Л. Е. Габрійчук, Н. М. Гадайчук, І. С. Степанова, Л. В. Тульчак практичний курс англійської мови для студентів І – ІІ курсів інртзп



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Word and word-combinations
Enroll v вступати Outskirt – околиця

Тurning pointпереломний Test-pilotльотчик-випробувач

момент Confidentвпевнений



Ventureризикований захід Lift-off nвідрив від землі

Re-entry nповернення Weightlessnessневагомість

Crash – аварія Theory of relativity – теорія

Gifted – oбдарований відносності

Course of history – xід історії Outspoken believer відвертий

Outcome npезультат прихильник

Drop out – «вилітати» User-friendly – зручний

Visionary – далекоглядний Еverydayзвичайний

Text 5A

People Who Changed the World

Yuri Gagarin

"I see Earth. It's so beautiful!" These are the first words ever spoken by a human in space. The speaker was 27-year-old Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

Yuri Gagarin was born on 9 March 1934, in Smolensk, Russia. When he left school, Yuri decided to train as an engineer, so he enrolled at a technical college on the outskirts of Moscow. While he was a student, he became interested in aircraft and took lessons at a local flying school. Soon it became obvious he was a talented pilot, so when he finished his studies in 1955, he joined the Soviet Air Force. This proved to be a turning point in his life. He was chosen to be a test-pilot, flying new and experimental aircraft. Yuri was selected to join a special group of the country's best test pilots and went on to further training to be a cosmonaut. His instructors described him as very calm and confident with very quick reactions.

Yuri's epic one-hundred-and-eight-minute flight into space on 12 April 1961 made headline news all over the world. It was man's first venture into space and the beginning of his journey to the stars. As the pilot of the spaceship, Gagarin proved that a human could survive lift-off, re-entry and weightlessness and return safely to Earth. What's more, he was able to record important data which future astronauts would use.

Yuri Gagarin became a national hero. Unfortunately, he was tragically killed seven years later in a plane crash. He was thirty-four years old.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein is one of the most gifted scientists of all time. He is best known for his theory of relativity, which he developed when he was only twenty-six and which changed the way scientists looked at space and time.

Einstein was born on 14 March 1874, in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. He studied Mathematics and Physics at Zurich University and continued to live in Switzerland after finishing his studies. He worked in an office, but spent his spare time doing scientific research and experiments.

He became professor at Zurich University in 1909, but even before that his research had made him an important force in the world of physics. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics.



Einstein's genius changed the course of history, since it was central to the development of atomic energy. Einstein was an outspoken believer in world peace, however, and he was deeply saddened when he realized the outcome of his research would be an atom bomb. He said at the time, "If only I had known, I'd have become a watchmaker."

In 1933, Einstein accepted a position for life as a professor at Princeton University. He lived there, dedicated to the study of physics, until his death in 1955.

Steve Jobs

In 1975, Steve Jobs founded Apple Computer, a company that revolutionized the personal computer.

Born in 1955, Steve grew up in Silicon Valley, California. He dropped out of college after the first term and took a job as a video game designer. Here he met up with an old friend, Steve Wozniak, and together they founded Apple.

The pair built their first computer in Jobs' parents' garage. A local electronics shop bought fifty of these computers and the company was on its way to success. The company's second model, Apple II, changed the computer industry forever by making computers smaller and more user-friendly, so they could be used by ordinary people. Both charming and demanding, Jobs managed to push Apple Computer to the head of the computer revolution.

Steve Jobs' visionary designs changed people's idea of computers. "We started out to get a computer in the hands of everyday people, and we succeeded beyond our wildest dreams," he once said. He now has plans to lead another revolution, this time in software, by making it quicker and cheaper to develop.
Завдання до тексту 5A.
Дайте відповіді на запитання.

Who ...

was disappointed with how his work was used? made something that could be used by the average person? developed something new? became famous overnight? paved the way for others? did something that could have been dangerous for him? received an important award? achieved his dream?

Знайдіть відповідності.

experimental

a new and being tested

b used in a test

epic

a dangerous

b impressive

venture

a sth done for the first time

b sth new, exciting and difficult

data

a collection

b information

revolutionized

a caused great changes

b started something

lift-off

a when a rocket leaves the ground

b when a rocket leaves the atmosphere

З’єднайте слова і складіть речення.

scientific weather job turning exploration important personal

national smart ordinary

1 .............. data 6............. point

2 .............. problems 7 .............. research

3 space .................. 8 .............. people

4 .............. hero 9 .............. interview

5 ............. patterns 10 ............ card

Text 5B

2012 London Olympics. Ukrainian Gold Medals.
Vasyl Lomachenko (born February 17, 1988 in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi) is a Ukrainian amateur boxer who won the gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics in the featherweight division. Lomachenko is coached by his father Anatoly.

Lomachenko won gold at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China. He avenged his 2007 World Championship defeat to Selimov in the first round. Lomachenko beat his five opponents by an astonishing 58-13 on the way to his first gold medal, and was subsequently named the outstanding boxer for the tournament and awarded the Val Barker Trophy.

In 2012 London Olympics he won his second consecutive Gold Medal. He defeated Han Soon-Chul of South Korea in the final by 19-9.

Kateryna Tarasenko (born 6 August, 1987 in Dnipropetrovsk) is a Ukrainian rower. Along with Yana Dementieva (born 23 October, 1978 in Kharkiv) she finished 7th in the women's double sculls at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Both of them together with Nataliia Dovhodko (born February 7, 1991 in Kyiv) and Anastasiia Kozhenkova (born 19 January, 1986 in Kovel, Volyn Oblast) won the gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the quadruple sculls event.

Oleksandr Usyk (born 17 January, 1987 in Simferopol) is a Ukrainian amateur boxer who won the 2008 European Amateur Boxing Championships at light-heavyweight, the 2011 World Amateur Boxing Championships at heavyweight and the gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics in the heavyweight division. He is a southpaw.

Oleksii Torokhtii (born May 22, 1986 in Zuhres, Donetsk Oblast) is a Ukrainian weightlifter. He won the gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the men's 105 kg category with a total of 412 kg.

Yana Shemiakina (born January 6, 1986 in Lviv) is a Ukrainian fencer (specialised in Épée) who won Bronze during the 2009 European Fencing Championships. Shemiakina is a student at Lviv State University of Physical Culture. In 2012, at the 2012 London Olympics she won the gold medal after defeating Britta Heidemann of Germany in the women's individual epee fencing final.

Yurii Cheban (born 5 July, 1986 in Odesa) is Ukrainian sprint canoer who has been competing since 2003. He took up the sport at age 14. His mother and coach Liudmyla Cheban, who is a former athlete herself, brought him to the sport. He first tried kayak but in a month he was asked to switch to canoe as there was a need for canoeists.

In 2003, despite being a year younger than many of his rivals, he was a world junior silver medal at Komatsu, Japan. He won a bronze medal in the C1 500m event at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Yuri Cheban wins gold medal in men's singles 200-meter canoe sprint at the 2012 Summer Olympics.



He is a student at Poltava National Pedagogical University. His hobbies are hunting, computers and cars.


Завдання до тексту 5B.
Прочитайте текст і поставте до нього 5 спеціальних, 5 загальних, 5 розділових та 5 альтернативних запитань.


  • Знайдіть додаткову інформацію і зробіть презентацію «Olympic Games».


Speaking:

Прочитайте діалоги і вивчіть їх напам’ять.

1

A Do you think you could possibly water my house-plants for me? I'm away on business for two weeks.

B No problem. I'll be glad to. I'll keep an eye on your whole flat if you like.

A That would be great.

B Don't worry, I know how house-proud you are. I'll make sure everything stays clean and tidy.

A I'll do the same for you any time, you know.

B Thanks.

2

A Julie, have you heard? Anna's just been made managing director of the UK branch of her firm, so she's coming back from the States!

B Oh, Mum, that's wonderful news. Let's give her a spectacular home-coming party when she gets back. Hmmm. She's certainly the career girl of the family.

A My love, you don't envy her, do you?

B Not me. I'm the original happy housewife, remember? Four kids, home-made cakes, home-grown vegetables!

A And how are my fabulous grandchildren?

3

A We're having a house-warming party on the 12th. Can you come?

B Yes, you bet. We'd love to! But I didn't know you'd moved.

A Yeah, two weeks ago. It's much bigger than the old one. A huge kitchen and

three big bedrooms.

B It sounds wonderful.

A Yeah. Mind you, there's much more housework to do!

B That's a drag!


LESSON 6

Grammar: Some, any, no та їх похідні.

Reading: Acid Rain

Problems оf Nature Protection



Speaking: Dialogues A, B
Grammar

Some, any, no and their derivatives.

Some, any, no та їх похідні.

Вживання

Займенники some і any вживаються:

а) як займенники-прикметники у функції означення:

  • Example: I've got some stamps.

У мене є кілька поштових марок.

Have you any stamps?

У тебе с поштові марки?

б) як займенники-іменники у функції підмета і додатка:

  • Example: Some doesn’t like to be criticized.

Дехто не люблять, коли їх критикують.

Do any of your engi­neers know French?

Хтось із ваших інженерів знає французьку?

Займенник some, вжитий перед злічуваним іменником у множині або замість нього, означає кілька, деякі, дехто:

  • Example: There are some shops in our village.

У нашому селі c кілька крамниць.

Some looked pretty bad.

Дехто мав досить кепський вигляд.

Перед злічуваними іменниками в однині some означає який-небудь, якийсь:

  • Example: I read it in some magazine.

Я читав це в якомусь журналі.

Перед незлічуваними іменниками some означає деяку кількість і на українську мову звичайно не перекладається:

  • Example: Don't forget to buy some butter.

He забудь купити масла.

Перед числівниками some має значення приблизно:

  • Example: I've read some 50 pages.

Я прочитав десь сторінок 50.

Займенник any означає який-небудь, які-небудь, скільки-небудь. На українську мову він здебільшого не перекладається:

  • Example: Are there any mushrooms there?

Там є гриби?

We haven't got any sugar.

У нас нема цукру.

Складні неозначені займенники somebody, someone хтось, хто-небудь; something щось; anybody, anyone xтo-небудь; anything що-небудь є займенниками-іменниками. Вони вживаються в загальному і присвійному відмінках. У загальному відмінку ці займенники виконують функції підмета і додатка (іноді іменної частини присудка), а в присвійному відмінку — функцію означення:

  • Example: Somebody knocked on the door.

Хтось постукав у двері.

They did not say anything.

Вони не сказали нічого.

There was somebody's coat there.

Там було чиєсь пальто.

Займенники some, somebody, someone, something вживаються:

а) у стверджувальних реченнях:

  • Example: There were some old apple trees in his garden.

В його саду було кілька старих яблунь.

I've brought you something.

Я вам дещо приніс.

б) у спеціальних запитаннях:

  • Example: Where have you left some your notes?

Де ви залишили деякі зі своїх записів?

Why have some pupils gone home?

Чому деякі учні пішли додому?

в) у загальних запитаннях, що виражають пропозицію або прохання:

  • Example: Will you have some more tea?

Вам ще налити чаю?

Can I have some more milk?

Можна мені ще молока?

Займенники any, anybody, anyone, anything вживаються:

а) у загальних запитаннях:

  • Example: Are there any fruit-trees there?

Там є фруктові дерева?

Did anyone see you going to her room?

Хто-небудь бачив, як ви йшли до її кімнати?

Was anybody here just now?

Тут був хто-небудь тільки-що?

б) в заперечних реченнях:

  • Example: I don't see anything.

Я не бачу нічого.

в) у стверджувальних реченнях, де any має значення будь-який; anybody, anyone — будь-хто; anything — будь-що:

  • Example: You can buy stamps at any post-office.

Марки можна купити в будь-якому поштовому

відділенні.

You can have anything you like.

Можеш взяти будь-що, що тобі подобається.

Заперечний займенник no є займенником-прикметником; він вживається перед іменником:

  • Example: She has got no piano.

У неї нема рояля.

No dictionary could help him.

Ніякий словник не зміг допомогти йому.

Якщо займенник no стосується іменника-додатка, його можна опустити, вживаючи дієслово-присудок у заперечній формі; перед додатком при цьому здебільшого вживається займенник any.

  • Example: She has got no piano.

She hasn't got any piano.

She hasn't got a piano.

Складні заперечні займенники nobody, no one нікого; nothing ніщо, нічого є займенниками-іменниками і вживаються у функції підмета і додатка:

  • Example: No one answered.

Ніхто не відповів.

I knew nothing about all this at the time.

Я нічого не знав про все це в той час.

Nothing could be done be­fore morning.

Нічого не можна було зробити до ранку.

У ролі додатка поряд з nobody, no one і nothing вживаються займенники anybody, anyone і anything; дієслово-присудок при цьому має заперечну форму.

  • Example: She did not say anything.

She said nothing.

Але в функції підмета вживаються лише сполучення з no:

  • Example: No one spoke to him.

Ніхто не розмовляв з ним.

Nothing could help him.

Ніщо не могло допомогти йому..

Займенники nobody і no one виконують у присвійному відмінку функцію означення:

  • Example: It was nobody's house.

Це був нічий будинок.
Exercise 1. Доповніть речення some, any, someone, anyone, something, anything, somewhere, anywhere.

1. She bought … new skirts.

2. He never does … homework.

3. We have … to eat.

4. Let's go … else.

5. I cannot hear…

6. I have … questions.

7. He lives … near the city centre.

8. There was't … at home.

9. … broke the window.

10. Have you seen my key? I can't find it...

11. He didn't want to eat...

12. Would you like … tea?

13. I haven't got … more questions.

14. I saw … at the window.

15. I saw them … minutes ago.



Exercise 2. Доповніть речення some або any.

1. There arebeautiful flowers in the garden.

2. І haven't gotenvelopes but Ann's got...

3. Are thereletters for me this morning?

4. I'm going to buyeggs.

5. They didn't makemistakes in their tests.

6. І went out to buymilk but they didn't havein the shop.

7. I'm thirsty. Can I havewater, please?

8. І want to wash my hair. Is thereshampoo?

9. "Would you likecheese?" "No, thank you. I've had enough to eat."

10. Can you speakforeign language?

Exercise 3. Доповніть речення some/any/no + body/one/thing/where.

1. You must askto help you with this work.

2. If I havefree time, I shall gotonight.

3. Have you heardabout our plan?

4. Didsee this film yesterday?

5. І knowabout it and he doesn't knowabout it either.knows

about it.

6. He saidin a low voice but I didn't make out...

7. … has broken the window but I don't know exactly who it was.

8. … I'm looking for my keys. Hasseen them? They must behere.

9. We wanted some bread but there wasleft.

10. … was there, the place was empty.

Exercise 4. Доповніть речення some або any.

1. I have ... English books.

2. Are there ... arm-chairs in the room?

3. There isn't ... chalk in the classroom.

4. There is … juice in the jug.

5.Mother has bought ... butter.

6. There аrеn’t ... in my dictation.



7. There are ... lakes in this district.

8. Have you … relatives in Kyiv?

9. I've read ... English stories this month.

10. Have you got ... French newspapers?

Exercise 5. Дайте відповіді на запитання.

1. Have you any brothers or sisters?

2. Have you got any Еnglish books?

3. Are there any pictures on the walls of your room?

4. Are there any trees in front of your house?

5. Can any of your friends speak German?

6. Have you read any English books this year?

7. Did you receive any massagers yesterday?

8. Did you find anybody in the gym when you came to the University yesterday?

9. Is there anything on your table now?

10. Did you invite anybody to your last birthday party?

11. Did anybody invite you to dinner last week?

12. Is there anything in your pocket now?

Exercise 6. Замініть займенник any і його похідні на no або його похідні, зробіть необхідні зміни.

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