусід

hate – гнів

animal - тварина

invention - відкриття

message - повідомлення


Завдання до тексту:


  1. Уважно прочитайте текст. Перевірте, чи вірно ви зрозуміли його зміст. Перегляньте наступні твердження та випишіть номера тих, які не відповідають змісту тексту.




  1. The inventor's life wasn't an easy one.

  2. At first the author did not believe his story.

  3. The author was sorry he hadn't bought the diamond from the man.

  4. The man was a thief.

  5. When the man took his cylinder out of the fir e he found five big diamonds

and three small ones in it.

  1. He was examining his diamonds when the door opened and the police came

in.

  1. The inventor had known the way the diamonds could be made and he found

the right pressure and the right kin d of carbon.

  1. The author of the story was going down the rive r and the inventor told him

about his experiments he had made at the laboratory of London University.

  1. The inventor tried to get rid of the diamonds.

  2. The man had been working on the problem of artificial diamonds for fifteen

years.
II. Визначте, чи є в оповіданні відповіді на наступні запитання? Випишіть

номера тих запитань, на які є відповіді:
1. What did the man say about his education?

2. Why was the stranger selling his diamonds for only one hundred pounds?

3. What made him so rich?

4. Was the man a clever story-teller?

5. Did the man look seriously ill?

6. Who called his place the Kentish-Town Bomb Factory?

7. How many diamonds did the man find in his cylinder?

8. Had he really discovered a way to make diamonds?

9. Did the newspapers tell the inventor's story and the big companies get his

invention?

10. What had happened to the inventor and his diamonds?


  1. Знайдіть та прочитайте речення, що містять не згоду з наступними

висловами:

1. Я озирнувся и поглянув на чоловіка, що заговорив зі мною. Він був одягнений за останньою модою, на голові в нього був капелюх, і по всьому було видно, що він багатій.

2. Наші погляди зустрілись. В той самий час я вірив, що це був діамант. Я був достатньо заможним і тисяча фунтів нічого не значили для мене; до того ж було щось таємниче в цій покупці при тусклому світлі вуличного стовпа.

3. незнайомець сказав, що він був непоганим вчителем і давав уроки, оскільки отримав різносторонню освіту у Лондонському університеті.

4. «Чи знаєте, що час це головний фактор в процесі кристалізації. В мене було достатньо грошей, щоб придбати вугіль для підтримки цього процесу цілих два роки», - сказав винахідник.

5. Він міг продати діаманти будь-якій людині, де б він не пішов.

6. Коли я заходив до магазину та показував ці діаманти, мене прохали почекати. Потім щось тихо казали одній з дівчат-продавчинь і вона приносила необхідну суму грошей.

7. Інколи я жалкую про те, що дав йому цю тисячу фунтів.


IV. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з них надані пояснення, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків героїв оповідання. Позначте номера тих варіантів пояснень, що не вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту :
At firs t the author did not want to talk to the man;
1) because there was something he disliked in the man's face;

2) because he knew that if he answered him, he would ask for money.


The man looked seriously ill.

3) because he live d in a dark room with no sir and slept with all his wires and

apparatus around him.

4) because he spent all his money on food.


A young man who met him once gave the inventor a little money
5) because he was sorry for him.

6) to show his girl how rich he was.


The inventor told his story to the author
7) because he liked his face and had to find help somewhere.

8) because he was looking for a refuge as the police pursued him.


The author gave the stranger his address and only one pound
9) because he thought the stranger was a good story-teller.

10) because a hundred pound was a large sum to him.


V. Дайте відповідь на наступні запитання:
1. Why and where did the author of the story go for a walk?

2. How did the person who had spoken to him looked like?

3. Why the author didn't want to speak to the stranger at first?

4. Did the author believe that the large brown stone he had examined was a

diamond?

5. What did the stranger tell about diamonds?

6. What did the stranger do to get a little money while he was making the

diamonds?

7. What happened one day when he was examining his diamonds?

8. Why couldn't he sell his diamonds?

9. Did the author meet the stranger again?

10. What made the author be sorry that he did not give him the hundred pounds?


VI. Перекажіть зміст оповідання, використовуючи запитання вправи у

якості плану.

A SECRET OF ART

A rich American bought a painting by a well-known artist. A had cost him very much money, he was sure it was a fine piece art; besides, the man who sold it to him told him the artist had received a gold medal for it.

The American thought that the painting would look nice in main room of his house. But a difficult question suddenly came up: he could not decide which was the top and which was the bottom of the painting; they looked the same.

So he decided to let the painter himself decide the question. He found the man's address and invited him to dinner. He didn't say anything to the painter, but he put the picture on the wall, where the painter could see it during dinner.

While he was eating the soup, the painter noticed the pain when he came to the meat and potatoes he could not stop looking at it. Before he began to eat his fruit, he got up and moved to the picture then he stood farther away, holding his head first on one side, then on the other. At last he came back to the table sat down and said: "You've made a terrible mistake with that picture, my friend. Can't you see which is the top and which is the bottom? You have them wrong - and of course, the right and left sides are wrong too. Anybody can see that!"

"Then perhaps you will explain", said the man who had bought the painting, "why it took you so long to decide: you painted the picture yourself!"


Завдання до тексту:
I. Які з наступних висловлювань відповідають змісту тексту? Випишіть номера тверджень, що відповідають змісту текста:
1, A rich American -was an expert in painting.

2, He bought a painting as it cost very much money.

3, The American could not make head or tail of the painting.

4. Having looked at the picture the painter noticed at once that a terrible mistake

had been made with his painting.

II. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:


1. What made the American buy the painting?

2. Why did the American decide to invite the painter to dinner?

3. How much time did it take the painter to decide which was the top and which

was the bottom of the painting?

4. What did the American tell the painter after dinner?


ENGLISH SPELLIHG
English spelling has always had many critics, both among people born in England and those who have learned English as a foreign language. There are many good reasons for their criticism. In many words, the same sound is represented by different spellings. For example, the sound [e] appears in the words bread, bed, said; the sound [ei] in neighbour, grey and way; the sound [ς] in aggression, condition, shake, sugar, Asia, special. As you see, the same sounds may be represented by all kinds of spellings. On the other hand, the same letter or combination of letters may represent different sounds. Compare the vowel sounds in put, but; in song, among; in wave, have; in though, through, thought; in reason, earth, dead. Compare the letter "s" in the words son, prison, sure.

And finally, we constantly meet words with letters that a pronounced at all: such words as write and know and honest and scientific and foreign.

Why is English spelling so irregular, so un-phonetic? One reason is that the pronunciation of words has changed very much, while their spelling has not changed. Another reason is that the old scribes used two systems of orthography, the English and the continental. The letters in these two systems were the same, but

sometimes represented different sound". (Compare, for example, the letter "p" which represents different sounds in Russian and in German or English). In addition many words were borrowed from Latin and Greek; but though today they are pronounced in the English manner, the spelling remains the same as it was in the ancient languages.

The result of all this is that modern English spelling is archaic in many cases, and confused in many others. Attempts made to reform the system, some of them talented and quite scientific, have appeared in the last three centuries. But the system remains to this day, and is a source of difficulty to everybody.


Завдання до тексту:
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. How many good reasons have you found in the text for criticism of English

spelling?

2. Is English spelling so irregular and so un-phonetic?

3. Why is modern English spelling archaic in many cases?

4. In what way are the words borrowed from Latin and Greek pronounced in

English?


5. Are the attempts made to reform the English spelling system?

6. Is English spelling a source of difficulty to you?


II. Уважно прочитайте тексти, що в лівій частині. Найдіть продовження

та кінцівку кожної історії в правій частині.:


1. Somebody once asked Mark Twain whether he could remember the first moss./ he ever earned. "I remember quite well", the famous writer answered. "It happened at school. Schoolboys in those days had very little respect for their teachers and even less for their desks. The boys used pens and pencils and even knives to draw stars and faces or to write their names on their desks; At last the school principal said: The next time anybody does such a thing,

he will have to pay five dollars, or he will receive a beating in front of the whole school".



When the young man came to the girl's house the next day, she opened the door herself. Imagine his surprise when before he could open his mouth she said: "I never want to see you or speak to you again!" and she closed the door in his face.
"Soon after that I had to go to my father and ask him to give me five dollars. I was honest enough to explain that I could agree to receive a beating instead, but he said: "No, I can't allow you to connect our name with such things. So I'll pay the five dollars. But you must suffer for what you have done. I'll give you the beating here at home".


2. A young man met a beautiful girl at a party and immediately fell in love with her. For days he thought of ways of showing her how much she meant to him. At last the opportunity came: he heard by chance that the next day the girl's twenty-first birthday. The young man at once ran to a flower shop. He bought twenty-one beautiful roses and asked the owner of the shop to send them to the girl's house the next morning. And he wrote a message: "Happy Birthday! I am sending you red roses - one for each year of your life!"


Several minutes later the inn-keeper appeared together with all the people who had been in the room. They were all smiling with satisfaction at the thought that they had proved the traveler was wrong. "Your horse refused to eat the fish, as I told you", the inn-keeper said proudly. "That's not important", the traveler said. "Put the fish on the table. When my clothes are dry, I'll eat it myself".


3. It was raining heavily when a traveller at last got to an inn. He was cold and wet, but there were so many people in the inn that he could not get near the fire. The traveller knew that the man around the fire would never move away from it if they did not have a very good reason for doing so. He decided that there was only one thing to do in this situation: in a loud voice he said to the inn-keeper: "Give my horse some fish to eat!" "But horses don't eat fish!" the inn -keeper protested. "Do as I tell you", the traveller insisted. "I'll pay you for the fish; it makes no difference to you who eats it or who refuses to eat it"


The shop-owner knew the young man quite well and he liked him. He knew he was a poor student. When the young man left the shop, the owner thought: "It is clear the flowers are for the girl he is going to marry. He'd like to send more roses but he hasn't enough money. I'll help him". And added nine more roses and put thirty roses instead of twenty-one into a nice box together with the young man's message.

"Soon he beat me, and then gave me the five dollars to take to school. But I decided that the beating did not hurt so much, and another beating at school wouldn't be worth. So I told them to give me a beating in front of the whole school and I kept the five dollars. And that was the first money I ever earned".


The inn-keeper took some fish and went out to the horse: all the people in the hall ran out to see what would happen when he gave the fish to the horse. The traveller took off his wet coat and sat down in front of the fire to warm himself.




Vocabulary:
to earn - заробляти

respect (a) - повага

to draw - малювати

school principal - директор

beating - порка

honest - чесний

to receive - отримувати

to suffer – страждати, терпіти

immediately - негайно

to fall in love with smb. – закохатись у когось


Завдання до тексту:
II. Дайте заголовки до цих трьох текстів:
III. Підготуйте переказ одного з трьох текстів:


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