Методичні рекомендації з виконання контрольних робіт для студентів заочної форми навчання



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ТипМетодичні рекомендації
Міністерство освіти і науки України

Національний авіаційний університет

Навчально-науковий Гуманітарний інститут

Кафедра англійської філології і перекладу

Методичні рекомендації

з виконання контрольних робіт

для студентів заочної форми навчання

з дисципліни «Вступ до перекладознавства»

за напрямом 6.020303 «Філологія»
Укладач:

канд. філол.н., доц. Сітко А.В.

Методичні рекомендації розглянуті та схвалені на засіданні кафедри англійської філології і перекладу

Протокол № ____ від «___»_____2016 р.

Завідувач кафедри _____ Сидоренко С.І.
Методичні рекомендації

з виконання контрольних робіт для студентів заочної форми навчання
У 5 семестрі студентом має бути виконана контрольна робота (у формі реферату), у ході виконання якої студент повинен опрацювати основну та додаткову літературу з модулів № 1-2. Контрольна робота повинна розкривати тему, містити план і список використаної літератури (не менше 5 джерел) і мати обсяг 5-10 стор. (без титульної сторінки та змісту). Контрольна робота складається з 3-х частин: 1) опрацювання теоретичного матеріалу за поданою тематикою (див. нижче: І Теми для контрольних робіт. Номер теми роботи повинен дорівнювати сумі трьох останніх цифр номера залікової книжки студента); 2) переклад тексту з англійської мови українською (номер тексту повинен відповідати двом останнім цифрам номера залікової книжки студента; 3) переклад тексту з української мови англійською (для усіх студентів однаковий). Студент самостійно обирає тему контрольної роботи (див. нижче).

Виклад тексту контрольної роботи повинен свідчити про відповідне опрацювання студентом рекомендованої з даної теми літератури – він повинен бути осмисленим, логічним, аргументованим, структурованим, містити приклади. Контрольна робота не може мати суто компілятивний характер. Потрібно уникати повторів та речей, які не стосуються теми. Студент повинен володіти термінами, використаними в роботі, та вміти пояснити їх.

Вимоги до форматування тексту: гарнітура шрифту – Times New Roman; розмір шрифту – 14 кегль; міжрядковий інтервал – 1; поля: ліве 2,5 см, інші – 1,5 см; нумерація сторінок внизу по центру; при наборі тексту потрібно розрізняти символи дефісу та тире, українські (російські) («») та латинські (“”) лапки. Прохання уніфікувати використання напівжирного шрифту та курсиву при виділенні прикладів та інших фрагментів тексту і не зловживати підкресленням.

Структура роботи:

1 сторінка – титульна (стандартна для контрольних робіт)

2 сторінка – зміст

остання сторінка – список використаної літератури, оформлений за стандартами курсових робіт (http://er.nau.edu.ua:8080/handle/NAU/11805).

І. Теми для контрольних робіт:

1. Життєвий та творчий шлях Лівія Андроніка та Святого Блаж. Ієроніма Стридонського (Софроніка), їхній внесок до теорії та практики перекладу.

2. Життєвий та творчий шлях Е. Долє та Ф. Шлеєрмахера, їхній внесок до теорії та практики перекладу.

3. Переклад на Україні у ХХ - ХХІ столітті.

4. Різновиди перекладу залежно від жанру перекладеного тексту.

5. Семантичний об'єм поняття «художність», специфіка цього поняття для кожного функціонального стилю. Класифікація текстів щодо їх перекладацьких особливостей.

6. Слова-реалії. Їх класифікація та переклад.

7. Переклад «Фальшивих друзів перекладача» та безеквівалентної лексики.

8. Переклад власних назв та іншомовних слів.

9. Переклад фразеологічних одиниць.

10. Переклад абревіатур та акронімів.

11. Переклад фразеологічних одиниць.



12. Переклад «гри слів» та каламбурів.

13. Переклад міфологічних алюзій.

14. Переклад діалектизмів, неологізмів, просторіч, арго, вульгаризмів.

15. Військово-технічний переклад.

16. Військово-інформаційний переклад.

17. Військово-політичний переклад.

18. Переклад газетного тексту.

19. Переклад суспільно-політичної термінології.

20. Переклад газетно-інформативних матеріалів.

21. Переклад громадсько-політичної літератури.

22. Стратегія перекладу. Класифікації перекладацьких стратегій. Вибір стратегії перекладу тексту.



ІІ. Тексти для перекладу з англійської мови українською.


  1. THE ROMANS

Eric Jacobsen claims rather sweepingly that translation is a Roman invention, and although this may be considered as a piece of critical hyperbole, it does serve as a starting point from which to focus attention on the role and status of translation for the Romans. The views of both Cicero and Horace on translation were to have great influence on successive generations of translators, and both discuss translation within the wider context of the two main functions of the poet: the universal human duty of acquiring and disseminating wisdom and the special art of making and shaping a poem.

The significance of translation in Roman literature has often been used to accuse the Romans of being unable to create imaginative literature in their own right, at least until the first century BC. Stress has been laid on the creative imagination of the Greeks as opposed to the more practical Roman mind, and the Roman exaltation of their Greek models has been seen as evidence of their lack of originality. But the implied value judgement in such a generalization is quite wrong.



Romans perceived themselves as a continuation of their Greek models and Roman literary critics discussed Greek texts without seeing the language of those texts as being in any way an inhibiting factor. The Roman literary system sets up a hierarchy of texts and authors that overrides linguistic boundaries and that system in turn reflects the Roman ideal of the hierarchical yet caring central state based on the true law of Reason. Cicero points out that mind dominates the body as a king rules over his subjects or a father controls his children, but warns that where Reason dominates as a master ruling his slaves, ‘it keeps them down and crushes them’. With translation, the ideal SL text is there to be imitated and not to be crushed by the too rigid application of Reason. Cicero nicely expresses this distinction: “If I render word for word, the result will sound uncouth, and if compelled by necessity I alter anything in the order or wording, I shall seem to have departed from the function of a translator”.

Both Horace and Cicero, in their remarks on translation, make an important distinction between word for word translation and sense for sense (or figure for figure) translation. The underlying principle of enriching their native language and literature through translation leads to a stress on the aesthetic criteria of the TL product.


  1. THE CATCHER IN THE RYE

But all of a sudden, I changed my mind. All of a sudden, I decided what I’d really do, I’d get the hell out of Pencey – right that same night and all. I mean not wait till Wednesday or anything. I just didn’t want to hang around any more. It made me too sad and lonesome. So, what I decided to do, I decided I’d take a room in a hotel in New York – some very inexpensive hotel and all – and just take it easy till Wednesday. Then, on Wednesday, I’d go home all rested up and feeling swell. I figured my parents probably wouldn’t get old Thurmer’s letter saying I’d been given the ax till maybe Tuesday or Wednesday. I didn’t want to go home or anything till they got it and thoroughly digested it and all. I didn’t want to be around when they first got it. My mother gets very hysterical. She’s not too bad after she gets something thoroughly digested, though. Besides, I sort of needed a little vacation. My nerves were shot.

They really were. Anyway, that’s what I decided I’d do. So I went back to the room and turned on the light, to start packing and all. I already had quite a few things packed. Old Stradlater didn’t even wake up. I lit a cigarette and got all dressed and then I packed these two Gladstones I have. It only took me about two minutes. I’m a very rapid packer.

One thing about packing depressed me a little. I had to pack these brand–new ice skates my mother had practically just sent me a couple of days before. That depressed me. I could see my mother going in Spaulding’s and asking the salesman a million dopy question – and here I was getting the ax again. It made me feel pretty sad. She bought me the wrong kind of skates – I wanted racing skates and she bought hockey – but it made me sad anyway. Almost every time somebody gives me a present, it ends up making me sad.

After I got all packed, I sort of counted my dough. I don’t remember exactly how much I had, but I was pretty loaded. My grandmother’d just sent me a wad about a week before. I have this grandmother that’s quite lavish with her dough. She doesn’t have all her marbles any more – she’s old as hell – and she keeps sending me money for my birthday about four times a year. Anyway, even though I was pretty loaded, I figured I could always use a few extra bucks. You never know.

So what I did was, I went down the hall and woke up Frederick Woodruff, this guy I’d lent my typewriter to. I asked him how much he’d give me for it. He was a pretty wealthy guy. He said he didn’t know. He said he didn’t much want to buy it. Finally he bought it, though. It cost about ninety bucks, and all he bought it for was twenty. He was sore because I’d woke him up.

When I was all set to go, when I had my bags and all, I stood for a while next to the stairs and took a last look down the goddam corridor. I was sort of crying. I don’t know why. I put my red hunting hat on, and turned the peak around to the back, the way I liked it, and then I yelled at the top of my goddam voice, “Sleep tight, ya moronsl” I’ll bet I woke up every bastard on the whole floor. Then I got the hell out. Some stupid guy had thrown peanut shells all over the stairs, and I damn near broke my crazy neck.


  1. CHALLENGES FOR HUMANITY

Ours is an age of complexity, contradiction, and challenge. As we enter the 21st century, we have wealth and technology unmatched in human experience, and the fortunate few who live in the world’s developed nations are almost inevitably propelled toward a future enriched by advances in computers, communication, and life sciences.

We face tremendous challenges as populations soar, mostly in the poorer nations, and as consumption increases in the industrialized world. We must find ways to lessen the burden on Earth’s resources, and we must encourage better stewardship of the planet so that all of us live in a clean and productive environment. The decisions we make in the decades to come will affect not only all of human civilization but also the fate of thousands of species representing millions of years of evolution.

Perhaps the most important challenge for the new century is to share wealth, opportunities, and responsibilities between the rich and the poor – for a world where the chasm between rich and poor grows wider will be neither stable nor secure.

So far we have not made enough commitment to this goal. Nearly a billion people are illiterate. More than half the world’s people have little or no health care and less than two dollars a day for food, clothing, and shelter. At the same time, the average household income of an American family is more than $55,000 a year, with much of the industrialized world enjoying the same, and in some cases an even higher, standard of material blessings.

The best measurement of a nation’s wealth is its gross national product (GNP) – the total output of goods and services. The nations of the European Union have set a public goal of sharing four-tenths of one percent of their GNP with the developing world. But the United States and most other rich nations fall far short of this goal. Our contribution must increase greatly if we are to face future challenges to humanity with any real hope of success.

The problems may seem insurmountable, but they are not. We have the tools; we have brilliant, dedicated people to find answers. All we need is a sense of sharing and the will to change. The will can grow from understanding. Once we understand, we can care, and once we care, we can change.


  1. OIL CRACKS

There are many words of long standing which the scientist has been accustomed to use with a meaning that might or might not be the same as its customary one.

Sometimes he restricts the meaning of the word. The physicist adopted the word “current” when he described the changed properties of a wire connected to a voltaic battery as an electric current. In 1827, G. S. Ohm discovered the constancy of the relation between electromotive force and current and gave the ratio the name of “resistance”.

Sometimes, a scientist will take an ordinary word and expand or widen its meaning, so that a single thing gives its name to a group or category. “Salt”, for example, is a material that is essential for human beings and animals, and has a long association with social history. Its name appears in the English language in such a word as “salary”, meaning that the money one earns is meant, in the first turn, for buying what is most necessary for human existence.

The chemist, however, uses the word to denote a class of compounds, which he defines as the products of replacing the hydrogen of an acid, wholly or in part, by a metal. Common salt is a compound which comes only to a limited extent within the terms of this definition and Only to this limited extent do these two salts mean the same thing.

Sometimes, a scientist will seize a word and force it to do work for which it has no qualifications. Such is the case of a family of related words “force”, “work”, “power” and “weight”.

In mechanics, force does not mean strength. It seems to say no more than that a force is a push or a pull, and since in physics all things must be measured it acquires, from Newton’s Law of Motion, a quantitative sense, which makes it the product of mass and acceleration. This, of course, is quite different from anything that the word “force” implies in everyday use.

A weight one is surprised to learn, is not only the familiar block of metal with a ring on top, but a force. This is logical, because things fall under their own weight with an acceleration (due to gravity), so that the weight of a thing has to [40] be the force with which the Earth attracts it.

As to “work”, the physicist has decided that a force works, or does work, only when it moves something.

I may push and pull in vain at some immovable obstacle, and find that, nevertheless, mathematically I have done no work.

After this it is quite easy to accept the idea that power has come to mean the rate at which work is done; or that metals suffer from “fatigue”, or that oils can be made “to crack”.


  1. PATENT SPECIFICATION

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO PIPE JOINTS OR PIPE COUPLINGS

The pipe joint or coupling forming the subject of the present invention, although applicable for use with pipes of any material, is particularly concerned with pipes or tubes of semi-flexible character and composed of comparatively hard thermoplastic synthetic resin composition, natural or synthetic rubber or similar material. The pipe joint or coupling is also suitable for use with metal pipes.



A pipe joint or coupling in accordance with the invention comprises a body bored to receive the extremity of the pipe and to form an internal shoulder or sitting against which the pipe can abut, a sleeve nut surrounding the pipe and in threaded engagement with the body, a longitudinally split pressure ring having an externally arranged tapered extremity for engagement by a correspondingly tapered surface on the interior of the nut so as to contract the pressure ring into gripping engagement with the pipe and an annular sealing ring in abutting engagement with the pressure ring and formed with a fire taper for engagement with a tapered surface in the interior of the body for the purpose of maintaining a good seal consequent upon tightening of the nut on the threaded part of the body. If composed of suitable material the sealing ring will be contracted into good sealing engagement with the pipe.

Referring to the drawings:



Figure 1 is a side elevation of a pipe joint or coupling in accordance with the present invention; and Figure 2 is a longitudinal section of the same drawn to an enlarged scale.

The pipe joint or coupling illustrated includes a body 1 which may be externally screw threaded as at 2 for attachment to a container or the like, the body being formed with a cylindrical boring 3 and with a boring extension involving a tapering surface 4 and a shoulder 5. The pipe 6 enters boring 3 and seats on the part 5, the latter forming a square shoulder against which the peripheral edge of the pipe abuts.

The body is externally screw threaded at 7 to engage internal screw threads on a sleeve nut 8 having an inner tapering surface 9.

The tapered boring 4 receives an externally tapered sealing ring 10, the latter having a slightly finer taper than the boring, the ring fitting closely around the pipe. The opposite end of the sealing ring has a square face of a pressure ring 12, the latter being split longitudinally at one or more points 13 around the periphery whereby it will be contractable with a minimum of effort into good sealing engagement with the pipe.

The pressure ring is formed with a tapered surface 14 corresponding with the tapering surface 9 on the interior of the sleeve nut, whereby the pressure ring will be contracted radially into good sealing engagement with the pipe when the sleeve nut is tightened.

The pressure ring is preferably formed with two or more cylindrical faces 15 which make surface engagement with the pipe over a small surface area, whereby the pressure at the places of contact will be substantially increased.

It will be appreciated that by tightening the sleeve nut 8 pressure ring 12 will not only be contracted radially into good sealing engagement with the pipe but will also bear hard on the sealing ring 10, thus forcing it down the tapered boring into good sealing engagement with the tapered face 4, the sealing ring at the same time being compressed radially into intimate engagement with the walls of the pipe.

The rings 10 and 12 are composed of suitable metals to suit the material of which the pipe is composed, and it is within the scope of the invention to employ other materials.



The taper of the sealing ring 10 is preferably in the region of 10°, it being preferred that there shall be a difference of approximately 2 1/2° between the tapes of the two tapering surfaces.



  1. GLOBAL ENEMIES

Six maladies alone account for 90 percent of the deaths from infectious disease worldwide. Spread in different ways and influenced by different factors, they continue to resist control. Aggravating social, economic, and political instability, these diseases have increasingly become global security threats. Large, densely populated cities in developing countries, where most of the world’s people now live, are especially vulnerable.

INFLUENZA. Prone to mutate, influenza viruses continually appear in different forms, requiring the production of a new vaccine each flu season. In some years the symptoms are mild; in others they can be lethal. Three episodes were especially virulent: the influenza pandemic in 1918–1919, the Asian flu in 1957–1958, and the Hong Kong flu in 1968–1969.

HIV/AIDS. Passed on through bodily fluids human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, almost invariably leaves the body defenseless against the infections that define full-blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Sub-Saharan Africa, with one-tenth of the world’s population, has more than 70 percent of all HIV cases.

DIARRHEAL DISEASES. Waterborne bacteria, viruses, and parasites produce about four billion cases of diarrhea a year. Those at highest risk include the 1,1 billion people lacking access to safe drinking water and the 2,4 billion without adequate sanitation facilities. Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease, claims more than 5,000 lives a year.

TUBERCULOSIS. Propelled by a cough or sneeze from an infected person, tuberculosis bacteria can begin to grow in the lungs and throat of anyone who breathes them in. Drugs discovered in the 1940s beat back the disease, but the bacteria have recently begun to develop resistance, and the tuberculosis has reappeared with a vengeance.

MALARIA. Caused by microscopic parasites transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes, malaria attacks red blood cells. Global warming has expanded the range of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, putting more than 40 percent of the world’s population at risk. In addition, warmer weather makes mosquitoes breed faster and bite more often.

MEASLES. A highly contagious viral disease that can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis, measles was an inevitable rite of childhood until an effective vaccine became available in 1963. Still striking more than 30 million a year and killing some 900,000, it is the world’s leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children.



  1. HISTORY OF LAW

King Hammurabi is revealed the code of laws by the Mesopotamian sun god Shamash, also revered as the god of justice.

The history of law is closely connected to the development of civilizationAncient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code that was probably broken into twelve books. It was based on the concept of Ma’at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements (“if ... then ... ”). Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; this became known as the Codex Hammurabi. The most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, and has since been fully transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, German, and French.



The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society. The small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science, and no word for law as an abstract concept. Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy.

Roman law was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were highly sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification during Justinian I. Although it declined in significance during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. In medieval England, the King’s judjes developed a body of precedent which later became the common law. A Europe-wide Lex-Mercatoria was formed so that merchants could trade with common standards of practice rather than with the many splintered facets of local laws.

The Lex-Mercatoria, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property. As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Lex Mercatoria was incorporated into countries’ local law under new civil codes.

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words

Ancient India and China represent distinct traditions of law, and have historically had independent schools of legal theory and practice. The Arthashastra, probably compiled around 100 AD (although it contains older material), and the Manusmriti (c. 100–300 AD) were foundational treatises in India, and comprise texts considered authoritative legal guidance.[ Manu’s central philosophy was tolerance and pluralism, and was cited across Southeast Asia.

This Hindu tradition, along with Islamic law, was supplanted by the common law when India became part of the British Empire. Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Hong Kong also adopted the common law. The eastern Asia legal tradition reflects a unique blend of secular and religious influences. Japan was the first country to begin modernising its legal system along western lines, by importing bits of the French, but mostly the German Civil Code. This partly reflected Germany’s status as a rising power in the late 19th century. Similarly, traditional Chinese law gave way to westernisation towards the final years of the Ch’ing dynasty in the form of six private law codes based mainly on the Japanese model of German law. Today Taiwanese law retains the closest affinity to the codifications from that period, because of the split between Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalists, who fled there, and Mao Zedong’s communists who won control of the mainland in 1949.

The current legal infrastructure in the People’s Republic of China was heavily influenced by Soviet Socialist law, which essentially inflates administrative law at the expense of private law rights. Due to rapid industrialisation, today China is undergoing a process of reform, at least in terms of economic, if not social and political, rights. A new contract code in 1999 represented a move away from administrative domination. Furthermore, after negotiations lasting fifteen years, in 2001 China joined the World Trade Organisation.




  1. THE FORSYTE SAGA

(The Man of Property)

They stood at a comer to see if an empty cab would come along, while carnage after carriage drove past, bearing Forsytes of all descriptions from the Zoo. The harness, the liveries, the gloss on the horses' coats, shone and glittered in the May sunlight, and each equipage, landau, sociable, barouche, Victoria, or brougham, seemed to roll out proudly from its wheels:



"I and my horses and my men you know,

Indeed the whole turn-out have cost a pot.

But we were worth it every penny.

Look at Master and at Missis now, the dawgs!

Ease with security - ah! that's the ticket! "

And such, as everyone knows, is tit accompaniment for a perambulat­ing Forsyte.

Amongst these carriages was a barouche coming at a greater pace than the others, drawn by a pair of bright bay horses. It swung on its high springs, and the four people who filled it seemed rocked as in a cradle.

This chariot attracted young Jolyon's attention; and suddenly, on the back seat, he recognized his Uncle James, unmistakable in spite of the increased whiteness of his whiskers; opposite, their backs defended by sunshades, Rachel Forsyte and her elder but married sister, Winifred Dartie, in irreproachable toilettes, had posed their heads haughtily, like two of the birds they had been seeing at the Zoo; while by James' side reclined Dartie, in a brand-new frock-coat buttoned tight and square, with a large expanse of carefully shot linen protruding below each wristband.

An extra, if subdued, sparkle, an added touch of the best gloss or var­nish characterized this vehicle, and seemed to distinguish it from all others, as though by some happy extravagance – like that which marks out the real "work of art" from the ordinary "picture" – It were designated as the typical car, the very throne of Forsytedom.


  1. BETTER DECISIONS THROUGH SCIENCE

A physician stares at a breast X-ray, agonizing over whether an ambiguous spot is a tumor. A parole board weighs the release of a potentially violent criminal. A technician at an airport worries over a set of ultrasound readings: do they suggest a deadly crack in an airplane's wing? All these people are grappling with diagnostic decisions. In spite of incomplete or ambiguous evidence, they must determine whether or not a certain condition exists (or will occur). Such problems abound in health care public safety, business, environment, justice, education, manufacturing, information processing, the military and government. And the stakes can be high In many cases, a wrong verdict means that people will die.

Perhaps surprisingly, the diagnostic decision-making process turns out to be essentially the same across fields. Hence, methods that improve the process in one industry can usually serve in others. At least two such methods are already available. Sadly, though, they remain unknown or unused in many realms. One increases accuracy, enhancing the odds that any given decision will be the correct one. The other improves the "utility" of a decision-making approach, ensuring that the number of true cases found does not come at the cost of an unreasonable number of false positive diagnoses ("false alarms"). These methods are statistical, but math phobics have nothing to fear; the basic logic is easy to grasp.

No one is saying that diagnosticians must always be slaves to mathematical formulas. In certain arenas (such as clinical medicine and weather forecasting), objective tools may function best as "second opinions" that inform a reviewer's decisions but do not have the final word. In other fields, however, statistical analyses have frequently been found to be more accurate than subjective judgments, even those made by highly experienced professionals.

We focus in this article on diagnoses that hinge on a choice between just two alternatives-yes or no (Is a tumor present? Is an airplane wing defective?). Certainly the world is full of problems involving a wider range of options, but serious yes/no decisions are prevalent.




  1. THE LAW

Law is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives markets. Property law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal (often referred to as chattels) and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows claims for compensation if a persons rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in a statute, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator.

Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign nation states in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action. Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, “The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual”.

Legal systems elaborate rights and responsibilities in a variety of ways. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, which codify their laws, and common law systems, where judge made law is not consolidated. In some countries, religion informs the law.

Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness and justice. “In its majestic equality”, said the author Anatole France in 1894, “the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets and steal loaves of bread”. In a typical democracy, the central institutions for interpreting and creating law are the three main branches of government, namely an impartial judiciary, a democratic legislature, and an accountable executive. To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public, a government's bureaucracy, the military and police are vital.

Lady Justice is the symbol of the judiciary. Justice is depicted as a goddess equipped with three symbols of the rule of law; a sword symbolizing the court’s coercive power; scales representing an objective standard by which competing claims are weighed; and a blindfold indicating that justice is (or should be) meted out objectively, without fear or favor, regardless of identity, money, power, or weakness.


The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value.

Constitutional and administrative law govern the affairs of the state. Constitutional law concerns both the relationships between the executive, legislature and judiciary and the human rights or civil liberties of individuals against the state. Most jurisdictions, like the United States and France, have a single codified constitution with a Bill of Rights. A few, like the United Kingdom, have no such document. A “constitution” is simply those laws which constitute the body politic, from statutecase law and convention.

The fundamental constitutional principle, inspired by John Locke, holds that the individual can do anything but that which is forbidden by law, and the state may do nothing but that which is authorised by law. Administrative law is the chief method for people to hold state bodies to account. People can apply for judicial review of actions or decisions by local councils, public services or government ministries, to ensure that they comply with the law. The first specialist administrative court was the Conseil d’État set up in 1799, as Napoleon assumed power in France.

ІІІ. Текст для перекладу з української мови англійською.

В ГОСТЯХ ДОБРЕ, А ВДОМА КРАЩЕ

Присвячується Є.П. Гуцалу

Якби знав, де впадеш, то й соломки б підстелив. Але ніколи не вгадаєш, де знайдеш, а де загубиш. І чорт мене смикав тоді за язик. За той самий, що ворог наш. Та розповім усе послідовно. Від «а» до «я», від «альфи» до «омеги». Прибула моя половина з роботи й наказує: – Хутчій руки мий і до столу сідай. – Куди в таку спеку поспішати? – дивуюся. – Нас у гості запросили. До солідних людей... Перекусимо і підемо. – На полювання їхати – собак годувати, – сміюся. Дружина глянула та мене й каже: – Ти хоч там, у гостях, нічого не ляпни. До чужого монастиря зі своїм законом не пхайся. І взагалі, тримай язик за зубами. Бо слово – не горобець, а мовчання – золото.

Недаремно ми з нею десять років разом прожили. Вона тепер теж багато приказок знає. Тільки перекручує їх часто. Словом, прийшли ми до тих солідних людей. А там і яблуку ніде впасти. Господиня на кухні як білка в колесі. А гості мов сичі сидять. Кожного новоприбулого з голови до п’ят оглядають – по одежі стрічають. Господар нас запрошує, квартиру показує. – Не чепурна хата убранням, – кажу йому, – а щедра частуванням. Він посміхнувся, наче кислицю з’їв, а дружина мене за лікоть як смикне. Я аж язика прикусив. І в прямому, і в переносному розумінні. Посадили нас у куточку. «Нічого, – думаю, – не місце людину красить».

– Може, магнітофона послухаємо? – питає хтось.

– Соловей піснями не ситий, – знову не втримавсь я. Господар рака спік і на кухню побіг. А інші, чую, шепочуться: «Здається, кам’яний гість прийшов». Це вже занадто. Той, як відомо, мовчазним був. А я навпаки – тільки підставляй мішки на гречану вовну. Прибігла з кухні господиня.



– Ой, гостеньки, ще трохи зачекайте. Іван Іванович має завітати. Десь затримується.– Семеро одного не ждуть, – кажу. – Голод не тітка. Мені не встигли відповісти. У вітальні задзеленчало. Іван Іванович прийшов. Тільки-но він роздягнувся, ми всі наче за командою до столу присунулись. Перед головним гостем найбільшу тарілку поставили. Глянув на неї Іван Іванович і засміявся: – А чого мені найбільша? – Великому возові – велика й дорога, – вирішив і я зробити комплімент.

Він подивився на мене і повчально сказав: – Багато їсти шкідливо. – Щира правда, – кажу. – Волга впадає в Каспійське море.

Почали ми їсти – заворушилися. До себе страви потягли. Наче лебідь, рак і щука. Наїлися трохи – загомоніли. Кожен кулик своє болото хвалить. Я теж. Чого б не похвалити? Язик без кісток. А господиня все страви підкладає. Та ще й бідкається: – Ой, гостоньки дорогії, щось ви мало їсте. – Не кажіть гоп, – заспокоїв я її. – Апетит з їдою прибуває. Курчат восени лічать. Потім гості розділилися. Одні почали коктейлі готувати, інші танці затіяли – сучасні: хто в ліс, хто по дрова. Ми з моїм сусідом по столу – свій свояка вгадає здалека – до холодцю допалися. Він потім почав розповідати, що на городі бузина, а я «шерше ля фам» зайнявся. Бо ще є порох у порохівницях. Гарні жіночки – моя ахіллесова п’ята.

Як виявилося, в тому тихому болоті чудові чортиці водилися. Точніше, дві – чорнява і білява. Й обидві мені підморгували. Я хоча вже трохи й підтоптаний, та на безриб’ї і рак риба. «Куй, – думаю, – залізо, поки гаряче». Особливо білявка в око впала. Провів розвідку танцем і довідався, що живе вона в далекому мікрорайоні, десь у чорта на рогах. «Ні, – думаю, – тут шкурка вичинки не варта. Доки сонце зійде, роса очі виїсть». Переключився на чорнявку. Та недаремно за двома зайцями ганятись мудрі люди не радять. Той час, поки дружина на кухні допомагала, використати не зміг. І тільки-но вивів свою чорнявку на балкон, про астрономію мову завів, моя половина вже тутечки. А коли сіно косять, дощу не просять. Мусив відступити на заздалегідь підготовлені позиції, тобто за стіл.

Що-що, а поїсти я люблю. Це моя друга ахіллесова п’ята... Сиджу, душа підкріплення бажає, а на столі катма. Довелося з іменної тарілки Івана Івановича у свою меншеньку дещо перекласти. Гадав, допоможу йому, а він ще й образився. Тут моя дружина знову з флангу зайшла. Додому мене потягла. Отак вечір і минув. Безрезультатно, можна сказати. Щоправда, провели нас гарно. Господар аж на сходи за нами вийшов. – Скатеркою дорога, – сказав. Але добре те, що добре закінчується. Якби знав, де впадеш ...

Так от. Нещодавно звільнили нашого начальника. Нового призначили. Того самого Івана Івановича. Я одразу все пригадав. І як над ним та його тарілкою кепкував, і як на балконі його чорняву дружину спокушав. І він, мабуть, мене не забув. Довго мені руку тис, повторював: – З цим чоловіком ми вже знайомі. Навіть добре знайомі. А буде нагода – обов’язково те знайомство пригадаємо. Ось тобі, бабцю, і Юрія.
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