Л. Е. Габрійчук, Н. М. Гадайчук, І. С. Степанова, Л. В. Тульчак практичний курс англійської мови для студентів І – ІІ курсів інртзп



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Part-time students – заочники

Clay – глина Departmentкафедра

Legislative – законодавчий Meritorious – заслужений

Executive – виконавчий Сurricula – навчальна програма

Judicial – судовий Bachelor – бакалавр

Annex – приєднувати Master – магістр

Massacre – різанина Рeculiaritу – особливість

Invading – вторгнення Apart from – окрім

Atrocitу – звірство Аcquiringотримання

Victim – жертва Вy correspondence – заочно

Accommodation – житло Аchievement досягнення

Barbed – колючий Distinction відзнака

Text 4A

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia is a city located on the banks of the Southern Buh, in central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Vinnytsia Region (Oblast). Vinnytsia is located about 260 km west of the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, 429 km north of the port city Odessa and 369 km from Lviv. Now the current estimated population is 370,100. The natural resources are the following: the deposits of granite and lime stone, clay, sand and mineral spring water in several places. The climate of Vinnytsya region is moderately humid.

As an administrative centre of Ukraine, Vinnytsia is the seat of the local legislative, executive and judicial branches of the power in the region. Vinnytsia is the industrial, transport, agricultural, cultural and educational centre of the region. The National Technical University, the Agricultural University, the Pedagogical University, the Medical University, the University of Trade and Economy educate the specialists almost for every branch of our life. There are also special secondary schools, which give secondary education in the spheres of technique, bakery, dairy and trade. Nowadays there are private schools as well as state schools, lyceums, classic school form where children can get their general secondary education.

Vinnytsia as a small settlement was founded on the picturesque banks of the Southern Bug in the 13th century by Lithuanian Prince Olgert. Vinnytsia has been an important trade and political center since the fourteenth century, when Fedir Koriatovych, the nephew of Olgerd, built a fortress (1363) against Tatar raiders on the banks of the Southern Buh. From that time on, the town became a factor in ongoing disputes between Lithuania, Tatars (who burnt the fortress in 1580), Poland, Turkey (which ruled the city and region from 1672 to 1699), Cossacks and eventually Russia, which annexed the city and region following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.

Victim's graves from the Vinnytsia massacre during the Stalinist repression of 1937–1938 were exhumed by the invading Germans in 1943. Adolf Hitler sited his easternmost headquarters Führerhauptquartier Werwolf near the town. Nazi atrocities were committed in and near Vinnytsia by Einsatzgruppe C. Estimates of the number of victims run as high as 28,000. This included the virtual extinction of the town's large Jewish population. Führerhauptquartier Werwolf was the codename used for one of Adolf Hitler's World War II Eastern Front military headquarters located in a pine forest about 12 kilometres north of Vinnytsia, between the villages of Stryzhavka and Kolo-Mykhailivka on the Kiev highway. Hitler's accommodation at Werwolf consisted of a modest log cabin built around a private courtyard with its own concrete bunker. The rest of the complex consisted of about 20 wooden cottages and barracks and up to three "B" class bunkers, surrounded by ring of barbed wire and ground defensive positions connected by underground tunnels. The area was surrounded by a defensive strip of bunkers, anti-aircraft guns and tanks, as well as anti-tank ditches and minefields. There was a tea house, a barber shop, a bathhouse, a sauna, a cinema and even an open swimming pool for the inhabitants' use. The facility also contained a large vegetable garden to provide Hitler with a secure supply of food. Two artesian wells supplied the site with water, and the site had its own power generation facilities. The bunkers were constructed by Organisation Todt using local Ukrainian workers, forced labour but mainly Soviet prisoners of war. Many of the workers were subsequently murdered to maintain secrecy of the site. Today only the swimming pool and concrete fragments remain visible on the site, which is an open recreation area. Nearby is a memorial to the thousands of labourers and others buried by the Nazis in gravepits at Stryzhavka.

The history of our land is closely connected with the names of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi, Ivan Bogun, Maxim Kryvonis, Ustym Karmaliuk and many others outstanding Ukrainian people. The citizens of Vinnytsia and the guests of the town like to attend the estate museum of famous doctor Pyrohov, the founder of the battle-field surgery, the scientist and pedagogue. One of the main streets in our town, the Medical University and the regional hospital are named after him. If you are interested in history it would be useful to visit our museum of Local Lore, which is situated in the centre of Vinnytsia near the Bridge across the Southern Buh. There are expositions devoted to various periods of the development of Vinnytsia. A lot of guests enjoy visiting the museum of the classic of Ukrainian Literature, Mychailo Kotsiubynskyi. The small white house where he lived with his family is in the centre of Vinnytsia. The curator will show you the things belonging to the writer, tell about the family way of life. It was Kotsiubynskyi who first thought about the creating of the public library in Vinnytsia. There is a monument to the writer near the house and the street where it stands is named after him.

We call Vinnytsia the cultural centre not only for its historical places, museums and monuments, but also for two theatres and philharmonic society. Our Drama Theatre named after the well-known Ukrainian actor Sadovskyi is situated in the centre of Vinnytsia. Theatre-goers can enjoy dramas, comedies, musicals performed by our local actor company.

Roshen Fountain is the only one in Ukraine and the largest floating fountain in Europe, built in the river Southern Buh in Vinnytsia City near Festivalny Isle (Campa Isle).

Havryshivka International Airport is situated in Vinnytsia. Since the end of World War II, Vinnytsia has been the home for major Soviet Air Forces base, including an airfield, a hospital, arsenals and other military installations. The headquarters of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces was stationed in Vinnytsia from 1960 to the early 1990s. The 2nd Independent Heavy Bomber Aviation Corps, which later became 24th Air Army, was also stationed in Vinnitsa from 1960 to 1992. The Ukrainian Air Force Command has been based in Vinnytsia since 1992.


Завдання до тексту 4A.


  • Прочитайте текст і поставте до нього 5 спеціальних, 5 загальних, 5 розділових та 5 альтернативних запитань.

  • Знайдіть додаткову інформацію і зробіть презентацію «My Native Town».


Text 4B

Vinnytsia National Technical University
Vinnytsia National Technical University is an educational establishment of the fourth level of accreditation well known both in Ukraine and far abroad.

VNTU consists of 7 scientific and educational institutes:

InAECCS (Institute of Automatics, Electronics and Computer Control Systems);

InCETPEGS (Institute of Civil Engineering, Thermal Power Engineering and Gas Supply);

InPEEEM (Institute of Power Engineering, Ecology and Electrical Mechanics);

InITCE (Institute of Information Technologies and Computer Engineering);

InMBT (Institute of Machine Building and Transport);

InRETEIE (Institute of Radio Engineering, Telecommunication and Electronic Instrument Engineering);

InM (Institute of Management).

The University trains 6000 day-time students, 1500 part-time students, 100 PhD and Doctor degree students, 1000 pre-University students.

The educational and scientific activity is conducted by 47 departments, 26 of which are running branch offices with the enterprises in Vinnytsia and Vinnytsia region. The departments are run by Doctors of Sciences, professors (84% of teaching staff in the graduating departments and 72% of University teachers have scientific degrees and titles). 2% of University teachers have honorary title − Meritorious. 10% are Academicians and Correspondent Members of State and Public Academies.

VNTU is the unique University in Ukraine as introduced in 1991 the three semester study system, two semesters of which are conducted following the curricula and the third one is a working semester. During the working semester the first year students obtain the working profession, corresponding to the future engineering one. The senior students are working on the enterprises independently, improving their qualification. Department for Training and Production Integration has its representatives in all the industrial cities of Ukraine which allows to run the working semesters.

VNTU is given the highest IVth level of accreditation and trains students according to the three stage system Bachelor − Engineer – Master following the curricula, which integrates the peculiarities of national and Canadian system of higher education.

Apart from acquiring the basic specialіty the students are allowed to get the second specialіty by correspondence. Our University is also unique in Ukraine to allow students of any speciality with achievements in sports to obtain the additional specialization − Management of Organizations of Physical Culture and Sports.

One more peculiarity of students training in VNTU allows the Bachelors with the distinction who have the ability to scientific and educational activity to join Masters training courses after four years of Bachelor's training program.

Students of different specialties learn English for Specific Purposes on the level of technical translation which allows them to join the overseas representative offices or work abroad. University campus is located on the lot of 25 hectares in Vinnytsia. 100 km away form Vinnytsia the University owns 10 hectares with the University sports centre. The first and second year students makes it possible to meet eminent people, authors, musicians, artists, theatre and film actors, politicians and religious figures and other people who visit the University. The University has the efficient system for training specialists of higher qualification which has no analogues. Training of scientific and educational specialists is conducted on the post-graduated courses on 19 specialties and on the Doctoral courses on 4 specialities. There are 5 Specialized Scientific Councils for examination of PhD and Doctoral Thesis on 12 specialities.

The University issues the social and political periodical – “Impulse” which is in demand in the region. The University scientific journals on technical, economic and pedagogic sciences approved by the Highest Attestation Board of Ukraine are: “Visnyk of Vinnytsya Polytechnic Institute”, “Optoelectronic Information”, “Power Technologies” and “Information Technologies and Computer Engineering”. Recently initiated scientific journal is “Modern Technologies, Materials and Constructions in Civil Engineering”. The journal “Sententiae” is specialized in the sphere of philosophical sciences.

VNTU is the only permanent member representing Ukraine in the International Association of Inventors IFIA with headquarters in Geneva. The scientists of VNTU are annually awarded medals for inventions presented on the invention exhibitions, organized by IFIA in Jassy (Romania), Budapest (Hungary), Sofia (Bulgaria), Brussels (Belgium), Geneva (Switzerland) and Pittsburg (USA).

The University trains specialists with higher education on the level of Master and Philosophy Doctor in technical sciences for 69 countries in Africa, Asia, South and Central America.
Завдання до тексту 4В.


  • Перекладіть на рідну мову наступні словосполучення.

An educational establishment of the fourth level of accreditation, day-time students, part-time students, to be run by, by correspondence, are conducted following the curricula, the three stage system Bachelor − Engineer – Master, to meet eminent people, the post-graduated courses, is in demand in the region.

  • Дайте відповіді на запитання.

1. How many scientific and educational institutes does VNTU consist of? 2. Who does the University train? 3. Why is VNTU the unique University in Ukraine? 4. What can you tell about the three stage system in the University? 5. Are the students allowed to get the second specialіty by correspondence? 6. What purposes do students learn English for? 7. Are there Specialized Scientific Councils for examination of PhD and Doctoral Thesis in the University? 8. What periodical does the University issue? 9. Do any foreign students study at the University?
Speaking:

Прочитайте діалог і вивчіть його напамять.

  • I would really like to study computing but I can't afford the time or money for a course.

  • I suppose you're talking about a full-time course, but that's not the only option you know.

  • Well what else could I do?

  • You could do it by distance learning. My brother's just completed a distance learning course in HR management.

  • Was he satisfied with it? Was it any good?

  • Yes, he was, although he said it was tough to come home tired after a day's work and then to do two or three hours of study before going to bed.

Exercise 9. Знайдіть в тексті англійські еквіваленти наступним словосполученням:

Я не можу дозволити собі, я вважаю, єдиний варіант, дистанційне навчання, управління персоналом, чи була з цього користь, було важко.



LESSON 5

Grammar: It – безособове

One, that – як замінники

Reading: People Who Changed the World

2012 London Olympics, Ukrainian Gold

Medals



Speaking: Dialogues
Grammar

It – impersonal. One, that as substitutes.

(It – безособове. One, that як замінники.)
It в англійській мові – це безособовий займенник. Нижче наведені деякі з його важливих використань.

It може використовуватись як підмет для безособового дієслова. В якості формального підмета у безособових реченнях займенник it не слід перекладати на українську мову.

Супроводжувати підмет it у безособових реченнях в англійській мові може або прикметник, або прислівник, або дієслово (змінюється за часами і формами). Якщо у реченні є it і прикметник, то присудком буде дієслово to be у формі третьої особи однини.

  • Example:

It is cold. – Холодно.

It is wet. – Сиро.

It is impossible. – Неможливо.

It was interesting to read this article. – Було цікаво читати цю статтю.

У разі поєднання it з прислівником присудок буде тим же дієсловом to be.

  • Example:

It is misty. – Туман.

It is muddy. –Брудно.

It is stormy. – Штормить.

It was difficult to recognize her at once. – Було важко відразу її впізнати.

It is impolite to trouble him. – Неввічливо його турбувати.

Якщо в компанії з підметом it знаходиться дієслово, то воно змінюється за часами та формами.

  • Example:

It drizzles. – Мрячить.

It thaws. – Сніг тане.

It rains. – Іде дощ.

It snowed much last winter. – Минулої зими часто йшов сніг.

Дієслово в безособових реченнях в англійській мові також може бути у формі наступних часів: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Future Simple.

Питальні і заперечні безособові речення в англійській мові утворюються відповідно до загальних правил. Якщо це дієслово to be в будь-якій формі – виносимо його на початок речення при питанні, додаємо частку not при запереченні. Якщо це основне дієслово у певному часі – користуємося відповідними допоміжними дієсловам при питанні, і додаємо ще not для заперечення.

Слід зазначити, що безособове речення з дієсловом take в поєднанні з it ми перекладаємо, як потрібно, необхідно.

  • Example:

It takes me half an hour to get to the university. – Мені необхідно півгодини, щоб дістатися до університету.

It використовується для представлення іменника середнього роду.

  • Example:

I am taking the meat back to the shop because it isn’t good. – Я віднесу м'ясо назад до магазину, тому що воно не свіже.

It може використовуватися для представлення малюків обох статей.

  • Example:

The baby is crying. It must be hungry. – Дитя плаче. Воно напевне голодне.

It також може використовуватися для малих і домашніх тварин.

  • Example:

I love my dog. It is almost human. – Я люблю своя собаку. Вона як людина.

It використовується для емоційного підсилення перед іменником або займенником.

  • Example:

It was John who painted this picture. – Саме Джон намалював цей малюнок.

It was the Prime Minister who made this announcement. – Саме прем'єр-міністр зробив цю заяву.

It може використовуватися для посилання на попередні ствердження.

  • Example:

Jack was maltreated by his uncle; and he could not forget it all his life. – Дядько Джека був жорстоким до нього; і він не міг забути цього усе своє життя.
Exercise 1. Перекладіть на англійську мову.

1. Літо. 2. Важко перекладати цей текст. 3. Вдень світло, а вночі темно. 4. У вашій кімнаті тепло чи холодно? 5. У травні зазвичай тепло. 6. Коли я прийду додому, буде ще світло. 7. Весна. У парках багато квітів. 8. Завтра буде неділя. 9. Ми прийдемо завтра о пів на восьму, якщо не буде дощу. 10. Було без десяти сім, коли батько повернувся додому. 11. Влітку тут тепло? 12. Взимку у нас не холодно. 13. Вчора було також холодно, як і сьогодні. 14. Звідси до будинку 5 кілометрів. 15. Зима. Холодно. Йде сніг. 16. Дощ іде? - Ні, але на небі багато хмар. 17. Важливо читати багато англійських текстів. 18. Вчора йшов сніг? - Ні. 19. Вже пізно і зовсім темно. 20. Важко говорити іноземною мовою без помилок. 21. Звідси дуже далеко до театру? 22. Дуже приємно було купатися в морі. 23. Мені дуже важко перекладати такі тексти без словника. 24. Тобі легко було встати так рано вчора? 25. Скільки тобі потрібно часу, щоб дістатися до університету? 26. Завтра буде ясно. 27. Влітку часто йшли дощі. 28. Взимку буде йти сніг. 29. На вулиці мрячить, одягни плащ. 30. Напевне скоро піде дощ, поквапся. 31. Вчора нам знадобилося 2 години, щоб дістатися до дому. 32. Було дуже важко йти в темряві. 33. Дивно, що він не прийшов. 34. Цікаво, що вона розповіла?



Exercise 2. Перекладіть на українську мову.

1. It is these special properties of sound that are thesubject of the present chapter.

2. It was the Dutch physicist, Christian Huygens, who first offered an explanation for the phenomena.

3. It was not until about 1911 that a first really successful theory of atomic structure was suggested by Rutherford.

4. It was not until Einstein discovered the connection between gravitation and inertia that the mystery Newton could not understand was solved.

5. Radioactive phenomena occur within the nucleus, and it is here that mass and positive charge resides.

6. A solenoid carrying a current behaves just like a magnet. It was the great French physicist Ampere who first showed this to be the case.

7. It is just energy which the atom thus yields up that is held to account for the radiation.


One може замінювати іменник, який вживається раніше. У множині він має форму ones. Перекладається тим іменником, який він замінює, або опускається.

  • Example:

The method is a conventional one. – Цей метод є загальноприйнятим (методом).

Якщо після займенника one слідують означальний підрядний або означальний дієприкметниковий зворот, то one є замінником іменника.

  • Example:

The latter method differs radically from the one mentioned above. – Останній метод значно відрізняється від того (методу), який згадувався раніше.

Займенник that (those) замінює іменник, який стоїть раніше, і перекладається тим іменником, який він замінює, або опускається:

  • Example:

The most important task of a pupil is that of learning. – Найважливіше завдання студента — вчитися.
Exercise 3. Використайте займенники one (ones), that (those), щоб уникнути повторення попереднього іменника.

  • Example:

The red pencil is sharper than the blue pencil. The red pencil is sharper than the blue one.

1. The new flat is more comfortable than the old flat. 2. The white dress is as nice as the yellow dress. 3. The brown shoes are as dear as the black shoes. 4. The thin book has not as many pages as the thick book. 5. The cotton dress is not so dear as the silk dress. 6. This film is more interesting than that film. 7. I don't like this coat. Show me another coat. 8. The shop assistant showed me two suits of different colours. I chose the blue suit.
Reading:
Каталог: file
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