Методичні рекомендації з виконання контрольних робіт для студентів заочної форми навчання



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Міністерство освіти і науки України

Національний авіаційний університет

Навчально-науковий Гуманітарний інститут

Кафедра англійської філології і перекладу

Методичні рекомендації

з виконання контрольних робіт

для студентів заочної форми навчання

з дисципліни «Переклад галузевої літератури»

за напрямом 6.020303 «Філологія»
Укладач:

канд. філол.н., доц. Сітко А.В.

Методичні рекомендації розглянуті та схвалені на засіданні кафедри англійської філології і перекладу

Протокол № ____ від «___»_____2016 р.

Завідувач кафедри _____ Сидоренко С.І.

У 9 семестрі студентом має бути виконана контрольна робота (у формі реферату. Контрольна робота складається з 2-х частин: 1) переклад тексту з англійської мови українською та укладання тематичного англо-українського глосарію до тексту, обсягом 50 одиниць (студент обирає один з десяти варіантів. Номер тексту повинен відповідати двом останнім цифрам номера залікової книжки студента); 3) переклад тексту з української мови англійською з укладанням тематичного українсько-англійського глосарію, обсягом 50 одиниць (для усіх студентів однаковий). Переклад тексту повинен бути самостійним, еквівалентним та відредагованим. У випадку наявності двох однакових перекладів, контрольна робота обом студентам не зараховується. Комп’ютерний переклад текстів не зараховується.

Вимоги до форматування тексту: гарнітура шрифту – Times New Roman; розмір шрифту – 14 кегль; міжрядковий інтервал – 1; поля: ліве 2,5 см, інші – 1,5 см; нумерація сторінок внизу по центру; при наборі тексту потрібно розрізняти символи дефісу та тире, українські (російські) («») та латинські (“”) лапки. Прохання уніфікувати використання напівжирного шрифту та курсиву при виділенні прикладів та інших фрагментів тексту і не зловживати підкресленням.

І. Тексти для перекладу з англійської мови українською.

1. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU GET TIRED?

Want to know how to fight fatigue so you can get more things done and enjoy life? Get tired more often! Strange as that sounds, investigators are finding that regular physical activity increases your working capacity about 20 per cent. In short, the more you do, the more you can do.

Much about fatigue has long been mysterious. But little by little scientists are beginning to fit together clues about what happens when we get tired. The results are enough to debunk some long-held theories — for example, that fatigue occurs simply because of accumulation of a waste product in the muscles.

We get our energy from the sun. It's captured and used by plants to combine carbon dioxide

from the air and minerals from the soil into carbohydrates. We eat the plants and change the carbohydrates into glycogen-animal starch. Every time you bend an elbow or raise an eyebrow, the

muscles involved are fueled by glycogen. But, along with energy, glycogen yields lactic acid.



Classic theory. Accumulate enough acid, so the classic theory went, and you get tired because muscle tissue becomes lethargic in an acid medium. But researchers have found that when you work, so do the adrenal glands. They produce secretions that buffer lactic acid. What little acidity remains stimulates breathing. And as you breathe in more oxygen, it helps dispose of the acid by oxidation.

Why exercise? Regular exercise does more than increase muscle size. At rest, muscles use 60 to 70 milliliters (thousandths of a quart) of oxygen per minute. In exercise, they need 3,000! The heart pumps harder to get more oxygen-carrying blood to the muscles, increasing heartpumping efficiency.

Also, reports Dr.Thomas Cureton of the University of Illinois, tiny blood vessels that penetrate muscles are opened wide, including many other wise not open at all-and circulation efficiency increases, making for greater strength and endurance.

Some investigators believe exercise is also needed to keep the adrenal glands in shape. One study, showing that when wild animals are domesticated their adrenals shrink, suggests that our adrenals may have been getting smaller as we have become ever more civilized, giving the glands less and less regular physical stimulation.



Fatigue and monotony. A British psychologist had eight drivers grind repeatedly around a two-mile city circuit-with radio on, then off. Registering devices on accelerator, brake, clutch, and steering wheel recorded a measure of driving efficiency. Results indicate that music from a radio helps reduce impairment in driving stemming from monotony and fatigue.

How come? The psychologist says the extra job of listening to the music lowers "emotional arousal in certain conditions by providing an alternative stimulus". In plain English: You're likely to get less angry with other drivers-and drive better, longer.



What's wrong with pep pills? One indication of nervous-system involvement in fatigue is the ability of such drugs as caffeine in coffee and amphetamine in "pep pills" to boost endurance by stimulating the nervous system. Airmen in World War II used amphetamine for extra stamina and alertness on long, dangerous missions. And when astronaut Gordon Cooper's automatic controls failed, he was ordered to take amphetamine so his reflexes would be sharp for manual re-entry.

But if amphetamine, medically prescribed for special situations, can be valuable, indiscriminate use is dangerous. Abusers may end up collapsing.



2. SILENT SEA ENGINE

In the silent world of underwater warfare, the slightest noise can bring sudden death to a

submarine. The electronic ears of the enemy can detect conventional engines and screw propellers as far as 100 miles away.

A computer interprets the sounds and directs a deadly homing torpedo to their source in minutes. How do you go about maneuvering a 3, 260-ton nuclear submarine without making a sound? Two medical researchers have found the answer-revolutionary undersea propulsion unit dubbed the "sea engine".

The two men were looking for a method of simulating the flow of blood through the human body. They tried various, types of mechanical pumps without success. The pumping action was too irregular.

While investigating the effects of magnetic fields on weak salt solutions similar to blood, the two researchers stumbled across an interesting fact. They could make the electrically charged ions in such solutions move in one direction by applying a magnetic field in just the right way. Then they made a second important discovery: the moving ions dragged water molecules along with them so that the entire solution moved. The researchers suddenly realized that they had the making of a new type of pump. They quickly assembled an experimental model and found, as they had expected, that the device really worked. Their "pump" consisted of nothing more than an unimpressive collection of junk-box electronic components. Yet the instant they connected it to a source of electrical power, a weak salt solution inside it began to move. A number of tests were made and new models were constructed, some of which permitted, very accurate control over the quantity of liquid being pumped, and others which made the liquid move in a series of pulses, duplicating the pumping action of the human heart. Amazingly, the pumps could move a variety of liquids-including ordinary tap water — without difficulty. Then a visiting scientist from the Office of Naval Research suggested they try pumping seawater. The pump worked better than ever.

The sea engine is a form of electromagnetic pump, which is nothing new. Units working on the same principle have been used to pump liquid metals such as sodium through nuclear reactors for coolant purposes. However, a pump had never before been constructed to move seawater-electronically, with no moving parts, with no sound. And that's what intrigues naval engineers.

The Navy problem.Nuclear-submarine skippers have had to develop a variety of ways of escaping detection. At times, they dive to fantastic depths where sub noises may be confused with other ocean sounds. Or they may sit quietly on the bottom and wait for the enemy to come to them. In any case, starting the engine may mean immediate destruction.

An electromagnetic pump large enough to propel a submarine would require a lot of electrical power, but this would present no problem on a nuclear submarine. A submarine would be equipped with two sea engines: one to port and one to starboard. Each engine would operate independently, the direction and force of its propulsive jet of seawater changed by the mere flick of a switch. In this way, the sub could move forward, backward, or turn by pumping water in one direction on one side and in the other direction on the other side.

Most likely, sea engines would be installed along with conventional high-speed screw engines for normal use. The sea engines would enable the sub to engage in silent warfare by gliding along the ocean bottom and maneuvering close to its prey.



How it works. The simplest form of sea engine consists of two metal-plate electrodes mounted parallel to each other inside a rectangular chamber called a "cannula". An opening at each end of the cannula permits seawater to flow between the electrodes. The cannula is mounted between the poles of a powerful electromagnet, so that the magnetic field is concentrated on the water between them.

When an alternating current is applied to the two electrodes, large numbers of ions-sodium and chloride ions in seawater-are immediately attracted to the water between them. These ions attempt to move back and forth between the electrodes. Their individual magnetic fields (each ion is surrounded by its own tiny electromagnetic field) are repelled, however, by the powerful external magnetic field. Many of the ions are thus forced to move sideways, away from the electrodes. As they move along, they drag water molecules with them, causing the water to move out of the cannula. More seawater enters from the other opening, producing a continuous flow.



Torpedoes and destroyers. There is every reason to believe that a sea engine will power a radically new type of torpedo. The ones we're using now produce a relatively loud sound, giving an alert enemy a chance to duck. A somewhat slower fish, powered by a silent sea engine using high capacity batteries, would change this.

Highly specialized types of surface ships, such as the hunter-killer destroyers, could also profit from periods of silent running with sea engines. How about the pumping of blood-the application of the electromagnetic pump? Experiments are currently under way to use a modified sea engine to temporarily replace the human heart during surgical operations. Another model may one day be used to pump waste from a patient's body during long operations.


3. THE MEANING OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS

On the basis of the sample provided by Mariner IV one can say that the number of large craters per unit area on the Martian surface and their size distribution resemble closely the size and distribution of craters on the high-lands of the moon [(see top illustration at right)]. The Martian craters have rims that rise about 100 meters above the surrounding surface and depths that extend several hundred meters below the rims. The crater walls slope at angles up to about 10 degrees. [If Mariner IV's sample of photographs is representative, there must be more than 10,000 craters on the surface of Mars.

Judging by the Mariner IV's sample Mars seems to have fewer craters of 10 kilometers in diameter and smaller than would be expected if their distribution in size were similar to that on the moon. Moreover,] there seems to be a tendency for the small craters to appear on the rims of large craters. This suggests that there may be something special about the composition or texture of the crater rims that resists the forces that tend to erode small craters when they are formed elsewhere on the Martian surface.

In some of the pictures taken deep in the Martian southern hemisphere one can see areas that seem to have a light covering of frost. One can also see that many of the craters, instead of being circular, are flattened along a portion of their circumference. This phenomenon, also observed in lunar craters, is believed to result from structural faults below the surface. In at least one picture (No. 11) a pronounced line, quite straight, intersects a crater and continues across the rim. This too might be caused by a fault. So far we have not been able to complete the computer processing needed to draw any conclusions from the paired red and green pictures, or to prepare them in a form suitable for combining their overlapping areas into a color picture.

A mystery of considerable interest is presented by the high light levels recorded near the limb of the planet in the first picture. Where we had expected to find a black sky, the sky was more than half as bright as the planet! The other pictures also show evidence of "fogging", as if the Martian atmosphere were enormously brighter and more extended than anyone had expected.

Our first thought was that the fogging represented some kind of defect in the optical system. We wondered, for example, if the surface of the telescope mirror could have been pitted by the impact of meteoritic dust, but this seems to be ruled out by the fact that the meteorite detector, fully exposed outside the spacecraft, received only a few hundred hits. We have also considered the possibility that volatile substances from the foam cushions used to protect the Vidicon tube might have whitened the black inside surface of the telescope tube and created internal reflections. We found, however, that we could not duplicate the fogging even by inserting white cardboard baffles in place of the black ones in the optical system.

Finally, we considered the possibility that the nickel compound that provides the top coat on the telescope mirror before it receives final polishing might have blistered after long exposure to the vacuum of space. We simulated blisters by putting drops of glue on a mirror but were still unable to duplicate the fogging seen in the Mariner IV pictures. We have tentatively decided that the cause of the fogging is really on Mars.] Recent models of the Martian atmosphere seem to suggest that tiny crystals of frozen carbon dioxide are present at all times even at great heights. Whatever the cause of the fogging in July 1965 it must have extended to at least 100 kilometers above the surface of the planet and therefore it may de distinguishable from the earth with careful observation.
Life on Mars?

There was never any expectation that these photographs, with their coarse one-kilometer resolution, would settle the question of whether or not life exists on Mars. We and others [(notably Carl Sagan of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory)] have examined many pictures of the earth taken by the Tiros and Nimbus weather satellites, whose narrow-angle cameras provide somewhat better resolution than the Mariner IV camera, and can find only one or two examples of a picture that shows a human work of engineering [(see illustration)]. And this is even when one knows what to look for. Still more surprising, the Tiros and Nimbus pictures fail to provide any evidence of vegetation, or seasonal changes in the earth's ground cover, except for snow and floods. It is certainly true that Mars looks inhospitable to life as we know it, but the question of whether there is life on the planet remains open.

After an experiment such as Mariner IVs is concluded one always has second thoughts. For example, it might have been better to photograph a different area, or to use a camera system that provided a wider field of view. It would have been desirable, of course, to have sent Mariner В with its two cameras. One would like to see the entire disk of Mars with, say, five-kilometer resolution. Still, there will be opportunities to make other photographs in the future. We feel satisfied that the first close-up views of Mars, made possible by the ingenuity and hard work of hundreds of people, have shown the importance of an exploratory approach to the study of our planetary neighbors, and that they will be remembered as among the outstanding photographs of the early space age.

4. THE ORIGIN OF MAN

Although the Darwin-Mendel-De Vries theory of evolution provides a general frame for understanding the emergence of man, it leaves open crucial questions of detail. Why have man, and, to a lesser extent, the higher apes so strikingly exceeded other animals In intellectual development? Or can one recognize distinct turning points of the development? A well-known fact of physiology, the possible evolutionary significance of which does not seem to have received attention, points strongly towards the second alternative.



Mammals are distinguished from other vertebrates and from insects by their ability to produce the enzyme uridine, which oxidizes uric acid to allantoin by breaking up its purine ring according to the scheme

The only exceptions to this are man and the higher apes, which have lost the capacity for synthesizing uridine and which, therefore, end the metabolism and catabolism of nucleoproteins with uric acid, instead of carrying it on to allantoin. Until recently, the Dalmatian dog ( coach-hound) was also thought to be an exception. However, it has been found that this animal does possess sufficient amounts of uricase; it excretes uric acid merely because, owing to the effect of a simple recessive gene, no tubular re-absorption of uric acid from the glomerular filtrate takes place in its kidneys.

Uric acid had two remarkable properties. It is very sparingly soluble in water; meat-eating animals that lack uridine, therefore, have to maintain a steady high concentration of uric acid in their blood in order to eliminate the amount they produce. Moreover, uric acid, in common with other purines such as caffeine or theobrom-ine, is a cerebral stimulant. Consequently, animals that eat nucleoproteins but lack uridine are under constant influence of a powerful stimulant.

This circumstance may have played a decisive part in the intellectual development of the higher primates. The selective value of a small beneficial mutation of the associative mechanism of the brain must be very small, unless the animal uses its brain even when this is not urgently necessary; that is, unless it thinks about past experiences and future possibilities in times when there is no acute need for thinking. Such a tendency to philosophical reflexion must be very unusual in animals; even modern man has, in general, no irresistible addiction to mental work. A beneficial mutation of the associative mechanism of the brain, therefore, has only a poor chance of establishing itself in the species unless its selective value is strongly enhanced by the action of a cerebral stimulant such as is uric acid. The mutations that have led to the loss of uridine, then, may have been a crucial step on the way to the development of man.

In all probability the loss of uridine was not a sudden event due to a single mutation. Some monkeys seem to show a slightly impaired capacity for uridine production: this suggests a gradual assembly of the gene-constellation that has ultimately led to the almost complete absence of uridine. In the lower mammals, this assembly did not progress beyond a primitive stage, because the higher brain functions were relatively undeveloped, and the effects of their stimulation by uric acid could not counter-balance the physiological disadvantages of this compound. From a certain stage of the brain development onwards, however, the increment of viability due to uric acid must have changed its sign from negative to positive, and then the assembly of the uridine loss gene-constellation could progress hand in hand with the accelerated development of the brain due to the increasing level of uric acid concentration.

Can the viability-increment due to a stimulant be large enough to cause such momentous developments? Millions of the present generation owe their careers, and some even their lives, to caffeine or theobromine, taken during preparation for an examination, a negotiation, or during a strenuous car-drive. Uric acid, of course, is not so effective as coffee or tea, but its effect as a catalyser of mental development has extended over a million years, starting probably long before the Oligocene branching of the great orthograde primates. A widespread popular opinion associates the vigour and initiative of the populations of the wealthy industrial areas with their high meat consumption. In fact, it is quite likely that the ' pressure-of-life' diseases prevalent in the highly industrialized areas are, to a considerable extent, ' pressure-of-uric acid' diseases. Although not so effective as caffeine or theobromine, this stimulant can be a more powerful inhibitor of rest and recovery from work by its action extending over day and night.


5. Biology
Biology is the study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. As a result of the modern tendency to unify scientific knowledge and investigation, however, there has been an overlapping of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Modern principles of other sciences--chemistry and physics, for example--are integrated with those of biology in such areas as biochemistry and biophysics. Because biology is such a broad subject, it is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study. Despite apparent differences, all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Thus, though it was once the custom to separate the study of plants (botany) from that of animals (zoology), and the study of the structure of organisms (morphology) from that of function (physiology), the current practice is to investigate those biological phenomena that all living things have in common. Biology is often approached today on the basis of levels that deal with fundamental units of life. At the level of molecular biology, for example, life is regarded as a manifestation of chemical and energy transformations that occur among the many chemical constituents that comprise an organism. As a result of the development of more powerful and precise laboratory instruments and techniques, it is now possible to understand and define more exactly not only the invisible ultimate physiochemical organization (ultrastructure) of the molecules in living matter but also how living matter reproduces at the molecular level.

Cell biology, the study of the fundamental unit of structure and function in a living organism, may be said to have begun in the 17th century, with the invention of the compound microscope. Before that, the individual organism was studied as a whole (organismic biology), an area of research still regarded as an important level of biological organization. Population biology deals with groups or populations of organisms that inhabit a given area or region. Included at this level are studies of the roles that specific kinds of plants and animals play in the complex and self-perpetuating interrelationships that exist between the living and nonliving world, as well as studies of the built-in controls that maintain these relationships naturally. These broadly based levels may be further subdivided into such specializations as morphology, taxonomy, biophysics, biochemistry, genetics, eugenics, and ecology. In another way of classification, a field of biology may be especially concerned with the investigation of one kind of living thing--e.g., botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; ornithology, the study of birds; ichthyology, the study of fishes; mycology, the study of fungi; microbiology, the study of microorganisms; protozoology, the study of one-celled animals; herpetology, the study of amphibians and reptiles; entomology, the study of insects; and physical anthropology, the study of man.



The history of biology

There are moments in the history of all sciences when remarkable progress is made in relatively short periods of time. Such leaps in knowledge result in great part from two factors: one is the presence of a creative mind--a mind sufficiently perceptive and original to discard hitherto accepted ideas and formulate new hypotheses; the second is the technological ability to test the hypotheses by appropriate experiments. The most original and inquiring mind is severely limited without the proper tools to conduct an investigation; conversely, the most sophisticated technological equipment cannot of itself yield insights into any scientific process. An example of the relationship between these two factors was the discovery of the cell. For hundreds of years there had been speculation concerning the basic structure of both plants and animals. Not until optical instruments were sufficiently developed to reveal cells, however, was it possible to formulate a general hypothesis, the cell theory, that satisfactorily explained how plants and animals are organized. Similarly, the significance of Gregor Mendel's studies on the mode of inheritance in the garden pea remained neglected for many years, until technological advances made possible the discovery of the chromosomes and the part they play in cell division and heredity. Moreover, as a result of the relatively recent development of extremely sophisticated instruments, such as the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge, biology has moved from being a largely descriptive science--one concerned with entire cells and organisms--to a discipline that increasingly emphasizes the subcellular and molecular aspects of organisms and attempts to equate structure with function at all levels of biological organization.



6. MICROECONOMICS


Microeconomics examines the economic behavior of agents (including individuals and firms) and their interactions through individual markets, given scarcity and government regulation. A given market might be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production, say bricklaying. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It weaves these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time. This is broadly termed demand-and-supply analysis. Market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly, are examined as to implications for behavior and economic efficiency. Analysis often proceeds from the simplifying assumption that behavior in other markets remains unchanged, that is, partial-equilibrium analysis. General-equilibrium theory allows for changes in different markets and aggregates across all markets, including their movements and interactions toward equilibrium.

Macroeconomics


Macroeconomics examines the economy as a whole "top down" to explain broad aggregates and their interactions. Such aggregates include national income and output, the unemployment rate, and price inflation and subaggregates like total consumption and investment spending and their components. It also studies effects of monetary policy and fiscal policy. Since at least the 1960s, macroeconomics has been characterized by further integration as to micro-based modeling of sectors, including rationality of players, efficient use of market information, and imperfect competition. This has addressed a long-standing concern about inconsistent developments of the same subject. Macroeconomic analysis also considers factors affecting the long-term level and growth of national income. Such factors include capital accumulation, technological change and labor force growth.

Related fields, other distinctions, and classifications


Recent developments closer to microeconomics include behavioral economics and experimental economics. Fields bordering on other social sciences include economic geography, economic history, public choice, cultural economics, and institutional economics.

Another division of the subject distinguishes two types of economics. Positive economics ("what is") seeks to explain economic phenomena or behavior. Normative economics ("what ought to be," often as to public policy) prioritizes choices and actions by some set of criteria; such priorities reflect value judgments, including selection of the criteria.

Another distinction is between mainstream economics and heterodox economics. One broad characterization describes mainstream economics as dealing with the "rationality-individualism-equilibrium nexus" and heterodox economics as defined by a "institutions-history-social structure nexus."

The JEL classification codes of the Journal of Economic Literature provide a comprehensive, detailed way of classifying and searching for economics articles by subject matter. An alternative classification of often-detailed entries by mutually-exclusive categories and subcategories is The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics.


Mathematical and quantitative methods


Economics as an academic subject often uses geometric methods, in addition to literary methods. Other general mathematical and quantitative methods are also often used for rigorous analysis of the economy or areas within economics. Such methods include the following.

Mathematical economics


Mathematical economics refers to application of mathematical methods to represent economic theory or analyze problems posed in economics. It uses such methods as calculus and matrix algebra. Expositors cite its advantage in allowing formulation and derivation of key relationships in an economic model with clarity, generality, rigor, and simplicity. For example, Paul Samuelson's book Foundations of Economic Analysis
(1947) identifies a common mathematical structure across multiple fields in the subject.

7. CONTRACT LAW


The concept of a "contract" is based on the Latin phrase pacta sunt servanda
(agreements must be kept). Contracts can be simple everyday buying and selling or complex multi-party agreements. They can be made orally (e.g. buying a newspaper) or in writing (e.g. signing a contract of employment). Sometimes formalities, such as writing the contract down or having it witnessed, are required for the contract to take effect (e.g. when buying a house).

In common law jurisdictions, there are three key elements to the creation of a contract. These are offer and acceptance, consideration and an intention to create legal relations. For example, in Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company a medical firm advertised that its new wonder drug, the smokeball, would cure people's flu, and if it did not, the buyers would get £100. Many people sued for their £100 when the drug did not work. Fearing bankruptcy, Carbolic argued the advert was not to be taken as a serious, legally binding offer. It was an invitation to treat, mere puff, a gimmick. But the court of appeal held that to a reasonable man Carbolic had made a serious offer. People had given good consideration for it by going to the "distinct inconvenience" of using a faulty product. "Read the advertisement how you will, and twist it about as you will", said Lord Justice Lindley, "here is a distinct promise expressed in language which is perfectly unmistakable".

"Consideration" means all parties to a contract must exchange something of value to be able to enforce it. Some common law systems, like Australia, are moving away from consideration as a requirement for a contract. The concept of estoppel or culpa in contrahendo can be used to create obligations during pre-contractual negotiations. In civil law jurisdictions, consideration is not a requirement for a contract at all. In France, an ordinary contract is said to form simply on the basis of a "meeting of the minds" or a "concurrence of wills". Germany has a special approach to contracts, which ties into property law. Their 'abstraction principle' (Abstraktionsprinzip) means that the personal obligation of contract forms separately from the title of property being conferred. When contracts are invalidated for some reason (e.g. a car buyer is so drunk that he lacks legal capacity to contract) the contractual obligation to pay can be invalidated separately from the proprietary title of the car. Unjust enrichment law, rather than contract law, is then used to restore title to the rightful owner.

Tort law


Torts, sometimes called delicts, are civil wrongs. To have acted tortiously, one must have breached a duty to another person, or infringed some pre-existing legal right. A simple example might be accidentally hitting someone with a cricket ball. Under negligence law, the most common form of tort, the injured party could potentially claim compensation for his injuries from the party responsible. The principles of negligence are illustrated by Donoghue v. Stevenson. A friend of Mrs Donoghue ordered an opaque bottle of ginger beer (intended for the consumption of Mrs Donoghue) in a café in Paisley. Having consumed half of it, Mrs Donoghue poured the remainder into a tumbler. The decomposing remains of a snail floated out. She claimed to have suffered from shock, fell ill with gastroenteritis and sued the manufacturer for carelessly allowing the drink to be contaminated. The House of Lords decided that the manufacturer was liable for Mrs Donoghue's illness. Lord Atkin took a distinctly moral approach, and said,

"The liability for negligence… is no doubt based upon a general public sentiment of moral wrongdoing for which the offender must pay… The rule that you are to love your neighbour becomes in law, you must not injure your neighbour; and the lawyer's question, Who is my neighbour? receives a restricted reply. You must take reasonable care to avoid acts or omissions which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbour."

This became the basis for the four principles of negligence; (1) Mr Stevenson owed Mrs Donoghue a duty of care to provide safe drinks (2) he breached his duty of care (3) the harm would not have occurred but for his breach and (4) his act was the proximate cause, or not too remote a consequence, of her harm. Another example of tort might be a neighbour making excessively loud noises with machinery on his property. Under a nuisance claim the noise could be stopped. Torts can also involve intentional acts, such as assault, battery or trespass. A better known tort is defamation, which occurs, for example, when a newspaper makes unsupportable allegations that damage a politician's reputation. More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour law in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes, when statute does not provide immunity.


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