Л. Е. Габрійчук, Н. М. Гадайчук, І. С. Степанова, Л. В. Тульчак практичний курс англійської мови для студентів І – ІІ курсів інртзп


Replace v — замінювати Influence



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Дата конвертації01.10.2018
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Replace vзамінювати Influence vвпливати

Various adjрізноманітний Expansion nрозширення

Spread vпоширювати, Contribute vробити внесок

розповсюджувати Establish vвстановлювати



Settle vоселятись Awareness nусвідомлення

Assume vдопускати, вважати Meaning n — значення

Bother vтурбуватись, Knowledge n — знання

хвилюватись


Text 1A

The Roots of English
English began as a West Germanic language which was brought to England by the Saxons around 400 AD. Old English was the spoken and written language of England between 400 and 1100 AD. Many words used today come from Old English, including man, woman, king, mother, give and wash. But Old English was very different from modern English and only a few words can be easily recognized.- In the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded England, Old Norse words, e.g. Sky, lake, get and many place names, entered the language.

From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 12th century English, as the official language, was replaced by Norman French, though English was still used by the lower classes. English from about 1300 to 1500 is known as Middle English. It was influenced by French and also Latin in vocabulary and pronunciation. French brought many words connected with government, e.g. sovereign, royal, court, legal and government itself. Latin was the language of religion and learning and gave to English words such as minister, angel, school and grammar. Literature began to be written in English. One of the most famous Middle English works is Chaucer's The Canterbery Tales.

Modern English developed from the Middle English dialect. English changed a great deal from this time until the end of the 18th century. During the Renaissance, many words were introduced from Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially in science, medicine and philosophy. They included physics, species, architecture, encyclopedia, hypothesis and others. In the 16th century several versions of the Bible helped bring written English to ordinary people. The Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama, and the plays of Marlow and Shakespeare were seen by many people.
World English
English is the most widely spoken language in the world. It is the first language or mother tongue of around 400 million people living in Britain, Ireland, the US, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa and it is spoken as a second language by another 300 million people. Many more people learn English as a foreign language.

English has achieved the status of a world language over a long period of time, and for various historical and cultural reasons. In the 17 century English was spread by the settlers going from Britain to America, and in the 18,h and 19th centuries by the expansion of the British Empire. Many countries, which were part of the empire kept English as their official language after independence. More recently the military and political power of the US has contributed to the spread of English. Since the middle of the 20th century, English has been an official language of international organizations such as the United Nations.

Economic factors are also important. Britain and the US are both major business and financial centers, and many multinational corporations started in these countries. Elsewhere, knowledge of English is often seen as necessary for success in business.

Advances in technology and telecommunications have also helped to establish English as a global language. Now, major computer systems and software developers are based in the US, and English is common language of the Internet.

The status of English as a global language has unfortunately tended to mean that British and American people assume everyone speaks English, so they do not bother to learn foreign languages. However, better language teaching and awareness of the advantages of speaking another language are slowly changing the situation.
Завдання до тексту 1A.
Перекладіть на рідну мову наступні англійські словосполучення.

  • To enter the language, to bring many words, to connect with government, especially in science, several versions, ordinary people, mother tongue, foreign language, over a long period of time, more recently, since the Middle century, the United Nations, software developer.

Знайдіть в тексті англійські еквіваленти наступних слів.

  • Версія, завойовувати, знання, заміняти, переваги, розповсюдження, на жаль, причина, поселенці, багатонаціональні, головний центр, прогрес, однак, повільно, різноманітний, незалежний, сприяти, універсальна мова, декілька слів, хоча, замінювати, особливо, широко.

Вставте в пропуски дані слова. Прочитайте та відтворіть діалоги.

  • Difficult easy English heart hard

A: I am studying ……now.

B: Really? They say it’s ….

A: I don’t think ….is…….

B: Why do you think so?

A: Because I have to work….learning a lot by……

B: I think you have good memory and it’s not a problem for you to do that.

A: In some way, yes but it’s a question of time.

B: Oh, we are always short of time.



  • Translate dictionary science article

A: I’d like to have a good Ukrainian-English ……..on…….and technology. I have to……an……from Ukrainian into English.

B: Sorry, but we haven’t any.

A: It’s a pity! I must have this…..translated as quickly as possible.

B: I can recommend a general Ukrainian-English dictionary. At least it may be of some help.

A: Yes, I’ll take it, of course. It’s a pity that you have not a specialized…..


  • History drawback exams worked all right

A: So you’ve passed your…..

B: It wasn’t very difficult.

A: It’s because you……hard, I think.

B: Well, I was……in……, but I didn’t do so well in Literature.

A: And what about your English?

B: Not so good, only so-so.

A: It’s a pity. English is very important now.

B: I know, and I think I’ll do my best in future to remove this…..



Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання.

1. What has recently contributed to the spread of the English Language?

2. What English is called Middle English?

3. What was Elizabethan period famous for?

4. Why is English often seen as necessary for success in business?

5. Why do American and British people assume everyone speaks English?

6. What languages was the English language influenced by?

7. What have also helped to establish English as global language?

8. Do you study a foreign language?

9. Do you speak English?

10. Do you have English lessons every day?

11. Why do you study foreign languages?

12. Why can’t you speak English well?

13. Why do you learn grammar?



14. Are you sometimes tired after lessons?
Text 1B

Knowing Foreign Languages
Knowledge of foreign languages helps to promote cultural, educational and technical cooperation among nations. That's why one of the characteristic features of life in our country today is a great interest in the study of foreign languages -chiefly English.

At present English is the most important of the world's languages. In the number of speakers it ranks second. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is evidence of its importance. That's why many millions of people learn it as second language. The growth in political, scientific, economic, cultural and educational contacts with different countries has set the scene for a renewed interest in foreign languages studies.

The English language, like all languages, continues to grow. New words are added from the dialects and languages of different peoples, and especially from new developments in politics, science, sports, and all kinds of activities.

Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts. Nowadays it is especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn languages, because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. It is not surprising that many intellectuals and well-educated people are polyglots.

I study English. Nowadays English has become the world's most important language in politics, science, trade as well as culture relations. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in the Great Britain, United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic and others. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It is the language of computer technology. To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist. English language is a wonderful language. It is the language of the great literature. It is the language of William Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift, Walter Scott and Charles Dickens. The great German poet Goethe once said, "He, who knows no foreign language, does not know his own one ". That is why in order to understand oneself and environment one has to study foreign languages.
Why learning foreign languages is so important
Modern life is impossible without communication. This communication is between people of one country and between people of different nations. So it is necessary to know at least one foreign language.

Besides, I think, that to achieve real success in life is impossible without speaking a foreign language. If you are a scientist you need it to read literature and to take part in conferences, if you want to be a good expert in any field you need a foreign language to receive new information in your field of activities. If you are a businessman you need a foreign language to do business with foreign partners.

Many people like to travel. A foreign language is necessary for traveling too. If you want to get education abroad you must know a foreign language too.

If you are fond of reading you can read interesting books in the original. If you are fond of music you can understand the words of songs. If you are an athlete you can communicate with the help of the foreign language during an international competition. If you want to find a job abroad you must know a foreign language too. So in any field of modern life it is necessary to know a foreign language.

We live in Europe. Europe is integrating now and it is very important for everybody to know at least one foreign language.

English is one of the most popular foreign languages. It is the most spoken language in the world. I m glad that I know English a little and I plan to learn it better in future.
Завдання до тексту 1B.
Прочитайте речення та скажіть, які з них відповідають змістові тексту, а які ні. Виправте такі.

1. Today is a great interest in the study of Spanish.

2. In the number of speakers English ranks the fifth.

3. The English language continues to grow.

4. New words are not added from the dialects.

5. Learning a foreign language is an easy thing.

6. Some people learn languages only for their work.

7. Over 30 million people speak English as a mother tongue.

8. The native speakers of English do not live in New Zealand.

9. All the world scientific literature is in English.

10. Modern life is possible without communication.

11. If you are a businessman you need a foreign language to do business with foreign partners.



Прочитайте текст і перекажіть його.

Speaking:

Прочитайте діалог і вивчіть його напамять.
Clifton

    • This is a scheme of Clifton.

    • Is Clifton a big place?

    • No, it isn’t. Clifton is the name of a little place in Scotland.

    • Is it a nice place?

    • Yes, it is. Clifton is on a hillside and it is close to a big lake.

    • Is it a good place to live in?

    • Yes, it is. The place is fine, indeed.

    • Tell us about life in Clifton, please.

    • The center of Clifton is the local clinic, the local school, the chemists shop, the cinema, six offices and five shops. Clifton people need a hospital.

    • Tell us about Clifton people, please.

    • I like Clifton people. Let’s meet a teacher of the local school. His name is Mike East.

    • Is he still at school at the moment?

    • I hope he is.

    • Is it simple to get to the school?

    • Yes, it is. Let’s take a bus to get to it.

    • Is the bus-stop at this book-shop?

    • No, it isn’t. The bus-stop is next to the local clinic. Look at this house, please. This is the local Clifton school. Let’s go into the house.

Exercise 9. Згрупуйте наступні слова за функціональною належністю: природа, людина і її професії, установи.

Shops, seas, cinemas, hospitals, seaside, doctors, lakes, teachers, office visitors, book-shops, chemists, chemists shop, shop-keepers, house-keepers.



Exercise 10. Знайдіть в тексті англійські еквіваленти наступним словосполученням:

Гарне містечко, важко добиратися до, біля книжкового магазину, сідати в автобус, щоб дістатися до, місцева клініка.



LESSON 2

Grammar Simple Tenses (Active Voice)

Future (Be going to/will)

Types of questions

Reading Visiting Britain

The Universities of London



Speaking London

Grammar (block 1)

Simple Tenses

Група простих часів




Група простих часів Simple має три часи: теперішній (Present Simple), минулий (Past Simple), майбутній (Future Simple).

Present Simple

Простий теперішній час

Present Simple (Простий тепе­рішній час) вживається в основному для вираження:

  • повторюваної дії:

  • Example: I usually go to the university by bus.

  • дії або ознаки, яка постійно характеризує предмет:

  • Example: She never comes to school on time.

  • загальновідомого факту:

  • Example: Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.



У Present Simple часто вживаються слова, які вказують на характер дії: always, usually, sometimes, often, seldom, rarely, nev­er, in the afternoon, every day (week, year, month), тощо.

Прислівники always, usually, often, seldom, rarely, never зазвичай ставляться перед основним дієсловом, але після дієслова to be або сап.

  • Example: Не always brushes his teeth after meals.

She is often late for work.

Форма дієслова Present Simple збігається з формою інфінітива без частки to для всіх осіб і чисел, крім третьої особи однини. В цій формі до основи інфінітива додається закінчення -s.


I work

We work

You work

You work

Не works

They work

She works It works




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