Л. Е. Габрійчук, Н. М. Гадайчук, І. С. Степанова, Л. В. Тульчак практичний курс англійської мови для студентів І – ІІ курсів інртзп



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Example: He's arriving tomorrow morning on the 15.30 train.


Present Simple виражає заплановану дію в майбутньому у відповідності з розкладом:

  • Example: The bus leaves at 12.00.

В англійській мові майбутня дія, що розглядається з точки зору якогось минулого моменту, виражається окремою формою дієслова, яка зветься Future Simple-in-the-Past. Цей час вживають у розповідях про минулі події при пере­казі у непрямій мові слів або думок якоїсь особи стосов­но майбутнього часу:

  • Example: In his letter Peter wrote that he would go to Warsaw in January.



Future Indefinite-in-the-Past утворюється з допоміжного діє­слова would та інфінітива основного дієслова без частки to:

  • Example: I thought I would come by the morning train.


Exercise 1. Утворіть запитальну та заперечну форму речень.

1. You know the answer. 2. He has breakfast at 8.00. 3. He loves her. 4. She refuses to discuss it. 5. He trusts you. 6. He tries hard. 7. The park closes at dusk. 8. He misses his mother. 9. The children like sweets. 10. He finishes work at 6.00. 11. He lives beside the sea. 12. He bullies his sisters. 13. This stove heats the water. 14. She has a cooked breakfast. 15. She carries a sleeping bag. 16. He usually believes you. 17. She dances in competitions. 18. You remember the address. 19. She plays chess very well. 20. He worries about her. 21. These thieves work at night. 22. He leaves home at 8.00 every day. 23. Ann arranges everything. 24. She agrees with you. 25. Their dogs bark all night. 26. Their neighbours often complain. 27. Tom enjoys driving at night. 28. He relaxes at weekends. 29. Tom looks very well. 30. They sell fresh grape juice here. 31. The last train leaves at midnight. 32. She cuts her husband's hair. 33. They pick the apples in October.

Exercise 2. Доповніть речення дієсловами в дужках, поставивши їх у Past Simple, перетворіть ці речення в питальні та заперечні.

1. They (begin) to work in June. 2. She (tell) us about it some days ago. 3. Tom

(finish) the secondary school in May. 4. Mary (sell) her home last week. 5. He

(invest) ten thousand dollars in the company in 2013. 6. Columbus (discover)

America in 1492. 7. He (be) seventeen years old last month. 8. The students (understand) the rule very well. 9. They lost their way because it (be) dark. 10. My wife (see) your cousin in Kyiv. 11. He (borrow) the money so that he could finish his project. 12. My aunt (grow) beautiful roses in the garden.

Exercise 3.Вставте will or be going to.

1A: Have you decided where you're going for your holidays?

B: Yes, I ................... tour Spain.

2 A: We've almost run out of petrol.

B: Don't worry. We ................ get some on the way home.

3 A: Does your tooth hurt a lot?

B: Yes, I ................ see the dentist tomorrow.

4 A: Did you buy any stamps?

B: I forgot to, but I ................ get some now if you like.

5 A: Have you heard about Sharon?

B: Yes. She ................ have a baby.

6 A: When did you last speak to Susan?

B: Oh, weeks ago, but I ................ meet her tonight.

7 A: Your car is very dirty.

B: I know. My son ................ wash it this afternoon.

8 A: Do you know what the weather forecast is for tomorrow?

B: No, but I expect it ................ be warmer than today.

9 A: Shall we go out tonight?

B: Sorry! I ............... eat at the Chinese restaurant with Paul.

10 A: What do you want to eat?

B: I ................ have a hamburger and some chips, please.

11 A: Are you watching TV tonight?

B: Yes, I ................ watch a football match.

12 A: Watch out! You .............. trip over that toy on the floor.

B: Oh! I didn't even see it.

13 A: I'm really hungry after all that hard work.

B: I …………….. make some sandwiches.

14 A: These elections are going to be very close.

B: Yes, that's true. But I believe John Keys ………………… be the next President.

Exercise 4. Поставте подані речення в Future Simple.

1. I spend my summer holidays in the country.

2. Our engineer left for Kyiv on Monday.

3. She agrees with him.

4. My brother is a driver.

5. Her husband worked at the factory.

6. They found each other at this crowded airport.

7. Peter helps my wife and me with our tax returns.

8. Virginia doesn’t have enough information.

9. She borrowed my key to get into the apartment.

10. Jim’s family met Karen today.

11. I saw him at the university.

12. We sleep in the open air.

Exercise 5. Зєднайте речення. Виразіть майбутню дію в реченнях часу та умови, використовуючи Present Simple.

Model: We will go to the river. The weather will be fine (if).

We will go to the river if the weather is fine.

1. Air will circulate better. You will open the door (if).

2. Dad will buy a new car. We’ll go to the sea-side by car next summer (if).

3. I’ll send you a message. I’ll arrive in Paris (as soon as).

4. Mary will stay with our daughter. We’ll be at the theatre (while).

5. She’ll loork after him. He’ll be well again (till).

6. I’ll see my brother. I’ll go to Tripoli (if).

7. We’ll discuss it with Den. He’ll come to see us (when).

8. I’ll stay in Kyiv. I’ll finish my business there (till).

9. You’ll be late. I’ll walk your dog (if).

10. You won’t wake me up. I’ll miss the train (if).

Exercise 6. Виберіть потрібну заперечну форму для дієслова, перетворивши речення в заперечні.

А — wasn't; В — weren't; С — doesn't; D —didn't; Е — won't.

1. The train often (arrive) in time.

2. Yesterday he (run) very quickly.

3. There (be) too many people at the conference tomorrow.

4. I (see) her any more.

5. She is very tired and (look) well.

6. She (listen) to him if he gives her any advice.

7. Pete (be) at the lessons yesterday.

8. Mike is busy and (go) for a walk in the evening.

9. I (borrow) any books from the library, I have them at home.

10. They (go) to London next summer.

11. Den (know) anything about that man.

12. Ann (speak) French; but she is studying English.

13. They (be) at the seaside last year.

14. I (buy) that book yesterday.

15. He (write) a letter because he is going to return soon.

Exercise 7. Виберіть правильну форму дієслова в Present, Past або Future Simple.

1. We _____ anything because we ______ hungry.

A don’t eat / wasn’t B didn’t eat / weren’t C not eat / not be

2. Professor Stone _____ few chairs in his office because he ____ room for many.

A don’t keep / not have B doesn’t keep / doesn’t have

3. What ______ your parents’ address?

A is B are

4. He _____ how to use the card catalog in the library.

A don’t know B doesn’t know

5. Happiness ________ different things to different people.

A means B mean

6. Water ______ at 100 degrees Centigrade.

A is boiled B boil C boils

7. The men______ as hungry as hunters.

A were B was

8. If Maria ______ him, she will be unhappy.

A marry B marries C will marry

9. I ______ not see Andrew yesterday.

A did B Do C am.

10. When _______ in Poland?

A was you B were you C did you be

11. She ______her present flat.

A don’t like B doesn’t like C not like

12. Jayne’s apartment ______ from Bill’s.

A don’t differ B doesn’t differ C not differ

13. It ______ in this part of the world.

A is often raining B often rain C often rains

14. The children ______ lunch at eleven.

A has got B have got C have

15. Tom’s parents ______ travel agents.

A is B are

16. Your money ______in your handbag.

A is B are

17. I’ll stay in Kyiv till I ______ finish my business there.

A will finish B finish

18. Professor Williams ________ teaching and writing.

A enjoys B enjoy C enjoying

19. The swimming bath _____ at 9.00 and ______ at 18.00 every day.

A open close B opens closes

20. I have a car, but I ______ it very often.

A don’t use B not use

21. There isn’t cloud in the sky, but it _____ cloudly in the morning.

A is B was C were

22. Sam’s plane _____ at midnight.

A is arriving B will arrive C arrives

23. We needed some money so we ______ our car.

A sell B sold C selled

24. We'll go to the party if he ______ us.

A invite B will invite C invites

Exercise 7. Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Simple, Past Simple або Future Simple.

1. I (to go) to bed at eleven o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at twelve o'clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock tomorrow. 4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day. 5. I (not to go) to the cinema yesterday. 6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. 7. You (to watch) TV every day? 8. You (to TV yesterday? 9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow? 10. When you (to leave) home for work every day? 11. When you (to leave) home for work yesterday? 12. When you (to leave) home for work tomorrow? 13. My brother (to go) to work every day. He (to leave) home at a quarter past eight. As the office he (to work) at (to be) near our house, he (to walk) there. He (not to take) a bus. Yesterday he (not to go) to work. Yesterday he (to get) up at nine o'clock. 14. You (to have) a lecture in History yesterday? — No, I ... . 15. What you (to buy) at the shop yester­day? — I (to buy) a book. 16. Yesterday my father (not to read) newspapers because he (to be) very busy. He (to read) newspapers tomorrow. 16. He (to turn) on the television to watch news every morning. 17. He (to turn) on the television to watch news yesterday morning. 18. He (to turn) on the television to watch news tomorrow morn­ing. 19. I always (to go) to the Carpathian Mountains to visit my relatives there. 20. I (to be) very busy last sum­mer and I (not to go) there. 21. I (not to go) to the Crimea next year because it (to cost) a lot of money and I can't afford it. 22. They (to enjoy) themselves at the symphony yesterday evening? 8. Who (to take) care of the child in the future? 9. How often you (to go) to the dentist's? 10. We (not to have) very good weather, but we still (to have) a good time during our short stay in London.

Grammar (block 3)

Types of questions

Типи питальних речень
В англійській мові існує п’ять типів питань (questions): загальні, спеціальні, спеціальні до підмета, альтернативні та розділові.

Для побудови усіх типів питань існує певна закономірність. Насамперед необхідно добре засвоїти загальне питання, яке фактично модифікується в решті питань.

Загальні питання (general questions) – це такі питання, які починаються з допоміжних або модальних дієслів, а також смислових дієслів to be, to have.

ДОПОМІЖНЕ ПІДМЕТ ПРИСУДОК ІНШІ ЧЛЕНИ ДІЄСЛОВО РЕЧЕННЯ

Do you study at private school?
Does your friend wear jeans?
Did you study well?
Did your parents visit Granny last week?
Can you describe the weather in Ukraine?
Will his sister study at the University?
Are you going to school now?


Заперечна форма загального питання утворюється за допомогою заперечної частки not, яка ставиться перед смисловим дієсловом або зливається з допоміжним дієсловом:

  • Example:

Do your parents not live n a town? Yes, they do.

Don’t your parents live in a town? No, they don’t.
Спеціальні питання (special questions) – починаються питальними словами:

Where?

What?

Which?

When?

Whose?

Why?

How?

How much?

How many?

Вони базуються на загальному питанні без того члена речення, до якого ставиться питання.

  • Example:

Where does your friend study?

What sorts of exams do students take at the age of 17?

When do you get up?
Спеціальні питання до підмета або його означення (the question to the subject). З усіх п’яти типів питань в англійській мові, цей, мабуть, найпростіший. Як видно із самої назви питання, задають його до одного з головних членів речення, а саме, до підмета. Отже, у питанні підмет буде відсутній, а його місце займе одне з двох питальних слів «who або «what. При утворенні питання до підмета в англійській мові не потрібно міняти порядок слів у реченні. Необхідно лише пам’ятати, що в теперішньому часі дієслово в реченні буде мати форму третьої особи однини.

  • Example:

Who saw an accident? – Хто бачив аварію?

Who married Nick? – На кому одружився Нік?

Who writes a lot of articles? – Хто пише багато статей?

What made you feel upset? – Що тебе засмутило?

What is near this building? – Що знаходиться поруч з цим будинком?
Питання до означення підмета в англійській мові також будується за таким же принципом. У цьому випадку нам необхідні наступні питальні слова: what – який, which – який, whose – чий, how much / how many – скільки.
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