Л. Е. Габрійчук, Н. М. Гадайчук, І. С. Степанова, Л. В. Тульчак практичний курс англійської мови для студентів І – ІІ курсів інртзп



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Example:

How many students study foreign languages? – Скільки студентів вивчають іноземні мови?

What weather irritates you? – Яка погода вас дратує?

Whose performance was the best one? – Чий виступ був найкращим?
Відповідь на питання до підмета в англійській мові досить коротка:

  • Example:

What scaried you? – A ghost did. (Що тебе налякало? – Привид).
Альтернативні питання (alternative questions) передбачають вибір із двох речей, осіб, дій та ін. Їх можна поставити до будь-якого члена речення. В основі лежить загальне питання:

  • Example:

Did your friends study in Ukraine or in Britain?

Does your mother work in Italy or in Poland?

Did your father buy or sell the computer?

Розділові питання (disjunctive questions) мають дві частини – перша, стверджувальна або заперечна, з прямим порядком слів, а друга – коротке заперечне загальне питання, якщо перша частина – стверджувальна, і навпаки, коротке стверджувальне загальне питання, якщо перша частина – заперечна:

  • Example:

Yesterday my friends bought two magazines, didn’t they?

Yesterday my friends didn’t buy two magazines, did they?

My parents live in a town, don’t they?

My parents don’t live in a town, do they?
Якщо речення містить слова neither, no, none, no one, nobody, nothing, scarcely, barely, hardly ever, seldom і т. п., ЗАПАМ’ЯТАЙТЕ, що таке речення є заперечним, тому «tag» буде стверджувальним. Сам «tag» являє собою допоміжне дієслово і підмет у вигляді особового займенника.

Насправді, в цьому типі питань нічого не поділяється, а лише підтверджується або спростовується. Розділові питання в англійській мові задають в тому випадку, якщо ми хочемо висловити сумнів. Ми задаємо ці питання не просто з метою отримання інформації, а з метою набуття згоди або не згоди зі сказаним. У залежності від цього «tag» переводиться по-різному: чи не так? добре? так? і т.д.

При утворенні розділових питань в англійській мові є свої маленькі виключення.

  • Якщо в реченні підмет і присудок «I am», то «tag» — «arent I», як би підозріло це не звучало.

  • Якщо підмет виражено словами anyone, everybody, somebody і т.д., то «tag» — «they».

  • Example:

Everyone was happy, weren’t they? – Всі були щасливі, чи не так?

  • У реченні, яке починається зі спонукання «let’s (let us)»,«tag» — «shall we?».

  • Example:

Lets start, shall we? – Давайте почнемо, добре?

  • У реченні, що виражає прохання, наказ, розпорядження, «tag» – «will you, wont you, can you, could you».

  • Example:

Please, shut the door, will you? – Будь ласка, закрий двері, добре?

Pay attention, would you? – Будь уважний, добре?

Don’t be late, will you? – Не спізнюйся, добре?

  • Таке ж коротке питання буде і в реченнях з конструкціями «let me» і «let him / her».

  • Example:

Let me stand up, will you? – Давайте я постою, добре?
Exercise 1. Виберіть правильний варіант та утворіть розділові запитання.

1. He likes reading, ... (does he?/is he?/isn't he?/doesn't he?).

2. They aren't hungry,... (are they?/aren't they?/don't they?/do they?).

3. You can't speak English,... (can't you?/can you?/are you?/don't you?).

4. She has already cleaned her shoes,... (doesn't she?/didn't she?/has she?/hasn't she?).

5. You are cold, ... (aren't you?/don't you?/do you?/are you?).

6. It was a nice day, ... (isn't it?/was it?/didn't it?/wasn't it?).

7. You won't go to work tomorrow, ... (don't you?/won't you?/aren't you?/will you?).

8. The Smiths bought a car last week, ... (haven't they?/did they?/didn't they?/do they?).

9. There are a lot of butterflies in the fields,... (aren't there?/are there?/are they?/aren't they?).



Exercise 2. Утворіть розділові запитання.

1. It is raining,...? 2. That little boy didn't break the window yesterday, ...? 3. He lives in London, ...? 4. Tim won't come back tomorrow, ...? 5. We’ll do that, ...?

6. The clock is working, ...? 7. They are on holiday,...? 8. She helped you with the problem,...?

Exercise 3. Доповніть розділові запитання.

Tania: ... and the animal rights group I'm in is holding a demonstration outside one of the research laboratories.

Brett: Do you think that's really necessary? I mean, there's a need for these experiments, …? Let's consider the advantages of these experiments, …? Scientists must test new medical treatment somehow, …? With these tests they can see how effective and safe the treatments are. Everyone wants new vaccines and safer drugs, …?

Tania: I see your point, but scientists don't really care about the animals, …? Are you aware that thousands of animals die every year as a result of these experiments? Scientists should find another way of testing their discoveries, …?

Exercise 4. Використайте слова в дужках, щоб побудувати заперечну форму загального питання.

1. "Last year the students organised a bazaar to raise money for the hospital. …? (it/be/a great idea)" — "Yes, I think they should do it again."

2."I bought a new jacket today but the sleeve is torn!" — "…? (you/should/take/itlback)" — "Yes, I will. I'll ask for another one."

3." …? (the Town Hall/be/just around the corner)" — "Yes, that's right."

4. "You've ruined my jumper by spilling coffee on it and last week you spilt bleach on my jeans. …? (you/can/do/anything right)."

5. "You haven't bought any bread." — "…? (you/go/to the baker's)" — "No, I went to the supermarket but completely forgot to get some bread."



Exercise 5. Доповніть альтернативні запитання.

1. Do you like roses or...? 2. Were you at the theatre or... yesterday? 3. Can you speak English or...? 4. Did they buy peaches or...? 5. Was it cold or... in the morning? 6. Is she seventeen or... years old? 7. Are you a doctor or...? 8. Is she your aunt or your...?



Exercise 6. Утворіть загальне, кілька спеціальних, альтернативне та розділове запитання до речень.

She gave me this interesting book yesterday.



Exercise 7. Поставте запитання до виділених слів.

1. The red jumper suits you better than the blue one. 2. I'm afraid not. The basketball player didn't sign the contract. 3. The price includes two meals at the hotel restaurant, so it's convenient. 4. She felt embarrassed when she fell, as most of her guests were around. 5. Yes, the library opens at 9:00 a.m. every weekday. 6. Professor Bums will give his lecture at the Palace Hotel. 7. I'm buying a computer because I need it for my job. 8. Paula persuaded Jane to give up smoking. Isn't it great? 9. My new house is big and has a garden at the front. 10. I suppose you can go to the beach with your friends.



Exercise 8. За допомогою даних слів перефразуйте запитання, не змінюючи їх змісту.

1. What was the price of the ticket?



pay How ___________________________________ ticket?

2. Whose car is this?



belong Who __________________________________ to?

3. The film was interesting, wasn't it?



boring The film __________________________________ it?

4. How did the fire start, sir?



explain Could you ______________________________ sir?

5. Mr Wesley, what caused you to resign so suddenly?



why Mr Wesley, _____________________________so suddenly?

6. Can you tell me Tom's address, Kelly?



lives Can you tell me ______________________________, Kelly?

7. What's the distance from the village to the beach?



it How ________________________ from the village to the beach?

8. Should I inform our clients about the change of plans?



whether I'd like to know _____________ our clients about the change of plans.
Reading:
Word and word-combinations
To arrive v – прибувати Certainly звичайно

Rather – досить To invite v – запрошувати

Reason n – причина Cordially – привітно

Perhaps – можливо To behave v – поводитися

To decide – вирішувати A race-driver n – автогонщик

Guard n – охоронa To feed v – годувати

To support v – підтримувати To use v – використовувати

To respect v – поважати To wash up v – прати

To agree v – погоджуватися To cast lot v – кидати жереб

A researcher n науковець Noise – шум

A post-graduate student n – аспірант
Text 2A

Visiting Britain
Today we are going to have a heart-to-heart talk on the ways to enjoy your stay abroad in general and in Britain, in particular. When you arrive in a country, which you don’t know well, you may feel quite lonely. If you are going to stay in the country for a long time, it is quite important for you to make friends there, but most often it’s really difficult for a foreigner to make friends abroad. So, perhaps, the best thing for you to do is to make a company of people who are foreigners like you and who have interests in common with you.

Last year we had a fine example of such a company in our college. We, all of us, called this company “Good Companions”, or “Three Men in a Boat”, or else “the three H’s” .These men were Mr. Hans Wolf, Mr. Hank Jensen and Mr. Hanslic Kristensen. Today, they themselves are going to tell you of the way they came to the idea of living together. Please, listen to what they say!

Hans Wolf: Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen! I’m German, I come from Germany. I’m a journalist. My family lives in Berlin. Last year I really stayed in England for a rather long period of time. I was taking a course in English there. The idea of making a company came to me and to my companions for several reasons and perhaps our philosophy of mind.

First, we came to Britain from neighboring countries: Germany, Holland (or the Netherlands) and Denmark and we immediately decided to live in peace. Second, we had common interests and, from the point of common sense, we decided to keep together. Third, we, all of us, were not wealthy enough to stay at a good hotel, but we weren’t poor enough to rent a room in a dwelling house. Fourth, all of us felt like living at home. We missed our families and wanted to feel a bit at home in that country as well. Fifth, each of us thought that he was a “VIP” (very important person) and as such he must have a guard of his own and still better two guards. So, each of us made a vow to be a guard for the two others, to be friendly and respect the interests of the two others.

As a result, we rented a nice house from an English family in the country. The house was about ten miles away from London. It wasn’t big, however, it had a sitting-room, a dining-room and a kitchen on the ground floor and three bedrooms and a bathroom on the first floor. As to me, I was quite satisfied with my partners. We certainly had some arguments but they were not important. We supported each other. We really respected each other. Yet let’s listen to what the other partners can say about it.

Hank: Well, L.&G.! I can only agree with every point of Han’s talk. I was lucky to stay with Hans and Hanslic in a house of our own. But first, let me introduce myself to you. I’m a Dutchman. My family lives in Holland in Hague. I’m a researcher and a post-graduate student at Hague University. I do research in the field of electronics. When I came to London with its heavy traffic and noise, the idea to live in a nice house in the country was certainly very attractive. I liked the place we lived in. it was very quiet. We, however, had lots of problems and troubles with the house. We did all the household work by ourselves: cooking, cleaning, washing up, shopping. Nobody wanted to do washing up. So we cast lots. My unlucky lot was certainly to do washing up. Hans was a lucky man. His lot was to do the shopping. As to Hanslic, he is going to tell you about his poor lot himself, I think.

Hanslic: Dear L.&G.!

Let me say about myself, first. I come from Denmark. I’m a Dane and we speak Danish in my country. As to my “bad lot”, I didn’t mind cooking. I think I was a good cook. Everything I cooked my dear fellows ate very well. They were big eaters, too. I could never cook enough food to feed them. They always had big appetites. Here, at home, I certainly not a cook. I’m the manager of a little restaurant. I’m not a race-driver either. My car driving was good. My companions were happy when I was driving the car. As to unparliamentary language, it was certainly a joke. My companions behaved gentlemen. They always had good manners.

I cordially invite my companions and you, L.& G., to an afternoon tea-party at my restaurant next Saturday.

Well, L.& G., are you going to participate in the afternoon tea-party? As to me, I’m certainly going to take part in it.


Завдання до тексту 2А.
Перекладіть на рідну мову наступні словосполучення.

  • In general, in particular, to take a course, several reasons, to keep together, to make a vow, ground floor, to be quite satisfied, some arguments, to do research, heavy traffic, to have lots of troubles, once again, to get on time, to rent a car/an office, unparliamentary language.

Випишіть з тексту англійські еквіваленти наступних українських словосполучень.

  • Щира (відверта) розмова, зокрема, набути друзів, мати спільні інтереси, країни-сусіди, з точки зору, здоровий глузд, недостатньо багаті, щоб.., ми сумуємо за.., а ще краще, дати обіцянку, ми кинули жереб, моя нещаслива доля, щасливець, я нічого не маю проти того, щоб…

Заповніть пропуски словами, які відповідають змісту тексту.

1. By their nationality Hans is a …, Hank is a … and Hanslic is a…. 2.Accordingly, Hans lives in …, Hank in … and Hanslic in …. 3. By their profession Hans is a …., Hank is a …, Hanslic is the …. 4. The three men were not … enough to stay in a hotel and were not … enough to rent a room in a … 5. Hank’s lot was to … the dishes. 6. Hanslic’s lot was to … 7. They rent a car from a ….



Погодьтеся з даними реченнями чи виправте їх, вживаючи відповідні мовленнєві зразки.

  • Yes, that’s (quite) right. Sorry, it isn’t right. It’s perfectly correct. I’m afraid it’s wrong. Quite right. I don’t think so. Yes, I agree with you. I’m not sure. Exactly so. It isn’t so.

1. Іt is not important to make friends abroad.

2. The company is called “Three Men in a Train”.

3. Hans Wolf is a Dutchman.

4. Hans is a journalist and a researcher.

5. Hans’s family lives in Hague.

6. Hank Jensen does research in the field of physics.

7. They were taking a course in mathematics in London.

8. They are wealthy to stay at a good hotel.

9. Jensen had a guard and a driver.

10. They respected the interests of each other.

11. Hank lived on the third floor.

12. Hanslic is a cook and a post – graduate.

13. Hanslic’s family lives in Holland.

14. They did all the household work by themselves.

15. Hans Wolf invited his friends to the evening tea-party at his restaurant.

Дайте відповіді на питання.

1. Did the three men happen to stay in Britain for a short or for a long period of time?

2. Which countries did they come from?

3. Why did they decide to rent a house for their use?

4. Did they feel homesick in the country?

5. Why did they decide against staying in a hotel?

6. Why did they not want to rent rooms in a dwelling house in London?

7. Where was the house they rented?

8. How did they get to college?

9. Did they buy a car for their use?

10. Was the house very big?

11. How many rooms were there in the house?

12. Who did all the household work?

13. How did they define everybody’s duties?

14. Whose duty was it to do washing up?

15. Did Hank enjoy fast driving?

16. Who cooked the food?

17. What did Hanslic say about his friends’ appetites?

18. Did you ever share a room or a house with your friends?

19. What do you think of sharing a house?

20. Would you like to go to Britain to take a course in English?
Text 2B

The Universities of London
London is the largest city in Europe, stretching almost 30 miles. Enjoy some of the world’s finest museums, galleries, parks, concerts, theatres and restaurants all set within the rich historical setting that is London.

With a population of just under eight million, London is Europe’s largest city, spreading across an area of more than 620 square miles from its core on the river Thames. Ethnically it’s also Europe’s most diverse metropolis: around two hundred languages are spoken within its confines, and more than thirty per cent of the population is made up of first, second- and third-generation immigrants.

Home to a range of universities, colleges and schools, London has a student population of about 378,000 and is a centre of research and development. Most primary and secondary schools in London follow the same system as the rest of England – comprehensive schooling.

With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe. It comprises 20 colleges as well as several smaller institutes, each with a high degree of autonomy. Constituent colleges have their own admission procedures, and are effectively universities in their own right, although most degrees are awarded by the University of London rather than the individual colleges. Its constituents include multi-disciplinary colleges such as UCL, King’s, Royal Holloway and more specialized institutions such as the London School of Economics, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art and the Institute of Education.

Imperial College London and University College London have been ranked among the top ten universities in the world by the Times Higher Education Supplement: in 2008 Imperial was ranked the 6th best and UCL the 7th best university in the world.

In addition, the LSE is the world’s leading social science institution for teaching and research, plus has the most international student body of any university in the world today.

London’s other universities, such as Brunel University, City University, London Metropolitan University, Middlesex University, University of East London, University of the Arts London are not part of the University of London but are still leaders in their field and popular choices among students both nationally and internationally. Some were polytechnics until these were granted university status in 1992, and others which were founded much earlier. Imperial College London left the University of London in 2007. London is also known globally for its business education, with the London Business School (ranked 1st in Europe – Business Week) and Cass Business School ( Europe’s largest finance school) both being top world –rated business schools.

In addition there are three international universities: Schiller International University, Richmond University and Regent’s College.


Завдання до тексту.
Знайдіть вірні відповіді на запитання.

1. London…



A stretches almost 13 miles.

B has a population of just over eight million.

C is Europe’s largest city.

D stands on the river Severn.

2. What is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe?



A University of London

B Courtauld Institute of Art.

C University of the Arts London.

D University of East London.

3. How are degrees at the University of London generally awarded?



A By the individual colleges.

B By the separate institutions of the University.

C By the University of London.

D By the Mayor of London.

4. What is Imperial College London famous for?



A It’s the leading social science institution.

B It has the most international student body in the world?

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