Інститут міжнародних відносин Київського національного університету імені Тараса Шевченка


– Vol.9, №2. – P. 10–18. 102 Nill



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Vol.9, №2. – P. 10–18.

102 Nill K.A., Redick T.P., Drew N.L. Precautionary priority in approving imports of genetically improved commodity crops // Biotechnology Law Report. – 2000. – Vol.19, №5. – P. 546–559.

103 McGarity T. and Hansen P. – P. 48.

104 Lehmann V. From Rio to Johannesburg and beyond: globalizing precaution for genetically modified organisms. – Report for the Heinrich Böll Foundation. – Washington, 2002. – P. 6.

105 Precaution in international sustainable development law. – A CISDL legal brief, 2002. www.cisdl.org/pdf/brief_precaution.pdf

106 Cooney R. The precautionary principle in biodiversity conservation and natural resource management: an issues paper for policy-makers, researchers and practitioners. – IUCN Policy and Global Change Series No.2. – IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 2004. – P. 11.

107 Декларация Рио-де-Жанейро по окружающей среде и развитию, 14 июня 1992 г. // Действующее международное право. – Т. 3. – С. 687–692.

108 Cooney R. – P. 7.

109 Конвенція про охорону біологічного різноманіття, ч.10 преамбули.

110 Картахенський протокол по біобезпеці, ст.ст. 10(6) і 11(8).

111 Marceau G. The precautionary principle and WTO law // Precaution from Rio to Johannesburg: proceedings of a Geneva Environment Network roundtable. www.environmenthouse.ch/Roundtables/pp%20report/pp%20report%20e.pdf; Precaution in international sustainable development law. – A CISDL legal brief, 2002. www.cisdl.org/pdf/brief_precaution.pdf; Cooney R. – P. 12.

112 Van Dyke J.M. The evolution and international acceptance of the precautionary principle // Caron D.D., Scheiber H. (eds.) Bringing new law to ocean waters. – The Netherlands, Koninklijke Brill N.V., 2004. – P. 357–379.

113 Sands Ph. International courts and the precautionary principles // Precaution from Rio to Johannesburg: proceedings of a Geneva Environment Network roundtable. www.environmenthouse.ch/Roundtables/pp%20report/pp%20report%20e.pdf

114  Van Dyke J.M. – P. 371–372.

115 Ibid. – P. 373.

116 Sands Ph. International courts and the precautionary principles // Precaution from Rio to Johannesburg: proceedings of a Geneva Environment Network roundtable. www.environmenthouse.ch/Roundtables/pp%20report/pp%20report%20e.pdf

117 Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle, COM (2000) 1 final. – Brussels, 2 February 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/health_consumer/library/pub/pub07_en.pdf

118 Cправа C-180/96 United Kingdom v. Commission of the European Communities, справа T-70/99 Alpharma Inc. v. Council of the European Union, справа C-6/99 Association Greenpeace France and Others v. Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la Peche and Others, справа C-236/01 Monsanto Agricoltura Italia SpA and Others v. Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri and Others, справа T-219/95 Danielsson v. Commission, справа C-341/95 Gianni Bettati v. Safety Hi-Tech Srl.

119 Scott J. European regulation of GMOs and the WTO // Columbia Journal of European Law. – 2003. – Vol.9, №2. – Р. 213–239.

120 Glowka L. – P. 79.

121 International Plant Protection Convention, Revised text approved by the FAO Conference // Report of the 29-th session. – FAO: Rome. – 1997. www.fao.org/Legal/treaties/004t2-e.htm

122 International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2001) // Report of the 31-st session of the Conference of FAO. – FAO: Rome. – 2001. www.fao.org/Legal/treaties/033t-e.htm

123 Preliminary Draft International Code of conduct for plant biotechnology as it affects the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources // Towards a Code of conduct for plant biotechnology as it affects the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Commission on genetic resources for food and agriculture, 9-th regular session. – Rome, 14–18 October 2002. – Р. 9–22.

124 Кодекс добровольно принимаемых правил для интродукции (выпуска) организмов в окружающую среду, 1991 г. // Микробиология. – 1993. – Т. 62, Вып.2. – С. 367–374.

125 UNEP International Technical Guidelines for Safety in Biotechnology, 1995. – UNEP: Nairobi, 1996. – 31 p.

126 Working principles for risk analysis for application in the framework of the Codex Alimentarius. Alinorm 03/41 // Report of the 26-th session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. – Rome, 30 June – 7 July 2003. – Р. 125–129.

127 Jhamtani H. The socio-economic aspects of genetically modified organisms and the need for applying precautionary principles. – 2000. www.twnside.org.sg/title/aspects.htm

128 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (1995). – FAO: Rome, 1995. – 41 p.

129 Glowka L. – P. 93.

130 Nap J.-P., Metz P.L.J., Escaler M. and Conner A.J. The release of genetically modified crops into the environment. Part I. Overview of current status and regulation // The Plant Journal. – 2003. – Vol.33, Issue 1. – Р. 11.

131 Regulation No.1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the traceability and labeling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC, 22 September 2003 // Official Journal. – 2003. – L 268. – Р.24-28.

132 Regulation No.1946/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms, 15 July 2003 // Official Journal. – 2003. – L 287. – Р. 1–10.

133 Glowka L. – P. 8.

134 The EU– US Biotechnology Consultative Forum Final Report. – Washington: EU-US Summit, 18 December 2000. http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/us/biotech/report.pdf

135 McGarity T. and Hansen P. – P. 44.

136 Струтинська-Струк Л.В. Міжнародно-правове регулювання поводження із генетично модифікованими організмами // Науковий вісник Чернівецького університету: Збірник наукових праць. Правознавство. – 2002. – Вип.131. – С. 58–61.

137 Там же.

138 Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (1998), Economic Commission for Europe. – New York; Geneva: UN, 1999. – 71 p.

139 Дудов В.И., Голиков А.Г., Потехин О.Е., Красовский О.А. Правовые вопросы межграничного перемещения генетически измененных живых организмов // Биотехнология. – 1999. – №6. – С. 84.

140 Convention on civil liability for damage resulting from activities dangerous to the environment, 21 June 1993, Lugano // European Treaty Series. – 1993. – №.150. – P. 1–16.

141 Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, 21 April 2004 // Official Journal. – 2004. – L 143. – P. 56–75.

142 Report of the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. – UNEP/CBD/BS/COP-MOP/1/15. – 14 April 2004. – P. 21–22.

143 Identification of issues relating to liability and redress for damage resulting from the transboundary movement of living modified organisms: Note by the Executive Secretary. – Workshop on liability and redress in the context of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. – UNEP/CBD/BS/WS-L&R/1/2. – 4 November 2002. – P. 4–14; Report of the Open-ended Ad Hoc Working group of legal and technical experts on liability and redress under the Cartagena protocol on biosafety. – UNEP/CBD/BS/COP-MOP/2/11. – 27 May 2005. – P. 10–19.

144 Nijar G.S. Developing liability and redress regime under the Cartagenа protocol on biosafety. - Third World Network. www.twnside.org.sg/title/blp.pdf

145 Там же.

146 Draft articles on рrevention of transboundary harm from hazardous activities, Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its 53rd session, November 2001 // UN General Assembly Official Records, 56th session. – Supplement No.10. – Chp.V.E.1. – Р. 370–377.

147 Appleton A.E. The labeling of GMO products pursuant to international trade rules // N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal. – 1999/2000. – Vol.8, Issue 3. – Р. 567–568.

148 McGarity T. and Hansen P. – P. 51.

149 Golan E. Biotech food labeling // Golan E., Kuchler F. and L. Mitchel. Economics of food labeling. Agricultural Economic Report No. 793. – Washington: Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2000. – Р. 33–37.

150 Report of the Open-ended technical expert group on identification requirements of living modified organisms intended for food or feed, or for processing. – UNEP/CBD/BS/COP-MOP/2/10. – 30 March 2005. – P. 7.

151 Proposed Draft Guidelines for the labeling of food and food ingredients obtained through certain techniques of genetic modification/genetic engineering. Alinorm 03/22 // Report of the thirtieth session of the Codex Committee on Food Labeling. – Halifax, 6–10 May 2002. – Р. 43–46.

152 Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients, 27 January 1997 // Official Journal. – 1997. – L 043. – Р. 1–6.

153 Council Regulation (EC) No.1139/98 concerning thе compulsory indication of the labelling of certain foodstuffs produced from genetically modified organisms of particulars other than those provided for in Directive 79/112/EEC // Official Journal. – 1998. – L 159. – Р.4–7.

154 Commission Recommendation on guidelines for the development of national strategies and best practices to ensure the co-existence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming, 23 July 2003 // Official Journal. – 2003. – L 189. – Р. 36–47.

155 Nap J.–P. et al. – P. 11.

156 MacKenzie R., Francescon S. The regulation of genetically modified foods in the European Union: An overview // N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal. – 1999/2000. – Vol.8, Issue 3. – Р. 542.

157 Council Directive 90/220/EEC of 23 April 1990 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms // Official Journal. – 1990. – L 117. – P. 15–27.

158 “Statement of Policy: Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties” // Federal Register. – May 29, 1992. – Vol.57, №104. – Р. 22984–23005.

159 Webber G.D. Regulation of genetically engineered organisms and products. – Biotechnology Information Series, Iowa University, 1999. http://aphisweb.aphis.usda.gov/bbep/bp/overview.html

160 Guidance for industry: Voluntary labeling indicating whether foods have or have not been developed using bioengineering, Draft Guidance. – January 2001. www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/biolabgu.html

161 Zarrilli S. – P. 14.

162 Conko G. Eat, drink and be marry: Why mandatory biotech food labeling is unnecessary. – Oregon: Featured Publication, Cascade Policy Institute, 2002. www.cascadepolicy.org/pdf/env/I_120.pdf

163 McGarity T. and Hansen P. – P. 97.

164 Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures, 15 April 1994 // Annex 1A to WTO Agreement, GATT Secretariat, Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts (1994). – Р. 69–83.

165 WTO, Japan – Measures affecting the importation of apples // Report of the Appellate Body: WT/DS245/AB/R. – 26 November 2003. – P. 67.

166 Chаrnovitz S. The supervision of health and biosafety regulations by world trade rules // Tulane Environmental Law Journal. – 2000. – Vol.13, №2. – Р. 271–302.

167 Understanding on rules and procedures governing the settlement of disputes, 15 April 1994 // Annex 2 to WTO Agreement, GATT Secretariat, Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts (1994). – Р. 353–377.

168 Zarrilli S. – P. 22.

169 Meyer H. The Cartagena Protocol on biosafety // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 2000. – №43. – P. 2–7.

170 Картахенський протокол по біобезпеці, ч.11, 12 преамбули.

171 Raghavan Ch. Reconciling Biosafety Protocol and WTO by interpretation. – Third World Network. www.twnside.org.sg/title/reconcile.htm

172 Baily R. The looming trade war over plant biotechnology // Trade Policy Analysis. – August 1, 2002. – №18. www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-018.pdf

173 WTO, EC Measures concerning meat and meat products (hormones) // Report of the Appelate Body: WT/DS26/AB/R, WT/DS48/AB/R. – 16 January 1998. – P. 6–7.

174 Ibid. – P. 17.

175 Ibid. – P. 23.

176 Ibid. – P. 45.

177 WTO, Japan – Measures affecting agricultural products // Report of the Appellate Body: WT/DS76/AB/R. – 22 February 1999. – P. 23–24.

178 Суперечки про ГМО тривають // Євробюлетень. Інформаційний бюлетень представництва Європейської Комісії в Україні. – Вересень, 2003. – С. 7–8.

179 WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First submission of the United States: WT/DS291. – 21 April 2004. – P. 28–29.

180 WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First written submission by the European Communities: WT/DS291, 292 and 293. – 17 May 2004. – P. 139–141.

181 Winham G. International regime conflict in trade and environment: the Biosafety protocol and the WTO // World Trade Review. – 2003. – Vol.2, №2. – P. 1–24.

182 Oliva M. J. Science and precaution in EC – Biotech: a brief analysis of the first US submission. – A Center for international environmental law issue brief. www.ciel.org/Publications/EC_Biotech_05May05.pdf

183 WTO, European Communities – Trade description of sardines // Report of the Panel: WT/DS231/R. – 29 May 2002. – P. 59.

184 WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting asbestos and asbestos-containing products // Report of the Appellate Body: WT/DS135/AB/R. – 12 March 2001. – P. 27–30.

185 Anderson K, Nielsen Ch.P. GMOs, food safety and the environment: What role for trade policy and the WTO? Policy Discussion Paper No.34. – Center for International Economic Studies, September 2000. http://www.adelaide.edu.au/cies/0034.pdf.

186 Berky J.O. Implications of Codex standards for the regulation of genetically modified food// ASIL Insights. – September, 2000. www.asil.org/insights/insight51.htm.

187 Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures. – Р. 69–83; WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First submission of the United States. – 72 p.; WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First written submission by the European Communities. – 210 p.

188 WTO, Response from the European Commission to the comments submitted by WTO members: Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on genetically modified food and feed – COM (2001) 425 final, Submission by the European Commission // G/SPS/GEN/337, G/TBT/W/179. – 26 July 2002. – P. 22.

189 Agreement on technical barriers to trade, 15 April 1994 // Annex 1A to WTO Agreement, GATT Secretariat, Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts (1994). – Р. 117–137; WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First written submission of Canada: WT/DS292. – 21 April 2004. – 205 p.; WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – Second Oral Statement of the Argentine Republic: WT/DS291/292/293. – 21–22 February 2005. www.genewatch.org/WTO/Submissions/Argentina/part1fin.pdf; www.genewatch.org/WTO/Submissions/Argentina/part2fin.pdf

190 General Agreement on tariffs and trade, 30 October 1947. – Geneva, 1986. – 97 p.

191 WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting asbestos and asbestos-containing products. – P. 43.

192 WTO, European Communities – Measures affecting the approval and marketing of biotech products. – First written submission by the European Communities. – P. 159–161.

193 Ibid. – P. 200.

194 WTO, Response to the comments from Argentina, Submission by the European Commission. – G/SPS/GEN/405. – 19 June 2003. – P. 8.

195 WTO, Response from the European Commission to the comments submitted by WTO members ... – P. 23–24.

196 Ibid. – P. 18.

197 Zarrilli S. – P. 2.

198 Chаrnovitz S. – Р. 271–302.

199 Fowler C. Establishing the scope of a Multilateral System for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture: Implications of crop exclusions // Biopolicy Journal. – 2000. – Vol.3. – Paper 2. http://www.bioline.org.br/request?py00002

200 Mitchel L. Biotechnology and food security // Agriculture Information Bulletin. – June 2001. – No.765-11. http://jan.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/general/aib/aib765-11.pdf

201 Pardey P., Wright B. and Nottenburg C. Are intellectual property rights stifling agricultural biotechnology in developing countries? IFPRI Annual Report, 2000–2001. – Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2001. www.ifpri.org/pubs/books/ar2000/ar2000_essay02.htm

202 Agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS), 15 April 1994 // Annex 1C to WTO Agreement, GATT Secretariat, Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts (1994). – Р. 319–351.

203 Там же.

204 Blakeney M., Cohen J.I. and Crespi S. Intellectual property rights and agricultural biotechnology // Cohen J.I. (Ed.). Managing agricultural biotechnology: Addressing research program needs and policy implications. – The Hague: ISNAR Biotechnology Service and New York: CABI Publishing, 1999. – Р. 214–215.

205 Murphy S.D. Biotechnology and International Law // Harvard International Law Journal. – 2001. – Vol.41, №1. – Р. 47–139.

206 якщо спеціально не застережено, „вид” і „род” вживаються як рівнозначні терміни, як це визначено в ст.1 та ст.4 Міжнародної конвенції з охорони нових сортів рослин у редакціях 1991 та 1978 років відповідно.

207 Wendt J., and Izquierdo J. Biotechnology and development: A balance between IPR-protection and benefit-sharing // Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. – 2001. – Vol.4, №3. http://ejb.ucv.cl/content/vol4/issue3/issues/01/index.html

208 Alam G. TRIPS, biotechnology and global competition. – Jaipur: Consumer Unity and Trust Society. – 1998. – Briefing Paper No.2. http://cuts.org/1998-2.htm#Development%200f%20Agricultural

209 Міжнародна конвенція по охороні нових сортів рослин (02.12.1961), переглянута в Женеві 10.11.1972 та 23.10.1978. http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/cgi-bin/laws/main.cgi. Пошук за реквізитами. Документ 995_856, редакція від 02.06.1995.

210 International convention for the protection of new varieties of plants (02.12.1961), as revised at Geneva on 10.11.1972, 23.10.1978 and 19.03.1991. www.upov.int/en/publications/conventions/1991/act1991.htm

211 Там же.

212 Zarrilli S. – Р. 30–31.

213 Murphy S.D. – P. 101.

214 WTO, Review of article 27.3(b) of the TRIPS agreement, and the relationship between the TRIPS agreement and the Convention on biological diversity (CBD) and the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore: Communication from the European Communities and their member states. – IP/C/W/383. – 17 October 2002. – P. 1, 2, 5, 8.

215 Correa C. Review of the TRIPS Agreement: Fostering the transfer of technology to developing countries. – Penang: Third World Network, 2001. www.twnside.org.sg/title/foster.htm

216 Balakrishna P. The need for a “TRIPS PLUS” Regime // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 1998. – №36. – P. 8.

217 WTO, Review of article 27.3(b) of the TRIPS agreement … – P. 2, 11.

218 Summary Report by the UNCTAD Secretariat, Panel on legal and regulatory issues in biotechnology. – Switzerland: Commission on Science and Technology for Development, 2001. – Р. 31.

219 Nijar G. Community intellectual rights protect indigenous knowledge // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 1998. – №36. – P. 11–12.; Louwaars N. Sui generis rights: from opposing to complementary approaches // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 1998. – №36. – P. 13–16.

220 Pachico D. Implementing farmer’s rights in genetic resources: approaches to benefit sharing // Biopolicy Journal. – 2001. – Vol.4. – Paper 1. www.bioline.org.br/request?py01001

221 колекції генетичних ресурсів поза їхніми природними місцями існування.

222 Fowler C. The status of public and proprietary germplasm and Information: An assessment of recent developments at FAO // IP Strategy Today. – 2003. – №7. – P. 4.

223 Krattiger A.F. Public-private partnerships for efficient proprietary biotech management and transfer, and increased private sector investments. A briefings paper with six proposals commissioned by UNIDO // IP Strategy Today. – 2002. – №4. – Р. 6.

224 Convention on the grant of european patents (European Patent Convention), 5 October 1973. – 11-th ed. – European Patent Office. – July 2002. – 504 p.

225 Recommendation 1425 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on biotechnology and intellectual property, 23 September 1999 // Official Gazette. – September 1999. – No. VI/99. http://assembly.coe.int/Mainf.asp?link=http%3A%2F%2Fassembly.coe.int%2FDocuments%2FAdoptedText%2Fta99%2FEREC1425.htm

226 Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, 6 July 1998 // Official Journal. – 1998. – L 213. – Р. 13–21.

227 Leskien D. The European Patent Directive on biotechnology // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 1998. – №36. – P. 16–19.

228 Judgment of the Court of 9 October 2001 in Case C-377/98: Kingdom of the Netherlands v. European Parliament and Council of the European Union. Annulment of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions // European Court reports. – 2001. – Р. I – 07079.

229 Ермеев В.Н., Иванов В.Н. Морская биотехнология // Экология моря: Сб. науч. тр. – 2001. – Вып. 57. – С. 98–102.

230 Gorina-Ysern M. Legal issues raised by profitable biotechnology development through marine scientific research // ASIL Insights. – September 2003. www.asil.org/insights/insight116.htm

231 Конвенция Организации Объединенных Наций по морскому праву, 10 декабря 1982 г. // Действующее международное право. – Т. 3. – С. 322–474.

232 Visser B., Meer I., Louwaars N., Beekwilder J. and Eato D. The impact of “terminator” technology // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 2001. – №48. – Р. 9–12.

233 Kesan J.P. Intellectual property protection and agricultural biotechnology: A multidisciplinary perspective // American Behavioral Scientist. – Vol.44, №3. – P. 464–503. 

234 Бахин С.В. Научно-технический прогресс в области медицины и международно-правовая защита прав человека: Автореф. дис. ... канд. юрид. наук: 12.00.10 / Ленинградский гос. ун-т. – Ленинград, 1990. – 21 с.

235 Калиниченко П.А. Запрет клонирования человека в европейском праве // Конституционное право: восточно-европейское обозрение. – 2002. – №4. – С. 45–48.

236 Короткий Т. Правові аспекти клонування людини. – С. 46–52.

237 Крусс В.И. Личностные («соматические») права человека в конституционном и философско-правовом измерении: к постановке проблемы // Государство и право. – 2000. – №10. – С. 43–50.

238 Harris J. Clones, genes and human rights // Burley J., ed. Genetic revolution and human rights. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. – Р. 61–94.

239 Andorno R. – Р. 959–963.

240 Taylor A.L. Globalization and biotechnology: UNESCO and an international strategy to advance human rights and public health // American Journal of Law and Medicine. – 1999. – Vol.25, №4. – Р. 479–541.

241 Annas G. J., Andrews L. B., and Isasi R. M. Protecting the endangered human: Toward an international treaty prohibiting cloning and inheritable alterations // American Journal of Law and Medicine. – 2002. – Vol.28, № 2 and 3. - Р. 151–178.

242 Boas T. Lecture Series: The Biotechnology revolution: Political implications and governance. www.ceip.org/files/events/events.asp?p=5&EventID=354

243 Kirby M. Human freedom and the human genomе: The ten rules of Valencia. – Paper prepared for the International Workshop on Freedom and Risk Situations. – Valencia, 25 January 1999. www.hcourt.gov.au/speeches/kirbyj/kirbyj_gen999.htm

244 Spranger T.M. What is wrong about human reproductive cloning? A legal perspective // Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. – 2001. – Vol.11, №4. – Р. 101–102.

245 Knoppers B.M. Cloning human beings: An international comparative overview // Report and recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. – Rockville Maryland, 1999. – Vol.II. – Р. 1–13.

246 Caulfield T. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue // BMC Medical Ethics. – 2003. – Vol.4, №3. www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6939-4-3.pdf

247 Seng E. – Р. 114–138.

248 Загальна декларація про геном людини і права людини, п.d) ст.5; Європейська Конвенція про права людини і біомедицину, п.2 ст.5, п.1 ст.16.

249 Kirby M. Human freedom and the human genomе: The ten rules of Valencia. – Paper prepared for the International Workshop on Freedom and Risk Situations, Valencia, Spain, 25 January 1999. www.hcourt.gov.au/speeches/kirbyj/kirbyj_gen999.htm

250 Jonas H. Philosophical reflections on experimenting with human subjects // McKenzie N.F., ed. The crisis in health care: ethical issues. - New York: Meridian, 1990. – P. 277–310.

251 Bach F.H., Ivinson A.J. and Weeramantry Ch. Ethical and legal issues in technology: xenotransplantation // American Journal of Law and Medicine. – 2000. – Vol.27, № 2 and 3. – Р. 283.

252 Кисельов М.М. Біологічна етика в системі практичної філософії // Практична філософія. – 2000. – №1. – С. 166–167.

253 Bioethics and biotechnology: What is at stake for humanity now? Summary report. – Tokyo: United Nations University, 2003. – P. 47.

254 Morioka M. When did “bioethics” begin in each country? A proposal of a comparative study // Eubious Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. – 2003. – Vol.13, №2. – P. 51–52.

255 Macer D. Bioethics // Biotechnology and Development Monitor. – 1997. – №32. – P. 25–28.

256 Кисельов М.М. – С. 166–167.

257 Piciocchi C. Bioethics and law: between values and rules, 2004. www.jus.unitn.it/dsg/ricerche/biodiritto/docs/Bioethics%20and%20law.rtf

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260 International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. – Geneva: CIOMS, 2002.

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