Make money – заробляти гроші Inventive – винахідливий
Imaginative – наділений багатою
Marie Curie and the Discovery of Radium
Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on 7 November, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school in the town, and from him little Maria Sklodovska – which was her Polish name – learned her first lessons in science. Maria’s wish was to study at the Sorbonne in Paris, and after many years of waiting she finally left her native land in 1891.
In Paris Maria began a course of hard study and simple living. She determined to work for two Master’s degrees – one in Physics, the other in Mathematics. Thus she had to work twice as hard as the ordinary student. Yet she had scarcely enough money to live on. She lived in the poorest quarter of Paris. Night after night, after her hard day’s work at the University, she got to her poorly furnished room and worked at her books steadily for hours. Sometimes she had no more than a bag of cherries. Though she was often weak and ill, she worked in this way for four years. She had chosen her course and nothing could turn her from it.
Among the many scientists Maria met and worked with in Paris was Pierre Curie. Pierre Curie, born in 1859 in Paris, was the son of a doctor, and from early childhood he had been fascinated by science.
At sixteen he was a Bachelor of Science, and he took his Master’s degree in Physics when he was eighteen. When he met Maria Sklodovska he was thirty-five years old and was famous throughout Europe for his discoveries in magnetism. But in spite of the honour he had brought to France by his discoveries, French Government could only give him a very little salary as a reward, and the University of Paris refused him a laboratory of his own for his researches.
Pierre Curie and Maria Sklodovska, both of whom loved science more than anything else, very soon became the closest friends. They worked together constantly and discussed many problems of their researches. After little more than a year they fell in love with each other, and in 1895 Maria Sclodovska became Mme. Curie. Theirs was not only to be a very happy marriage but also one of the greatest scientific partnerships.
Marie had been the greatest woman-scientist of her day but she was a mother too, a very loving one. There were their two little girls, Irene and Eve.
By this time Mme. Curie had obtained her Master’s degree in Physics and Mathematics, and was busy with researches on steel. She now wished to obtain a Doctor’s degree. For this it was necessary to offer to the examiners a special study, called a thesis.
For some time Pierre Curie had been interested in the work of a French scientist named Becquerel. There is a rare metal called uranium which, as Becquerel discovered, emits rays very much like X-rays. These rays made marks on a photographic plate when it was wrapped in black paper. The Curies got interested in these rays of uranium. What caused them? How strong were they? There were many such questions that puzzled Marie Curie and her husband. Here, they decided, was the very subject for Marie’s Doctor’s thesis.
The research was carried out under great difficulty. Mme. Curie had to use an old store-room at the University as her laboratory – she was refused a better room. It was cold; there was no proper apparatus and very little space for research work. Soon she discovered that the rays of uranium were like no other known rays.
Marie Curie wanted to find out if other chemical substances might emit similar rays. So she began to examine every known chemical substance. Once after repeating her experiments time after time she found that a mineral called pitchblende emitted much more powerful rays than any she had already found.
Now, an element is a chemical substance which so far as is known cannot be split up into other substances. As Mme. Curie had examined every known chemical element and none of them had emitted such powerful rays as pitchblende she could only decide that this mineral must contain some new element.
Scientists had declared that every element was already known to them. But all Mme. Curie’s experiments pointed that it was not so. Pitchblende must contain some new and unknown element. There was no other explanation for the powerful rays which it emitted. At that moment Pierre Curie stopped his own investigations on the physics of crystals and joined his wife in her effort to find those more active unknown chemical elements.
Scientists call the property of giving out such rays “radioactivity”, and Mme. Curie decided to call the new element “radium”, because it was more strongly radioactive than any known metal.
It is known now that Mme. Curie has given the real basis for the industrial methods of separating radium and other elements from the pitchblende and from other minerals.
In 1903 Marie and Pierre together with Henry Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1911 Marie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. But the second prize went to her alone for in 1906 Pierre had died tragically in a traffic accident.
Mme. Sklodovska – Curie, the leading woman – scientist, the greatest woman of her generation, has become the first person to receive a Nobel Prize twice.
Завдання до тексту 11A. Знайдіть відповідності.
1. To be fascinated by science; 2. Master’s degree; 3. to be famous for; 4. in spite of; 5. a salary; 6. by this time; 7. to be busy; 8. a rare metal; 9. X-rays; 10. to be wrapped; 11. had to use; 12. to be like; 13. time after time; 14. to emit; 15. none of them; 16. unknown; 17. own investigations; 18. Nobel Prize; 19. a traffic accident.
1. повинні були використовувати; 2. бути відомим; 3. ні жоден з них; 4. рідкісний метал; 5. невідомий; 6. незважаючи на; 7. бути зачарованим наукою;8. дорожня пригода; 9. час від часу; 10. ступінь магістра; 11. бути загорнутим; 12. оклад; 13. власні дослідження; 14.до цього часу; 15.рентгенівські промені; 16. Нобелівська премія; 17. випромінювати; 18. бути зайнятим; 19. бути схожим.
Погодьтеся або заперечте та виправте наступні речення, вживаючи нижче подані мовленнєві зразки.
I can’t help thinking the same.
That’s the thing.
Nothing wrong with that.
No doubt (you are right).
I agree in principle, but….
It’s not so, I’m afraid.
I’m of different opinion.
It’s a pity, I can’t agree (with you).
No,it’s vice versa.
I doubt you are right.
I’m not sure. I think it’s wrong.
1. Marie Curie was born in Paris on 7 September 1867.
2. Her father was a researcher and a teacher in physics.
3. She lived in the richest quarter of Warsaw.
4. Sometimes she ate more than a bag of plums.
5. Marie worked in Paris with Becquerel.
6. Pierre Curie was the son of a lawyer.
7. Pierre Curie took his Master’s degree when he was thirty-five years old.
8. Marie had two little daughters, Irene and Eve.
9. Becquerel discovered uranium, which emitted rays.
10. Mme. Curie used the new laboratory at the University for her research work.
11. Pitchblende emitted less powerful rays than any other substance.
12. Pierre Curie joined his wife in her effort to find more active unknown chemical element.
13. Radium is less radioactive than any known metal.
14. In 1904 Marie and Pierre together with Henry Becquerel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
15. In 1911 Marie Curie received the Nobel Prize in Mathematics.
1. Mme. Sklodovska – Curie was the greatest w…. – s……..
2. Mme. Curie has given the real basis for the i……… m…… of separating radium.
3. After many years of waiting she finally left her n….. l…
4. Thus she had to work twice as hard as the o……. s……
5. From early c…….. Pierre Curie had been fascinated by s……
6. He was famous t……… Europe for his discoveries in m……..
7. French G……… could only give him a very little salary as a reward.
8. She was busy with r……… on steel.
9. X – rays made marks on a p……….. plate.
10. It was the very subject for Marie’s Doctor’s t…..
11. Marie was refused a b….. r…
12. There was no proper a…….. and very little s…. for research work.
13. Marie began to examine every known c……. s…….
Дайте відповіді на запитання.
1. In what country was Marie Curie born?
2. Who was her first teacher in science?
3. How old was Marie when she left her native land?
4. In what country did she study when a student?
5. How did she work?
6. How old was Marie when she met Pierre Curie?
7. How many years was Pierre older?
8. What can you say about Pierre’s youth? What was he famous for?
10. What was Marie interested in?
11. What did Becquerel discover?
12. What was the subject for Marie’s Doctor’s thesis?
13. What did the scientists declare?
14. Why did Marie Curie call the new element “radium”?
15. How old was Pierre Curie when he tragically died?
16. How many children did the Curies have?
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833 — 1896), Swedish inventor and philanthropist, was a man of many contrasts. He was a son of a bankrupt, but became a millionaire; and a scientist with a love of literature. He made a large fortune but lived a simple life. He was cheerful in company, but often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He discovered a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. World-famous for his works, he was never personally well-known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. “I do not see”, he once said, “that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it”, but since his death his name has brought fame and glory to others.
He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father acquired a strong position in the engineering industry. He made a lot of money from his invention of the landmine (фугас), but later went bankrupt. Alfred went to Sweden in 1863, and started his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or University but he studied privately and by the time he was twenty he became a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English, like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense.
He was quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of aforward-looking industrialist.
But Nobel's main concern was neverwith making money or even with making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth he took a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love, he never married but came to care deeplyabout the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars and peace betweennations, and he spent much timeand moneyworking for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in whichhe left money to provide prizesfor outstanding workin physics, chemistry, psychology, medicine, literature and peace,is amemorial to his interests and ideals. And so the man who felt he should have died at birth is remembered and respected long after his death.
Завдання до 11B тексту. Виразіть свою згоду або незгоду з наступними твердженнями, використовуючи інформацію з тексту. Свою згоду починайте словами That’sright, а незгоду That’swrong.
1. Alfred Nobel had deep knowledge in different fields of science.
2. He studied at the University where he learned languages.
3. He got interested in chemistry and by the time he was twenty became a skillful chemist.
4. From his youth he was much interested in literature and philosophy. 5. He loved fame and during his life was personally well-known.
6. His father was a very successful businessman and died very rich.
7. Alfred Nobel was a man of imagination and at the same time showed great financial and business sense.
8. Alfred Nobel was deeply concerned about the whole mankind and took every opportunity to help the poor.
9. Nobel was very happy in his private life.
10. He was always cheerful and lived a life of a very rich man.
11. He spent much time and money for the cause of peace and brotherhood between nations.
12. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for the outstanding work in Science and Peace is a memorial to his ideals.
Виберітьінформацію, якаданавтекстістосовноа) батькаАльфредаНобеля; б) діяльності, роботиіінтересівАльфредаНобеля; в) характеруіідеалівАльфредаНобеля; г) заповітуАльфредаНобеляівисловітьцевписьмовійформі.
Прочитайтедіалогівивчітьйогонапам’ять. Meeting a Businessman It’s the 21st ofOctober. 10 o’clock in the morning. Mr. Blake has come to the Trade Office.
Blake: Good morning! My name’s Blake. I’m from Blake and Company. I’ve got an appointment with Mr. Smith at 10.15.
Receptionist: Good morning, Mr. Blake. Mr. Smith is expecting you. Will you take a seat, please?
Blake: Thank you. I’m a bit early, actually.
Receptionist: That’s all right, Mr. Blake.
(In a few minutes Mr. Smith comes downstairs to meet him.)
Mr. Smith: Oh, Mr. Blake, it’s nice to see you here. How are you?
Mr. Blake: Fine, thanks! And you?
Mr. Smith: Pretty well too, thank you. This way, please.
(They come into the conference room and take their seats at the table.)
Mr. Smith: Would you like a cup of coffee?
Mr. Blake: Yes, please. It’s very cold and wet outside today.
Mr. Smith: Yes, the weather hasn’t been very good lately.
Mr. Blake: That’s right, but it’s usually warm here in October. Now, Mr. Smith, how about our quotation and catalogues? Have you looked through them?
Mr. Smith: Sure! We’ve studied them closely. The new device is certainly good.
Mr. Blake: Yes, it’s of high quality. We’ve just starting producing the device and we’ve already received a lot of orders.
Mr. Smith: Your devices meet our requirements and we are interested in buying them. Mr. Blake, have you seen our contract form?
Mr. Blake: Not yet.
Mr. Smith: Would you like to look through it?
Mr. Blake: I certainly would.
Mr. Smith: Here you are, Mr. Blake. Please study our terms and let’s meet again next Tuesday.
Mr. Blake: All right, Mr. Smith. Good – bye for now.
1. Mr. Blake would like to have a cup of coffee.
2. The new device of Blake and Company is not of high quality.
3. Mr. Blake hasn’t received many orders for his devices.
4. Mr. Smith’s company is not interested in buying devices from Blake and Company.
5. Mr. Smith and Mr. Blake have made an appointment for next week.