Model: I haven't any German books. — I have no German books.
She doesn't know anything. — She knows nothing.
1. The little boy hasn't any toys.2.There isn't any water in the jug.3.There aren't any fruit trees in the park.4.We haven't any classes on Sunday.5.It was so dark that we couldn't see anything. 6. We haven't learned any new words this week.7.She did not ask anyone to help her.8. I didn't see anyone there.9.I didn't know anything about it.10.There weren't any students in our classroom till 8 o’clock. Reading: Word and word-combinations Threatn – загроза Fiction – вигадка
Can you imagine a world where acid falls out of the sky? It sounds like something from science fiction, but it happens every day on planet Earth. Acid rain is serious environmental problem which is getting worse all the time. It destroys buildings, plants and wildlife and it is slowly poisoning the entire planet.
Acid rain is caused by cars and lorries, factories and electric power plants that use fossil fuels, such as oil and coal. In recent years, we have used more and more fossil fuels to provide energy for our homes and businesses. As a result, the amount of acid rain has increased dramatically.
When fossil fuels are burned they release gas called sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into theatmosphere. These gases mix with water to form clouds of dangerous acids. When rain falls from these clouds, it is highly acidic and causes great deal of damage to our planet.
Acid rain damages many different kinds of plants including the crops and trees which provide us with food. It also pollutes our lakes and streams, and consequently the fish and the animals that drink it. Various species of plants and wildlife are in danger of becoming extinct as a result of acid rain.
So how can we prevent acid rain from completely destroying our planet? The answer is simple. We must cut down as much as possible on our use fossil fuels. We should find alternative forms energy, such as solar power, to supply our homes and businesses, and use public transport instead of private cars. Only by doing this we can save our planet from acid rain. Завдання до тексту 6A.
Дайте відповіді на питання.
1. Can you think of any other alternative forms of energy?
2. Can you think of other suggestions to help stop acid rain?
Побудуйте речення зі словосполучень, доповнюючи їх власними думками.
1 stop cutting down trees a make new products/reduce/litter
2 use alternative forms b animals/birds/notlose/natural
3 recycle containers, papers, etcc natural resources/not come to an
end/reduce air pollution caused
by harmful gases
Example: 1-b Firstly, it would be a good idea to stop cutting down trees. If this were done, animals and birds would not lose their natural habitats.
Problems оf Nature Protection Nature protection is one of the major functions of each state and one of the most important problems of nowadays, as environmental, air and water pollution is extremely great, and this dangerous situation becomes worse with every passing year.
Moreover, high density of industrial enterprises and man's economic activities that destruct the ozone layer have done a serious damage to our planet.
Besides the exploration of outer space and mastering nuclear energy have made the relationship between man and nature still more complicated endangering the life on Earth.
The new Ukrainian Constitution, which was adopted by the Supreme Rada on June 28, 1996, assures the right to a safe and healthy environment and enacts a number of laws aimed at it.
Their main objects are to protect the biosphere from pollutants, to control the use of water and land reserves, to prohibit all activities threatening nature and guarantee the ecological security of the Ukrainians.
To implement these urgent tasks Ukraine must organize a real environmental protection and rational utilization of natural resources, develop new advanced technologies producing little or no waste, forecast the effect of human activities on the biosphere, etc.
That's why protection of nature resources and wildlife has become a great concern of our government, which founded the Ministries of Environment and Emergency Situations and a special Committee of the Verkhovna Rada dealing with these problems.
Their tasks are to control the state of surroundings, to prevent the pollution of nature and atmosphere, to safeguard the water areas of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, Ukrainian rivers and lakes, to extend the network of national reserves and to maintain cooperation with different international ecological organizations.
In Ukraine, a campaign for environment protection is widely supported by numerous public organizations and lots of individuals. The most active participant in this struggle is the Ukrainian Green Party, which publishes the ecological newspaper "The Green World" ("Zeleniy Svit"). The party calls on Ukrainians to keep nature and use it more carefully and economically, as our common goal is to preserve the generous and picturesque Ukrainian land for the present and future generations in all its beauty.
Great Britain also does its best to improve the ecological situation inside and outside the country. Responsibility for pollution rests with local and central government bodies. The British Cabinet of Ministers worked out the rules for the use of the Earth's atmosphere and carried out urgent legislative measures to prevent the greenhouse effect, which can lead to global warming and rise in sea level.
Only a strictly scientific approach to the industrial-technological development is able to settle all global and local ecological problems, as economic, social, technological and biological processes are closely interrelated nowadays, so we must consider them as a complicated ecological-economic system.
At present, more and more people throughout the world begin to understand that all countries of our planet are ecologically interdependent; therefore all nations must cooperate with each other in solving global ecological problems to secure our unique Earth. Either we shall stop killing the nature or we'll kill ourselves! Завдання до тексту 6В. Перекладіть на рідну мову виділені в тексті слова.Дайтевідповідіназапитання.
1. Why is nature protection one of the most important problems of each state?
2. What destruct the ozone layer?
3. When was the new Ukrainian Constitution adopted?
4. What are the main objects concerning the nature protection?
5. What Ministry deals with the problems of nature protection?
6. What are the tasks of such Ministry?
7. What do you know about the Ukrainian Green Party?
8. What is able to settle all global and local ecological problems?
9. Why must all nations cooperate with each other in solving global ecological problems?
Andrea: Did you hear the warning on the radio this morning?
Trevor: No. What warning?
Andrea: Apparently the air qualitytoday will not meet recommended levels.
Trevor: What does that mean?
Andrea: It means that the air over the city is not moving at all.It's just like a thick cloud of polluted gasall around us.
Trevor: That sounds horrible!
Andrea: It is! Doctors recommend that the elderlyand everyone with breathing difficulties should stay inside all day today.
Trevor: Oh dear! It sounds like we'll all have breathing difficulties soon if the air quality doesn't improve.
Sam: Well, I'm not really surprised. I mean, look at this lake. It's atotal mess.The only thing you're likely to catch in this wateris a disease.
Dave: I just don't understand how it got so dirty.
Sam: Well, I suppose the local factories have been pumping theirindustrial waste into it.
Dave: I hate that. Look! Someone has been dumping rubbish!What sort of person would do that in such a beautiful spot?
Sam: Well, I wouldn't, but a lot of people simply don't care aboutthe environment.
Dave: Oh, wait! I've caught something!
Sam: What is it? Let me see! Great - we can have fish for dinner.
Dave: Huh! It’s an old boot. Oh, I'm fed up with this.Let's gohome.
Sam: I agree.
Grammar: Much, many, (a) little, (a) few
Reading: History of Computers
What is a Computer?
Speaking: Looking for a new job
Grammar Кількісні займенники
До кількісних займенників належать: many, much ─ багато; few, little ─ мало; a few, a little ─ кілька, трохи. Усі вони мають ступені порівняння:
Example:many — more — most
much — more — most
few — fewer — fewest
little — less — least
Кількісні займенники вживаються як займенники-прикметники і як займенники - іменники.
Manyіfewвживаються перед зліченними іменниками множини, а також замінюють їх. Як іменник many означає багато хто, few — малохто:
Example: There were many students in the room.
У кімнаті було багато студентів.
Багато хто залишається тут.
She has few note-books.
У неї мало зошитів.
Many people tried to climb the mountain but few reached the top of it.
Багато людей пробували піднятися на гору, але мало хто досяг вершини.
Займенникиmuchіlittleвживаються перед незліченними іменниками, а також замінюють їх. Крім того,muchіlittleвживаються після дієслів як прислівники.
Example: There is much snow on the ground.
На землі багато снігу.
Much of what you say is true.
Багато з того, що ви кажете, правда.
Він працює дуже багато.
І have very little time.
У мене дуже мало часу.
She reads little now.
Вона зараз мало читає.
Часто до них додаються прислівники very (дуже), too (занадто), so (так).
Example:My son reads very / too / so much.
Мій син дуже / занадто багато читає.
My son reads very little.
Мій син дуже мало читає.
Для позначення великої кількості вживають такі словосполучення, як a lot of, lots of. Вони вживаються разом із злічуваними іменниками у множині та незлічуваними іменниками. У сучасній англійській мові a lot of, lots of зазвичай використовуються у розповідних реченнях, а many, much — у заперечних та питальних.
Example:We have got a lot of friends.
We have got a lot of work.
We haven’t got many friends.
We haven’t got much work.
Have we got many friends?
Have we got much work?
У нас багато роботи? Exercise 1. Використайте займенники much, many, a lot of.
1. I have … newspapers in my bag. 2. There are … colleges within English universities. 3. He knows … languages. 4. There is … dust on the furniture. 5. Our teacher knows … 6. We walk … after lessons. 7. They don’t ask us … questions.
Exercise 2. Використайте необхідний займенник (little, few, a little, a few).
1. I’ve got ______ spare time today. 2. There isn’t ______ snow on the ground. − No, the sun has melted it. 3. How ______ times did you have a shower yesterday? 4. There are ______flowers in the garden. – Yes, they are beautiful, aren’t they? 5. Have you got any money? – Yes, ______ . 6. Have you got any vegetables? - Yes, but ______ . 7. Can you lend me some money? – No, sorry. I haven’t got money with me. 8. We’ll have to hurry. The man was badly injured in the accident. He lost ______ blood. 9. Don’t disturb me. I’ve got work to do. 10. We didn’t take ______ photographs when we were on holiday.
Exercise 4. Виберіть правильний варіант:
1. When will you be back? −Soon. I’m only going away for a few / a little days.
2. How do you like your coffee? – I think you’ve put too much / too many milk in it.
Exercise 5. Поставте замість пропусків займенники a few, few, a little, little.
1. I don't think I can do this work on my own. I need ___ help.
2. ___Ukrainian ecologists visited Northern Ireland in 2009.
3. The snow was quite deep. There seemed to be___hope of completing the work on the fields.
4. ___teenagers in the village could read before the revolution.
5.We only need ____ tractors to do this work.
6.They had___sheep, ___ goats and some hens and cocks.
7.Unfortunately, there were____ rains last summer.
8. ____ water made those flowers more beautiful.
9. In hot weather plants look fading. They need at least ___ water.
10. This village on the map is very small, but it has ___ big buildings.
11. In the evening after hard work farmers feel really tired. They need ____
energy to work on their own fields.
12. There are ___ roads in the village, but they all are in a good condition.
Exercise 6. Перекладіть слова в дужках, вживаючи few or a few.
1. During our last practice we have discussed (декілька) business matters. 2. I have (мало) German books. 3. There are (мало) plants in my native city.4. I have written (декілька) letters to my former schoolmates. 5. My brother has read (мало) English books this year. 6. We have (декілька) foreign students in our university. 7. There were very (мало) people there. 8 Many students were invited but (декілька) came. 9. He has (мало) friends.
Exercise 7. Поставте замість пропусків займенники a few, few, a little, little.
1. There is ... juice left in this bottle. 2. Would you like ...milk? — Yes, thank you. My doctor says it's good for my health. 3. I have ... money, so we can go to the cafe. 4. I have ... money, so we cannot go to the cinema. 5. This girl works very ... , that's why she knows nothing. 6. Mother gave us ... apples, and we were glad. 7. He did not like it at the camp: he had very ... friends there. 8. This lemon drink is sour; if you put ... sugar in it, it will be sweeter. 9. This lemon drink is sour; if you put ... lumps of sugar in it, it will be sweeter. 10. The hall was almost empty: there were very ... people in it. 11. I can't buy this expensive hat today: I have too ... money. 12. She left and returned in ... minutes. 13. I think you can spare me ... time now. 14. I am sorry I have seen ... plays by this author.
Exercise 8. Поставте замість пропусків займенники much, many, little, few, a little или a few.
1. When we walked ... farther down the road, we met another group of students. 2. Have you got ... money on you? — I'm sorry. I have very ... money at the moment. 3. At the conference we met ... people whom we knew well. 4. There are very ... old houses left in our street. Most of them have already been pulled down. 5. If you have ... spare time, look through this book. You will find ... stories there which are rather interesting. 6. There are ... things here which I cannot understand. 7. Shall I bring ... more chalk? — No, thank you. There is ... chalk on the desk. I hope that will be enough for our lesson. 8. He had ... English books at home, so he had to go to the library for more books. 9. She gave him ... water to wash his hands and face. 10. I'd like to say ... words about my journey. 11. After the play everybody felt ... tired. 12. Let's stay here ... longer: it is such a nice place. 13. There were ... new words in the text, and Peter spent ... time learning them. 14. There was ... hay in the barn, and the children could not play there. 15. My friend isn't going to the concert this evening because he has got ... work to do. 16. My mother knows German ... and she can help you with the translation of this letter. 17. He's got very ... time left. If he doesn't hurry up, he'll miss the plane.
Тen-toothed gear wheels — десяти зубчасті шестерні
Bead frame — рамка з кісточками
Artificial intelligence— штучний інтелект
History of Computers Let us take a look at the history of the computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was ten fingers of man’s hands. This, in fact, is why today we count in tens and multiply of tens. Then the abacus was invented, a bead frame in which the beads are moved from the left to the right. People went on using some forms of abacus well into the 16th century, it is being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read.
During the 17th and 18th centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J.Napier, a Scotsman, devised a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing that is the way how the modern slide rule works. Henry Briggs used Napier’s ideas to produce logarithms which all mathematicians used today.
Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaac Newton, an Englishman, and Leibnitz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people’s experiments. This type of machine which saves a great deal of time and reduces the possibility of making mistakes depends on a ten-toothed gear wheels.
In 1830 Charles Babbage, an Englishman, designed a machine called “The Analytical Engine”. This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out a human being altogether and provide the machine with necessary facts the problem to be solved. He never finished this work but many of his ideas were the basis for building today’s computers.
In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American Vannevar Bush. The device was used in World War II to help aim guns. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The men responsible for this invention were Professor Howard Aiken and some people from IBM. This was the first machine that could figure out long mathematical problems at a very fast speed.
In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania, J.Eckert and J.Mayshly, built the first digital computer using parts called vacuum tubes. They named their new invention UNIAC. The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes came out in 1950. UNIAC I was an example of these computers which could perform thousand of calculations per second.
In 1960 the second generation of computers was developed and could perform ten times faster than their predecessors. The reason for this extra speed was the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. The second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more dependable than the first-generation computers.
The third-generation computers appeared on the market in 1965. These computers could do a million calculations a second which is 1000 times faster than the first-generation computers. Unlike the second-generation computers these are controlled by tiny integrated circuits and are consequently smaller and more dependable.
The fourth-generation computers arrived and the integrated circuits developed have been greatly reduced in size. This was due to microminiturization which means that the circuits were much smaller than before; as many as 1000 tiny circuits fit onto a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are attached or imprinted; in 2008 it dropped below 100 nanometers and in 2013 it is expected to be in the tens of nanometers. The fourth-generation computers are 50 times faster than the third-generation computers and can complete approximately 1.000.000 instructions per second.
The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was initiated by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry and began in 1982 to create a computer using massive parallel computing or processing. It was to be the result of a massive industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It aimed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence.
In the history of computing hardware computers using vacuum tubes were called the first generation; transistors and diodes − the second; integrated circuits − the third; and those using microprocessors − the fourth. Whereas previous computer generations had focused on increasing the number of logic elements in a single CPU, the fifth generation (it was widely believed at that time) would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for higher performance.
The project was to create the computer over a ten-year period and investment in a new "sixth generation" project would begin. Opinions about its outcome are divided: either it was a failure or it was ahead of its time.
Завданнядотексту 7A. Translate from English into Ukrainian:
The very first calculating device, first digital computer, to count in tens, to figure out, to multiply of tens, ten times faster, without knowing, extra speed, to be independently invented, tiny integrated circuits, to save a great deal of time, keeping instruction.
Translate from Ukrainian into English:
Сьогодні знаємо, cпроба, 10 пальців людської руки, аналоговий комп'ютер, кісточки на рахівниці рухають зліва на право, швидкість, продовжувати використовувати, вакуумні трубки, рахівниця, транзистор, справжня лічильно-обчислювальна машина, інтегровані схеми.
Fill in each blank with a word chosen from the list below to completethemeaning of the sentence:
1. The very first ..... device used was 10 fingers of a man’s hand.
2. Then, the ..... was invented.
3. J.Napier ..... a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing.
4. Henry Briggs used J.Napier’s ideas to produce ..... .
5. The first real calculating ..... appeared in 1820.
6. This type of machine ..... the possibility of making mistakes.
7. In 1930 the first ..... computer was built.
8. This was the first machine that could ..... mathematical problems at a very fast speed.
9. In 1946 was built the first digital computer using parts called .... .
10. The reason for this extra ..... was the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes.
11. The second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more ..... than the first-generation computers.
12. The third-generation computers are controlled by ..... integrated circuits.
13. This is due to ....., which means that the circuits are much smaller than before.
Fill in the preposition:
1. Let us take a look ..... the history of computers.
2. That is why we count ..... tens and multiply ..... tens.
3. The beads are moved ..... the left ..... the right.
4. Abacus is still being used ..... some parts ..... the world.
5. Calculus was independently invented ..... both Sir Isaac Newton and Leibnitz.
6. This type of machine depends ..... a ten-toothed gear wheels.
7. “The Analytical Engine” was shown ..... the Paris Exhibition ..... 1855.
8. The men responsible ..... this invention were Professor Howard Aiken and some people ..... IBM.
9. The first generation of computers came ..... in 1950.
10. Due to microminiturization 1000 tiny circuits fit ..... a single chip.
Finish the following sentences:
1. The first generation of computers came out in ..... .
2. The second generation of computers could perform work ten times faster than their .... .
3. The third-generation computers appeared on the market in ..... .
4. The fourth-generation computers have been greatly ..... .
5. The fourth-generation computers are 50 times faster and can ..... .
Find the synonyms to the following words in the text:
Simple, to carry out, up to date, quick, to try, small.
Find the antonyms to the following words in the text:
Like, short, to increase, dependently.
What is a Computer? A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The switches like the cores are capable of being in one of two possible states, that is, on or off; magnetized.
The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters and characters.
The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or that magnetize or do not magnetize the cores.
The basic job of computers is the processing of information. For this reason computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions called a program and characters called data, perform mathematical and logical operations and then supply results of these operations.
The program or a part of it that tells the computers what to do and the data that provide the information needed to solve the problem are kept inside the computer in a place called memory.
Computers are thought to have many remarkable powers. Most computers whether large or small have three basic capabilities.
First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation.
Second, computers have means of communicating with the user. If we couldn’t feed information in and get results back these machine wouldn’t be of much use. However, certain computers (commonly minicomputers and microcomputers) are used to control directly things such as robots, aircraft navigation systems, medical instruments, etc. Some of the most common means of inputting information are to use a keyboard or a mouse, monitors and printers, modems and network cards. The computer’s input device (which might be a disk drive depending on the medium used in inputting information) reads the information into the computer. For outputting information two common devices are used a printer which prints the new information on paper or a display which shows the results on a a screen.
Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decisions which computer circuits can make are not of the type “Who would win a war between two countries?” or “Who is the richest person in the world?” Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely “Is one number use more often than another?”, “Are two numbers equal?” and “Is one number greater than another?”
A computer can solve a series of problems and make thousands of logical operations without becoming tired or bored. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction that it takes a human being to do the job. A computer can replace people in dull routine but it has no originality, it works according to the instructions given to it and cannot exercise value judgements.
There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical “brain” but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives the appropriate information but because of electric pulses that move at the speed of light a computer can carry out vast numbers of arithmetical-logical operations almost instantaneously.
A person can do the same but in many cases that person would be deal long before the job was finished.
Завдання до тексту 7В. Translate these into your own language:
An intricate network, an input device, tiny metal cores, for outputting information, by inputting signals, a decision, the processing of information, to replace, to define, appropriate, to provide, to carry out, to solve, vast, memory.
Translate these into English:
Подібний, перемикач, безпосередньо керувати, металевe осерддя, літери та символи, схема, намагнічувати, механічний мозок, обробка інформації, обмежений, виконувати, дані, швидкість світла, засоби зв'язку з користувачем.
Fill in the necessary words:
1. A computer is a ..... with an intricate network of electronic circuits.
2. The machine is ..... of storing and manipulating numbers, letters and characters.
3. The basic job of a computer is the ..... of information.
4. Most computers have three basic ..... .
5. Computers have ..... for performing arithmetical operations.
6. Certain computers are used ..... directly things such as robots, medical instruments, etc.
7. For outputting information two common ..... are used.
8. A computer can ..... people in dull routine.
Fill in the gaps the prepositions:
1. A computer is a device ..... an intricate network.
2. The switches are capable of being ..... one or two states.
3. We can make the machine do what we want ..... inputting signals.
4. Computers accept information ..... the form of instructions called a program.
5. Computers have circuits ..... performing operations.
6. Computers have means of communicating ..... the user.
7. Input device may be a disk drive depending ..... the medium used ..... inputting information.
8. Computers can solve a series of problems ..... becoming tired or bored.
Give the appropriate definitions of the following terms: