(From "The Genius" by Th. Dreiser) The city of Chicago! - Miles and miles of dreary little houses; miles and miles of wooden blockpaved streets, with gas lampsand wooden walks for pedestrians. Long lines of telegraph poles; thousands upon thousands of cottages, factory plants..
As the train rolled city-ward, Eugene for the first time realized what a great city it was. He had never seen a really lurge factory plant, and here was one, and another, all dark and hard in the evening air. At last the train stopped, and Eugene got out.
People were hurrying to and pro. Engines were hissing; bells clanging. Eugene had no friends, but somehow he did not feel lonely.
Later in the evening, in a little room he had taken for two dollars a week, he opened the window and looked out. Bright lights were burning in store windows. These people hurrying - how their feet sounded - clap, clap, clap. And it was all like this. It was like this everywhere, a big wonderful city. It was nice to be here. He felt that now.
But he was soon disappointed. Underneath was struggle – Eugene soon realized this. He wanted to be an artist although he did not know how to begin. Meanwhile he had to work.
He tried the newspaper first, but critical workers frightened him. One art director did see something in his three or four sketches, but he happened to be in a bad mood, and did not want anybody. He simply said no, there was nothing.
After ten days Eugene had spent almost all his money. He was ready to work an a bakery, in dry goods store, in a candy store. At last he found a job; but he lost it after three months.
He walked about the city, wondering at the sights he saw. The were streets with splended houses such as Eugene had never seen before. For the first time in his life he saw at a distance girls and women who seemed wonderful to him: they looked so beautiful in their dresses; he saw young men hurrying themselves with an air of importance unknown to him. It made him see for the first time what difference there was between a beginner like him and those who were at the top.
During these days he was very lonely. At last after nearly a month, he got a place as a driver of a laundry, which seemed very good because it paid ten dollars a week. He sketched now and then when he was not very tired, but what he did seemed useless.
All the time he dreamed of great pictures. His laundry work took him into strange and new parts of the city, where he had never been hefore, and introduced him to types of people he had never met. Here was real colour and life. Many times he took a sheet of paper and tried to draw them, but he could not; he could only think of them.
Once there was an exhibition of some of the war pictures of Verestchagin, a great Russian painter. Eugene saw them one Sunday afternoon and was struck with their truth and force. He stood ann looked, wondering how such things could be done. Ever afterwards the name of Verestchagin was like a great call to his imagination. He began to think of entering the Art Institute. He could join a night class in drawing, he thought. His interest in art was becoming eager. He wanted to know all about it - to do something himself.
And so one day he called at the Art Institute and consulted the secretary. As she was explaining everything to him, he felt as if he stood in an open doorway and looked out upon a new world.
And one Monday evening in October, armed with several sheets paper, he began his work…
Завдання до тексту: I.Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх три. Знайдіть їх: 1. When Eugene Witla arrived in the city of Chicago, it didn't surprise him much,
because he had already seen many big cities.
2. He liked Chicago very much.
3. He hired ( зняв ) a little room for ten dollars a week.
4. His dream was to work as a driver and he easily found a job.
5. Eugene Witla walked about the city, wondering at the sights he saw, and feeling
6. He dreamed of painting magnificent pictures.
7. When Eugene began to work in the laundry his interest in painting ceased (
зменьшився ) and he stopped dreaming the carrier of an artist.
II. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з них дані два або три варіанта пояснень, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків головного героя прочитаного вами уривку оповідання. Випишіть номера тих варіантів пояснень, які ви вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту. Eugene was soon dissappointed at his life in Chicago... 1) because the city appeared to be a filthy an! gloomy place where he couldn't find
anything interesting to look at.
2) because he realized that in Chicago there was a great difference between poor
people like him and those who were at the top.
Eugene was ready to do any job.
1) because he studied at the Art Institute in the evening and had to earn money to
pay for his education.
2) because it was very difficult to find job which he really liked and wanted to do.
Eugene's interest in art became stronger....
1) when he saw magnificent pictures of Verestchagin.
2) when he started to draw sketches for one of the newspaper
Many times Eugene wanted to draw those people whom he met in the laundry, but
he couldn't… 1) because in those parts of the city where the laundry was situated he didn't see
real colour and real life.
2) because he had never met such types of people before and could only think of
them, twt could not draw.
Ill. Дайте відповідь на запитання 1. Where did Eugene Witla arrive?
2. Was he struck with the sights of Chicago?
3. Where did Eugene Witla live?
4. Where.did he try to find the work first?
5. Had Eugene Witla much money?
6. Where did he find the work at least?
7. What did Eugene Witla dream of?
8. What kind of exhibition did he see once?
9. Was his interest in art becoming eager
10. What did Eugene decide to do one Monday evening?
IV.Перекажіть зміст тексту: TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA
After A. Cronin One lovely day in Italy as we drove through the foothills of the Alps, the two boys stopped us on the outskirts of Verona. They were selling strawberries. My wife spoke to the boys, attracted by their brown skins, black hair and dark earnest eyes. She discovered that they were brothers, Nicola was thirteen; Jacopo was nearly twelve. Next morning in the public square there were our two young friends o f the previous afternoon. There, bent over shoe-shine boxes beside the fountain, they were doing a brisk business. They greeted us with friendly faces.
"I thought you picked fruit for living", I said. "We do many things, sir", Nicola answered seriously. "Often we show visitors different places of interest". "All right", I smiled, "you take us along".
In the week that followed we saw them frequently, for they proved extremely useful to us. If we wanted a special brand of tooth paute, or seats for the opera, Nicola and Jacopo could be relied upon to satisfy our needs.
What struck one most was their willingness to work. Once when I went over to the fountain to have my shoes shined, I said: "Nicola, the way you and Jacopo work, you must earn quite a bit. Tell me, what do you do with your money?" He coloured deeply under his sunburn, then grew pale.
"Yes, you are right. We should greatly like to have an education, sir. But at present we have other plans".
"Well", I said, "we are leaving on Monday. Is anything I can do for you before we go?"
Nicola shook his head, but suddenly Jacopo said:
"Every Sunday we make a visit to the country. Usually we use bicycles. But tomorrow, since you are so kind, you might send us in your car". I agreed to drive them myself. Driving out of Verona, I imagined that our destination would
be some humble dwelling. Bu t we drew up at a large red-roofed villa surrounded by a high stone wall. It was a hospital.
"We shall not be long, sir". The boys disapeared beyond the corner of the wall. I followed them and rang the bell. A pleasant-looking woman appeared and I saw that she was a nurse. "I just brought two boys here".
"Ah, yes, Nicola and Jacopo". We went upstairs. At the door of the room the nurse paused and with a smile invited me to look through the glass partition.
The two boys were sitting at the bedside of a girl about twenty.It was easily to see that they were her brothers. The nurse told me the story of two friends. Their father, a well-known singer at la Scala had been killed in a midnight car smash. He had left the children nothing but a mass of debts. The three children were thrown upon the street. The two boys especially despite their extreme youth refused to let poverty break their spirit. They faced it with dignity and courage.
"I can't tell you how they were doing when their sister fall sick...seriously. She is suffering from tuberculosis. They brough her here, persuaded us to take her into the hospital. In the twelve months she had made good progress. There is even a hope that one day she will walk ... and sing ... again. Every week Lucia's brothers make their payment". She added simply:
"I don't know what they do, I do not ask. But whatever it is, I know they do it well".
I left the hospital and waited outside until the boys rejoined me, then drove them back to the city. They sat beside me not speaking. For my part I did not say a word. I knew they would prefer to keep their secret. Next morning before we left for Venice I sent an envelope with some money to the hospita to be delivered to them. On it I wrote simply this: "For two gentlemen of Verona".
Завдання до тексту: I.Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх три. Знайдіть їх:
1) The author of the story first met the two boys, Nicola and Jacopo, when they were selling strawberries.
2) The boys picked berries only for pleasure.
3) The author and his wife liked the boys very much and the boys helped them in
5) Though their father was alive he was a very poor man and that's why the boys
had to work.
6) The boy's sister was seriously ill and Nicola and Jacopo had to earn money to
pay for her treatment.
7) The boys told the author about their sister's illness and thanked him for the
money he gave them.
8) The boys were eager to study, but they couldn't because their father died and left
them only debts.
9) Nicola and Jacopo were very much devoted to their sister Lucia.
II. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з речень надані два або три пояснення, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків героїв роману. Випишіть номера тих варіантів, які ви вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту.
Every Sunday the boys made a visit to the country. 1) In order to have a rest there.
2) In order to visit their sick sister.
3) In order to pick strawberries.
The boys had to sell strawberries. 1) Because they had plenty of berries in their own garden.
2) Because they wanted to earn money.
The author and his wife saw the two boys frequently during their stay in Verona.
1) because the boys agreed to help them and show to them all the places of interest
2) because the boys had a lot of time to spare and liked to visit places of interest.
The author called the boys "gentlemen of Verora" 1) because they were always very nicely dressed and looked like real gentlemen.
2) because the boys were very polite and had very good manners.
3) bacause the boys proved to be kind hearted, modest and honest.
The author sent some money to the hospital.
1) because he had to pay for his wife's treatment.
2) because his daughter Lucia was seriously ill and was kept in the hospital
3) because he wanted to help Nicola and Jacopo.
III. Які варіанти перекладу наступних речень ви вважаєте вірними? Випишіть їхні номери.
The boys proved extremely useful to us. 1) Хлопці виявились надзвичайно корисними.
2) Хлопці довели нам, що вони насправді можуть бути надзвичайно
3) Хлопці дуже старалися довести, що можуть бути надзвичайно корисними
Nicola and Jacopo could be relied upon to satisfy our need.
1) Нікола та Джакопо змогли допомогти нам вдовольнити наші потреби.
2) Нікола та Джакопо прийняли на себе піклування по задоволенню наших
3) На Ніколу та Джакопо можна було покластись по виконанню наших
They refused to let poverty break their spirit. 1) Вони відмовились від дозволу мешкати в будівлі для бідняків.
2) Вони відмовились від надання коштів для бідних.
3) Вони не дозволили бідності зломити їхній дух.
For my part, I didn't say a word. 1) Я зі свого боку не вимовив й слова.
2) Я від свого ім'я не сказав жлдного слова.
3) Я не вимовий й слова в своє оправдання.
IV. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1. Where were Cronin and his wife travelling?
2. Who stopped them on the outskirts of Verona?
3. The boys were selling strawberries, weren't they?
4. What were the boys doing next day when the author met them again?
5. What kind of jobs did the boys do?
6. What favour did the boys ask of the author?
7. What was the boys' secret?
8. Why did the boys have to work so much?
9. Why does the author consider them to be real gentlemen?
V. Перекажіть зміст тексту, використовуючи запитання попередньої вправи.
POSTAL SERVICE IN THE PAST "I have received a letter..." We never think that the letter came to us in many trains, that it flew through the air, over mountains and seas, that it passed through the hands of many people. It is so simple to send letters today that people never remember that it was once a very difficult and special task.
In ancient times "letters" were brought by runners - men who could run fast and far - and the "letters" they carried were not written, but were told to the receiver. Postmen in those days had to have a good memory, and they had to be honest. This was especially important: the "letter" often had important secrets in it, it had to reach only the ears of the receiver and without any change in it. Post runners were met everywhere with respect and honour. Nobody was allowed to stop them or to do anything against them. History has many stories about post runners and descriptions of what they did.
One of them, named Phidippides, ran 152 miles in two days. He carried the news that the persians had attacked Athens; the city sent him to Macedonia to ask for help. When he died a monument was put up in his memory.
Indian post runners in ancient Peru had postal stations every five kilometres. Four men lived in each station during peace time, eight men in war time. Half of them were on duty during the day, the other half during the night. As soon as the men on duty saw smoke from the nearest station, they made a fire, whose smoke could be seen by the next station. The runner told the letter to the next runner as they ran, without stopping for a minute. In this way, news was carried from one postal station to the next in the shortest possible time.
Post runners in ancient China had postal stations of the same kind; and the runner on duty got ready to start as soon as he heard the little bells tied to the clothes of his comrade running from the nearest station.
Traditions connected with the postal service were different in different countries. In Mexico, for example, after a battle the people knew by the runner's clothes whether the message he was carrying to the capital was good or bad. If he had on a white belt and if his long hair was tied with a red ribbon it meant that the
battle had been won; if he came from the battle-field with his hair untied, he carried the news that the battle had been lost.
Post runners sometimes had other duties besides carrying letters. Indian post runners in Mexico, where the postal service was very fast, were sometimes used to send - fish! Sea fish for the king's table. The capital was four hundred kilometres from the sea.
In the great days of Rome, carrier pigeons as letter carriers were well known. When a rich man went to the theatre, he took a carrier pigeon with him. If he wanted to tell his servants at home to do something, he sent the pigeon with a letter tied to its foot. The pigeon was taught to return to its master in the theatre;
perhaps he needed it to send another letter home. The heavy bag of the postman did not appear for a long time, even after postmen began to carry written letters. At first the letters were tied to a stick, which could be used to fight the dogs that attacked them wherever they went. In China, postmen had pass a special "night" examination, to show that they were brave enough not be frightened by night sounds or animals. Only the bravest and strongest were allowed to carry the postman's bell.
In places in the far north, postmen moved from house to house on skis; and where there were many lakes, which were free of ice summer, they travelled from place to place in boats. In the part of France called Vendee, a postman had to walk on stilts through the marshes and the high grass; without stilts a postman here was no better than a man without arms.
The postal service grew very slowly in all countries. There were no letter-boxes in Moscow a hundred years ago. When a person wanted to send a letter, he took it to a shop, where he knew that letters were taken for the city post-office. Postmen came to these shops three times a day to take the letters that had been left there. The postmen looked like soldiers: they had black hats and carried swords. If the letter was addressed to a person in another city, it sometimes took weeks to get to the receiver; because the roads were very bad, especially in rainy weather and in spring.
The postal service in Russia improved very slowly. Before the October Revolution there were no letter-boxes and no postmen in country places. People who lived in such places had to go to the post-office in the nearest town whenever they had a letter to send. Sometimes months passed before these people received the news of important things that had happened in other parts of the country - or even a hundred kilometres away.
The world today has not become smaller, but the postal service, the work of thousands of postal workers, brings the farthest cities and the smallest country places to our doors.
Завдання до тексту: I.Які з наступних тверджень відповідають змісту тексту. Випишіть їх: 1. People used the smoke of fires to send messages at night.
2. People used the smoke of fires to send messages during the morning or
3. The runners in China had very heavy bells, so that everybody could bear that
they were coming.
4. Postmen in old times had to be honest; that was vory important.
5. Anybody, honest or not, could be a postman in old times.
6. A postman had to be young and strong. This was the main thing.
7. It was not enough to be young and strong to be a postman; he had to be brave
8. Post runners never had other duties besides carrying letters.
9. The heavy bag of the postman appeared many years ago and at first it was tied to
a stick which could be used to fight the dogs.
10. In the far north a postman had to walk on stilts through the lakes which were free of ice in summer.
Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з цих речень надані два варіанти пояснень, що розкривають цілі та мотивації вчинків героїв. Випишіть ті варіанти, які вважаєте відповідними змісту.
Postmen in those days had to have a good memory. 1. In order to remember the way to the next post station.
2. In order to tell the letter to the receiver without any change in it.
Indian post runners in Mexico were sometimes used to send, sea fish for the king's table. 3. Because Indians were keen fishermen.
4. Because they could run fast and far and the capital was four hundred kilometres
from the sea.
In ancient times nobody was allowed to do anything against post runners. 5. Because they were young, strong and had big sticks.
6. Because they were honourable.
When a rich man went to the theatre, he took a carrier pigeons with him. 7. In order to send pigeon home if be wanted to tell his servants to do something.
8. In order to show that he is a richman.
Before the October Revolution there, were no letter-boxes and no postmen in country places.
9. Because the postal service in Russia improved very slowly.
10. Because the people who lived in such places could neither read nor write.
III. Які варіанти перекладу наступних речень ви вважаєте вірними. Випишіть їх. Postmen in those days had to have a good memory. 1. Поштарі тоді мали добру пам'ять.
2. Поштарі тоді повинні були мати добру пам'ять.
... the runner on duty got ready to start as soon as he heard the little bells tied to the clothes of his comrade.. 3. Черговий бігун був готовий бігти так скоро, як і його товариш.
4. почувши звук дзіночків, що були прив'язані до одежи товариша, бігун вже був напоготові до старту.
The runner told tbe letter to the next runner as they ran, without stopping for a minute. 5. Бігун переказував лист іншому бігуну по ходу, не зупиняючись ні на мить.
6. … як тільки прибігав, не втрачав ні хвилини.
In Mexico the people knew by the runner's clothes whether the message he was carrying to the capital was good or bad. 7. В мексиці бігуни одягали одежу в залежності того, добра була погода в столиці чи ні.
8. В Мексиці за одягом бігуна люди взнавали про те, яку звістку несе бігун в столицю – добру чи погану.
Atfirst the written letters were tied to a stick. 9. Перші листи прив'язували до тростини.
10. Вперше листи прив'язували до тростини.
(Retold from the story by 0. Henry) Miss Martha was forty years old, and she wasn't married. She had a good heart and two thousand dollars in the bank: many women marry who have less.
Martha wasn't married, but she always showed a smiling face to the people who came every day to buy bread in her little bakery. She sold fresh bread and stale bread. Fresh bread cost five cents a loaf and stale bread cost five cents for two loaves; "two for five", as she said to the middle-aged man she had begun to be interested in.
He came to the bakery two or three times a week. He had light brown hair arid blue eyes. His clothes were not new, but always very clean. He always bought two loaves of stale bread, never fresh, and Miss Martha decided that he was very poor. He had long, very white hands; she could see that he wasn't a workman. "Perhaps he is an artist", she thought, "a poor artist, living in a cold dark room and painting beautiful pictures". She often thought of him when she sat down to her dinner of meat and vegetables, and bread and butter and tea and jam. She thought of him sitting alone in his cold dark corner, eating his dry, stale bread. How sorry she was that she could not invite him to have dinner with her! (We have told you that Miss Martha had a good Heart). Or perhaps he wasn't an artist. Perhaps he couldn't find any work and walked the streets all day long, looking for something to do. That was even worse. Miss Martha was ready to cry whenever she thought of it. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. But how? He never spoke to her, except to ask for two loaves of stale bread. At last she thought of a plan which, she hoped, would not only help her to discover his profession, but would let her begin a conversation with him.
In her room behind the shop, Miss Martha had a painting which she always liked to look at? It was a painting of a wonderful white palace on an island in a lake. There was a little boat on the blue water of the lake; and in the boat lay a beautiful girl, with one hand in the water. Miss Martha brought the painting from
her room and put it on the wall just behind the place where she kept the loaves of bread.
The next day the man came in, and said, as usual, "Two loaves of stale bread, please". As Miss Martha turned to him with the loaves of bread, her heart began to beat more quickly. She saw that he was looking at her picture: there was even a smile on his face.
"You have a fine picture here, madam", he said as she handed him the bread.
"I am glad you think so", Miss Martha answered. "It's my favourite picture". She turned and looked at the picture. "I admire art so much", she said, "and ..." she was going to say, "and artists", but she stopped: it was too early to say that, "... and paintings", she finished instead. "Do you think it is a good picture?"
The man looked at the picture again, this time more carefully, then said: "Yes, the picture isn't bad, not bad at all. But I'm afraid the proportions of the palace aren't quite right". He took the bread without saying anything else and left the shop.
Hiss Martha went to the window and looked after him. How nice he was! How his blue eyes shone behind his eyeglasses! How quickly he saw that the proportions in the picture were wrong! She was sure now that he was an artist. An artist - and living on stale bread! His life was so hard: it could be so much easier with her two thousand dollars in the bank, with her bakery, with her heart that understood... but she stopped herself. These were day-dreams, she had no right to think such things.
Often now, when he came, he stopped to talk a few minutes to Miss Martha. He seemed to like her smile, the sound of her voice, her conversation. But he continued to buy only stale bread. Hever a cake, never a loaf of fresh bread. He looked thinner, she thought, and unhappy. How she wanted to put something good into the parcel together with his stale bread! But she hadn't enough courage for that. She knew how proud artists were, how they hated gifts in any form.
Miss Martha began to wear her silk blouse in the shop. She was wearing it one day when her artist came in and asked, as usual, for two loaves of stale bread. Miss Martha had just turned to the shelf to get the loaves, when there was a great noise in the street, and fire-engines began to pass the house. The artist ran to the door to look, and at that moment the great idea came to Miss Martha's mind.
On the lower shelf there was a big piece of fresh butter that she had bought that morning. Hiss Martha took a knife, made a hole in each loaf of bread and put a big piece of butter in it. When the artist turned round, she had already made a paper parcel with the two loaves in it. When the artist had left after a very pleasant little conversation, Miss Martha smiled to herself, but her heart was beating faster than usual. She hoped the artist would not be angry when he discovered the butter. But no, how could he be angry about such a small thing? Nobody thought of butter as a gift!
She thought of what was happening in the artist's room. It was lunch time, her artist had stopped, painting and was looking at his beautiful picture, in which the proportions were quite right. Soon he would sit down to his cup of tea and dry bread. He would break one of the loaves - ah! - would he think as he ate, of the hand that had put the butter into that loaf? Would he...? The bell over the shop door rang loudly and two men came in. One of them was a young man she had never seen before. The other was her artist.
Завдання до тексту: I.Які з наступних тверджень не відповідають змісту тексту. Випишіть їх: 1. Miss Martha was married, but in spite of it she was interested in the middle-aged man who came to her bakery two or three times a week.
2. As Miss Martha had a good heart she invited "an artist" to have a dinner with her.
3. He always bought stale bread and Martha decided that he was very poor.
4. She decided to discover his profession.
5. She asked him about it (his profession).
6. Once Miss Martha put a big piece of butter in a loaf of bread.
7. She was afraid "the artist" would be angry when he discovered the butter.
8. The "artist" returned the gift to Miss Martha.
II. Закінчіть речення, скориставшись варіантами, що дані праворуч.
1. Miss Martha was... a good heart and two
thousands dollars in
2. She always showed ... stale bread.
3. She thought that the
middle-aged man was… spoke to her.
4. He always bought ... .. would help her to
begin a conversation
with the middle-aged
5. He never ... ..forty years old.
6. She thought of a plan, which ... an artist.
7. Miss Martha had ... ... a smiling face to the
people who bought
bread i n her bakery.
II. Виберіть вірну відповідь на наступні запитання.
1. What did Martha do in the bakery?
a) she bought fresh bread.
b) she sold fresh and stale bread.
c) she sold only fresh bread.
2. Who came to the bakery two or three times a week?
a) an artist.
b) a workman.
c) an architect.
3. Why did Martha begin to wear her silk blouse?
a) because her brown one was too old.
b) in order to be to the artist's liking.
4. Why did she hope "the artist" would not be angry, when he discovered the butter?
a) she thought it was impossible to be angry about such a little thing.
b) she thought he was very poor and never had sufficient to eat
5. Why did he buy only stale bread?