Exercise 2. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Combustion Chamber:
Main Tasks and Purposes
Different types of engines result from choosing configurations that yield a desired high overall efficiency in various flight regimes.
As aircraft engines produce power through the combustion of fuel, it is very important to provide satisfactory combustion process. This process takes place in the combustion chamber, which is one of the major components of any gas-turbine engine. The combustion chamber is designed to expand the air passing through the engine by burning fuel in the air stream. Air is delivered from the compressor to the combustor where the fuel is sprayed (atomized) into the air and ignited, combustion takes place, and the gases pass out through the turbine.
All aircraft engines are heat engines in which thermal energy derived from the combustion of fuel with air (or an oxidizer) is converted to useful work. Combustion efficiency is of particular importance because of the great fuel consumption. A perfect combustion chamber must meet two basic requirements: first, it must provide maximum conversion of fuel chemical energy into heat energy of gas, and, second, this conversion must be accomplished with minimum pressure losses. In addition, the combustion process must proceed evenly and continuously, so that the constant temperature distribution at the combustor outlet may be provided.
The fuel burning process results in the release of heat, this is why the chamber is made of materials that can withstand high temperatures. Approximately one fourth of the air entering the combustion chamber is burned with the fuel. The rest1 of the air serves to cool the heated gases to a level which will not damage the turbine nozzle and blades. Therefore, the design of the combustion chambers must be such that adequate fuel combustion is accomplished and that proper cooling is attained.
1. the rest - залишок, решта / остаток, остальное
Exercise 3. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents:
1) oxidizer / oxidant
давати високу загальну ефективність / давать высокую общую эффективность
лопатки та сопло турбіни / лопатки и сопло турбины
пошкодження / повреждение
Exercise 4. Practise out the dialogue.
T. Let us consider the construction features (конструктивні особливості / конструктивные особенности) of the combustion chamber and its significance (значення / значение) for the performance (робота; характеристика / работа; характеристика) of the engine in general. Engine performance is known to depend on the performance of its components. So, does each component of the engine influence the performance of the engine in general?
S. – Yes, it does. Engine performance depends on the performance of its major components.
T. – Right. And what’s more, the shape of the components and other mechanical characteristics determine the behaviour of each component and the engine on the whole, and are taken into account in the engineering choices of the design of propulsion systems (система тяги / система тяги). Each of the three basic engine types: reciprocating, jet and rocket engines, requires a certain combustion chamber for operation.
S. – Do you mean, that the engine type determines the choice of the combustion chamber for its proper operation?
T. – Quite right. The jet engine, for example, utilizes the burner, i.e. a straight-through type of tubular combustion chamber (прямоточна багатосекційна камера згорання / прямоточная многосекционная камера сгорания); the reciprocating engine uses the cylinder type of combustion chamber (циліндрична камера згорання / цилиндрическая камера сгорания); while the rocket engine uses a combustion chamber similar to the jet engine.
Exercise 5. Translate and memorize the following collocations.
To take place, to pass through, to pass out through, to derive from, to convert to, to be of importance, because of, to meet requirements, to be accomplished with, in addition to, to result in, to result from, that is why, to be made of, one fourth.
Exercise 6. Match terms and their definitions.
a) The shape or arrangement of the parts of something.
b) Chemical activity which uses oxygen to provide the process of burning.
c) A substance such as coal, gas, or oil that can be burnt to produce heat or energy.
d) To force liquid out of a container so that it comes out in a stream of very small drops and covers the area.
f) Enough in quantity, or of a good enough quality for particular purposes.
Exercise7. Find synonyms among the entries of the list given below:
to combust, to carry out, to provide, to choose, to get, to define, to yield, to revolve, to relate, to apply, to require, to concern, to utilize, to burn, to determine, to ensure, to select, to demand, to perform, to rotate, to produce, to derive.
Exercise 8. Complete the sentences giving English equivalents of the words in brackets.
1. The choice of the combustor size is determined by (розмір двигуна / размер двигателя). 2. (Принципова різниця / принципиальная разница) is that rockets do not use a (джерело повітря / источник воздуха) from outside the engine. 3. The driving force of the engine is derived from (реакція спалюємих газів / реакция сжигаемых газов) which are exhausted directly from the combustion chamber through the (сопло / сопло). 4. (Поршнeві двигуни / поршневые двигатели) use pistons to compress the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber or cylinder. 5. Fuel plus (окислювач / окислитель) to provide oxygen, are carried in the rocket and injected into the combustion chamber. 6. Engine performance (визначається / определяется) by the (характеристики / характеристики) of several major components of the engine. 7. Each engine type (вимагає / требует) a different form of (камера згорання / камера сгорания) for operation.
Exercise 9. Ask questions to the italicized parts of the sentences.
1. It is very important to provide satisfactory combustion process.
2. The combustion chamber is designed to expand the air by burning fuel. 3. In all aircraft engines, thermal energy is converted to useful work. 4. Combustion efficiency is of particular importance because of the great fuel consumption.
Exercise 10. Derive nouns from the following words using the suffixes -ance, -ence and translate the pairs.
Model: important - importance
важливий / важный - важливість / важность.
Resist, differ, violate, prefer, consist, reside, insist, insolent, ignore, tolerant, experiential.
Exercise 11. Construct nouns from verbs adding the suffix -ion (or its variants -tion, -sion) and translate the pairs.
To dictate, to connect, to produce, to demonstrate, to translate, to introduce, to transmit, to restrict, to isolate, to occupy, to navigate, to promote, to graduate, to decide, to divide, to convert, to expand.
Exercise 12. Derive nouns from verbs adding the suffix -ment and translate the pairs.
Model: to develop - development
розвивати / развивать - розвиток / развитие.
To commit, to improve, to govern, to settle, to pay, to agree, to employ, to confine, to excite, to engage, to enjoy, to enlarge, to engross, to enforce, to enroll, to accomplish.
Exercise 13. Derive nouns from adjectives adding the suffix -ness and translate the pairs.
Model: dark - darkness
темний / темный - темнота / темнота
Kind, weak, bitter, sick, cold, pure, full, good, happy, clever.
Exercise14. Translate the verbs and their derivatives, pay attention to the suffixes.
To relate – relation; to behave – behaviour; to determine – determination; to apply – application; to require – requirement; to utilize – utilization; to ignite – ignition; to mix – mixture; to compress – compression; to perform – performance; to rotate – rotation; to provide – provision, to inject – injection; to compare – comparison.
Exercise 15. Put the verbs into the correct tense form after the model.
Model: 1. When they graduate from the university, they will become aviation engineers.
2. If I see him, I shall tell him everything.
When I (to see) the engineer, I (to ask) him what to do.
Please, (not to switch) off the light till they (to come) back.
As soon as you (to hear) the story, you (to be eager) to get acquainted with the people who took part in the event.
The combustion chamber (to become overheated) if the cooling air (not to enter) the system.
Exercise 16. Put the verbs into the correct tense form after the model.
Model: I would have warned you about their arrival if I had known, but I was not aware of that.
1. The engine (to become clogged) if the fuel filters (not to be cleaned) in time.
2. If they (to discuss) the problem in advance, the situation (to be changed).
3. The airplane wings (to become iced) if the warming system (to be turned off).
4. If the pilot (to receive) the instruction in time, he (to change) the direction of flight.
5. They (to miss) the flight if they (to leave) half an hour later.
Exercise 17. You are displeased with the situation. Make sentences with I wish…after the model.
Model: You went to bed too late and now you are sleepy.
- You say: I wish I had not gone to bed too late yesterday.
1. You decided not to take an exam. Now you realize that it was a mistake. I wish I (to take) an exam then.
2. You have been smoking for several years. Now your health is bad. I wish I (to give up) smoking many years ago.
3. You went by train to visit your parents. Now you see that your visit will be very short. I wish (to go) by plane.
4. The day is foggy and airplanes cannot fly. I wish I (to listen) to the weather forecast, I could have gone by train.
5. You have got into a traffic jam and have missed the flight. I wish I (to leave) an hour earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my flight.
Exercise 18. Translate text 2 in a written form.
Text 2. Combustor design
Air flows from the compressor into the combustor between the inner and outer liners, both being provided with holes and louvers for the entry of primary and secondary air. All process of combustion takes place inside the inner liner at approximately constant pressure. In the combustor flame tube only enough primary air is mixed with the fuel to provide a correct mixture for burning. After burning is completed, secondary air joins the burning mixture to provide cooling. The fuel nozzles, designed to inject and atomize fuel, are attached to the fuel manifolds.
The combustor is spaced around the engine between the compressor and turbine section. When the engine is operated at its maximum power, the exit temperature from a combustor is well above the level at which the oxidation-resistant super alloys can operate for long periods. For this reason, the structure of the combustor must be cooled by a portion of the compressor discharge air, which will then mix with the combustion product to become a part of the turbine flow.
Exercise19. Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms below.
The compressor discharge air;except for; the outer and inner liners; the fuel nozzles; a correct mixture for burning; the oxidation-resistant super alloys; inside the inner liner. 1. In the combustor flame tube only enough primary air is mixed with the fuel to provide (правильна суміш пального з повітрям / правильная смесь топлива с воздухом) 2. Both (зовнішній і внутрішній кожухи / внешний и внутренние кожухи) are provided with holes and louvers. 3. The whole process of combustion takes place (в середині внутрішнього кожуха / внутри внутреннего кожуха) at approximately constant pressure. 4. (Паливні форсунки / топливные форсунки) are used to inject and atomize fuel. 5. The exit temperature from a combustor is well above the level at which (суперсплави, стійкі до окислювання / не подвергающиеся окислению суперсплавы) can operate for long periods. 6. The structure of the combustor must be cooled by (повітря, яке виходить з компресора / воздух, поступающий из компрессора). 7. Combustors are identical (за винятком / за исключением) different pressures and mass flows.
Exercise 20. Translate into English.
1. Процес згорання палива відбувається в камері згорання.
1. Процесс сгорания топлива происходит в камере сгорания.
2. Функція камери згорання – розширювати повітря шляхом спалювання палива в струмені повітря.
2. Функция камеры сгорания - расширять воздух путем сжигания топлива в струе воздуха.
3. Теплова енергія, яка отримується в результаті згорання повітряно-паливної суміші, перетворюється в корисну роботу.
3. Тепловая энергия, получаемая в результате сгорания воздушно-топливной смеси, превращается в полезную работу.
4. Процес згорання палива має проходити рівно та безперервно, забезпечуючи постійний розподіл температури на виході з камери.
4. Процесс сгорания топлива должен проходить ровно и непрерывно, обеспечивая постоянное распределение температуры на выходе из камеры.
5. Повітря, що поступає до камери згорання, використовується як для процесу згорання палива, так і для охолодження нагрітих газів.
5. Воздух, поступающий в камеру сгорания, используется как для процесса сгорания топлива, так и для охлаждения нагретых газов.
Exercise 21. Give full information on the following items.
Combustion chamber design.
Satisfactory combustion process.
Basic requirements to a perfect combustion chamber.
Functions of the air entering the combustion chambers.
Exercise 22. Memorize the active vocabulary to texts 3 and 4.
Exercise 23. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.
Text 3. Types of Combustion Chambers
The following types of combustors (can-type or individual, annular type and cannular type) are known to be mainly used for gas turbine engines. The design of individual or can-type combustion chambers seems to be rather simple, as illustrated in Fig.II.2.1.
Fig. II.3.1. The individual or can-type combustion chamber