Exercise 28. Read, translate and give the gist of text 2.
Text 2. Main Units of Aircraft
Airplanes usually have the same basic configuration. Any airplane consists of five principal structural units: the fuselage, the wing, the tail unit, the landing gear and the power plant.
The fuselage is the main structure or the central body of the aircraft and its largest element extending from the nose to the tail of the machine. It provides space for flight crew, passengers, cargo, controls and most of the accessories.
The fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end, where the crew control the airplane and passenger and cargo compartments. The wings, stabilizers and the landing gear are attached to it, and the engine in some designs.
The wing is one of the large flat parts that stick out from the sides of airplane and help to keep it in the air. They are the main planes. The wing extends equally on each side of the fuselage. Wings develop the major portion of the lift of a heavier-than-air aircraft. Wing structures carry some of the heavier loads found in the aircraft structure. The wings are lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. So the aircraft uses the aerodynamic lift of the wing and the power plant thrust. The particular design of a wing depends on the size, weight, speed, rate of climb and use of the aircraft.
The tail unit is the back part of an airplane. It is also known as the tail assembly or empennage. All three terms may be used interchangeably. The tail assembly is attached to the rear of the fuselage and consists of vertical and horizontal stabilizers, a rudder and elevators. It gives stability to aircraft and provides control in flight.
The landing gear or undercarriage in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and reduces shocks of landing, that is, it absorbs the forces imposed on the aircraft by take-offs and landings, so it allows the aircraft to taxi, take off and land.
The power plant is a source of power. It provides power for flight and propels the airplane. The power plant contains an engine or engines and some systems.
to extend from the nose to the tail; to be attached to the fuselage; to stick out from both sides of the airplane; to depend on the size and weight;
to give stability to aircraft; to taxi on the ground; to propel the aeroplane; to contain engines and some systems; to provide space for flight crew, passengers, cargo and controls; to be lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight; to be known as the empennage; to absorb the forces imposed on the aircraft; to create lift.
Exercise 32. Put questions to the italicized words.
1. Any airplane consists of five principal structural units. 2. The fuselage extends from the nose to the tail of the machine. 3.The wings develop the major portion of the lift. 4. The wings are lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. 5. The tail assembly is attached to the rear of the fuselage. 6. The empennage contains vertical and horizontal stabilizers. 7. The landing gear supports an aircraft on the ground. 8. The power plant provides power for flight. 9. The fuselage has acockpit section at the front end. 10. The flight crew control the airplane.
Exercise 33. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.
1. The fuselage is the central body of the airplane. 2. We divide the aeroplane into five principal structural units. 3. The power plant propels the aircraft. 4. The tail unit consists of two surfaces, vertical and horizontal. 5. The wing extends equally on each side of the fuselage.
6. The landing gear or undercarriage, in aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground. 7. The undercarriage allows the aircraft to taxi, take off and land. 8. The tail unit gives stability to aircraft.
9. The fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. 10. The power plant contains engines and some systems.
Exercise 34. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. The airplane consists of two main units. 2. The tail unit supports the fuselage. 3. The function of the power plant is to create lift.
4. The wings are not lifting and supporting surfaces of the airplane in flight. 5. The fuselage controls the airplane in flight. 6. The fuselage does not provide space for flight crew, passengers, cargo, controls and most of the accessories. 7. The tail assembly is attached to the rear of the fuselage. 8. The tail unit consists of vertical and horizontal stabilizers, a rudder and elevator. 9. The power plant gives stability to aircraft.
10. The power plant, stabilizers and the landing gear are attached to wings.
Exercise 35. Make up sentences with the following terms.
Aircraft, crew, cargo, equipment, engine, flight, lift, loads, wing, stability, control, ground, power plant, tail assembly, landing gear, principal structural units, vertical and horizontal stabilizers.
Exercise 36. Choose the right terms below to describe fuselage and tail unit designs.
Vertical stabilizer, horizontal stabilizer, cockpit, landing gear, engine, tail assembly, rudder, elevators, baggage compartment, nose wheel, passenger cabin, cargo hold.
Exercise37. Fill in the blanks with prepositions: from, for, of, through, on, without, by, to, in, out. Translate the sentences.
1. The airplane is a vehicle that flies … the air due … lift and thrust. 2. The aircraft, engine-driven vehicle, is supported … the action … the air against its wings. 3. The airframe is a structure … the aircraft … engines. 4. The airframe is fabricated … aluminum alloy. 5. Any airplane consists … five principal structural units. 6. The power plant, wings, stabilizers and the landing gear are attached … the fuselage.
7. The wing is one … the large flat parts that stick … … the sides … airplane. 8. The wing extends equally … each side … the fuselage.
9. The particular design … a wing depends … the size, weight, speed, rate … climb and use … the aircraft. 10. The landing gear or undercarriage … aviation, is the structure that supports an aircraft … the ground.
11. The power plant provides power … flight and propels the airplane.
Exercise 38. Answer the questions on text 2.
1. What units do we divide the aeroplane into? 2. What does the aircraft use to fly through the air? 3. What allows the aircraft to taxi on the ground, take off and land? 4. Where does the wing extend? 5. What gives stability to aircraft? 6. What does the fuselage house? 7. What propels the airplane? 8. What keeps the airplane in the air? 9. What does the particular design of the wing depend on? 10. Is the tail assembly attached to the rear or the front part of the fuselage? 11. What does the power plant contain?
Exercise 39. Translate into English.
1. Літак складається з п'яти основних конструктивних частин: крило, фюзеляж, хвостове оперення, шасі, силова установка.
1. Самолет состоит из пяти основных конструктивных частей: крыло, фюзеляж, хвостовое оперение, шасси, силовая установка.
2. Фюзеляж тягнеться від носової до хвостової частини літака.
2.Фюзеляж простирается от носовой до хвостовой части самолета.
3. Фюзеляж містить кабіну екіпажа, пасажирські салони та багажно-вантажні відсіки.
3. Фюзеляж вмещает кабину экипажа, пассажирские салоны и багажно-грузовые отсеки.
4. Крила – це несні поверхні.
4. Крылья – это несущие плоскости.
5. Хвостове оперення включає вертикальний та горизонтальний стабілізатори, кермо напряму і керма висоти.
5. Хвостовое оперение включает
вертикальный и горизонтальный стабилизаторы, руль направления и рули высоты.
6. Шасі служить для підтримки літака на землі, руління, зльоту і посадки.
6. Шасси служит для поддержки самолета на земле, рулежки, взлета и посадки.
7. Силова установка забезпечує потужність для польоту і рухає літак.
7. Силовая установка обеспечивает мощность для полета и приводит в движение самолет.
8. Силова установка містить двигуни і системи.
8. Силовая установка содержит двигатели и системы.
9. Літак використовує аеродинамічну підіймальну силу планера і тягу силової установки.
9. Самолет использует аэродинамическую подъемную силу планера и тягу силовой установки.
Exercise 40. Speak on “Principal Structural Units of the Airplane”.
Exercise 41. Read and learn the recommended vocabulary to be able to speak on “Aircraft Performance”.
Exercise 42. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.
Text 3. Aircraft Performance
The aircraft performance includes dimensional data and the main flying characteristics.
Dimensional data are length, wing span, height and width. The main flying characteristics are maximum take-off weight, maximum landing and payload weight, seating capacity or number of seats, number of crew, cargo capacity, cruising speed, flight range, flight altitude, non-stop flying time, practical ceiling or service ceiling, engine type and thrust of each engine, number of engines, take-off and landing ground run, maximum fuel capacity, etc.
The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer or manufacturer. Here are some of aircraft designers: Antonov, Ilushin, Tupolev, Yakovlev. Manufacturer’s names are represented by: Boeing, Bristol, Canadair, Convair, Douglas, Lockheed, Vickers and others. Following the name of the designer or manufacturer comes a type code, known in some airlines as a class. For example: Antonov-70 (designer’s name and type code), Douglas DC-6B (manufacturer’s name and type code).
Aircraft can be supplied in some versions: Economy Class, Business Class, Tourist Class, First Class, Second Class, Third Class.
Exercise 43. Answer the questions on text 3.
1. What dimensional data does the aircraft performance include? 2. What are the main flying characteristics? 3. The aircraft usually takes the name of the designer, doesn’t it? 4. What is the type code? 5. What versions can an aircraft be supplied in?
Exercise 44. Read, translate and entitle text 4.
William E. Boeing was a wealthy, 34-year-old man when he had his first flying lesson in 1915. He immediately decided that he could build a better airplane. With his friend Conrad Westervelt, a Navy officer, he began working on his first biplane on the shores of Seattle’s Lake Union. A year later, on July 15, 1916, Mr. Boeing incorporated the Pacific Aero Products Company. In 1917, the name was changed to the Boeing Airplane Company. Boeing and Westervelt called it the B&W, after their initials. Boeing was the first person to fly it.
A wood, wire, and cloth seaplane, the B&W, could carry the pilot and one passenger and cruise at 67 mph (108 km/h). The first flight was on June 29, 1916, just 12 1/2 years after the Wright brothers first flew at Kitty Hawk.
Exercise 45. Speak on “Aircraft Performance”.
Exercise 46. Memorize the following abbreviations.
Ft(foot, pl. feet)
cu ft (cubic foot)
встановлений, що відповідає британському стандарту