Exercise 42. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form. Use 'Will' and 'The Present tense' if you think the people are talking about something which might happen. Use 'would' and “The past tense” if they are talking about something which is unlikely or impossible. Use “were” in if clauses as the Past Tense form for all persons.
I've got his number, so if there are any problems, I willlet him know.
I would phone him if I had his number, I don't know what it is.
1. If I (have) time I (read) your report and I'll let you have my comments by Tuesday. 2. I (pick) you up at the railway station myself if I (not have) any appointments on Monday. 3. If she (be) a little more experienced, she (be) good for the job, but as it is, I don't think she's the right person. 4. It's a pity Mr.Brown is not here. If he (be) here, I'm sure he (be) able to give you an answer. 5. I've got your number so if John (ring) from London this evening I (pass) it on to him. 6. I've decided not to go to the interview for a job because it (take) me more than an hour to get to the office if it (turn out) that it is located in the outskirts of the city. 7. The whole division has been performing badly ever since he was appointed the manager. Things (be) very different if you (be) still in charge.
Exercise 43. Put the verbs into the correct tense form.
1. Mary got to the airport in time. If she (miss) the plane she (be late) for her interview. 2. It’s good that you reminded me about the meeting. I (forget) if you (not remind) me. 3. Tom (send) you a postcard while he was in London if he (have) your address. 4. If I (have) enough money on me then I (buy) the suit. 5. If we (go) to the party last night, I (be) tired now. 6. If we (go) to the party last night, we (see) Jane who has just returned from abroad. 7. They (take) photographs when they went to Chicago if their camera (not brake down). 8. The students of our group (have) better results in the exams in winter if they (not miss) classes. 9. If the weather (be) fine yesterday, my friends (go) fishing and (take) me too. 10. If they (consider) the matter more carefully, the report they made at the conference (be) more interesting.
Exercise 44. Memorize the definitions of the terms.
1. Two shafts rotating one inside the other for rotating the low and high pressure compressors by the low and high pressure engine turbine -
a) coaxial shaft
2. A mechanical device such as a bolt, nail, rivet or screw that is used to tie two objects together-
3. A projection on the engine for attachment of components on the engine -
4. A piece of rubber or plastic that keeps air, water etc. out of something -
5. A seal between two flat surfaces -
6. A shaped device for directing flow in a duct -
7. A specified size hole in a component for fluid flow control from or to the component -
8. A rotating section of an engine (turbine, compressor) or a generator -
Exercise 45. Give definitions to the following terms: coaxial shaft, fastener, flange, seal, gasket, nozzle, orifice, rotor, turbine stage.
Exercise 46. Read, translate and give the gist of text 5.
Text 5. Exhaust nozzle
The normal function of the exhaust nozzle or cone is to control the velocity and temperature of the exhaust gases. Although a certain amount of thrust would be produced even if there were no exhaust nozzle, the thrust would be comparatively low and the direction of flow would not be properly controlled. When a convergent nozzle is used, the velocity of the gases is increased and the flow is directed so that the thrust is in line with the engine.
The cross-sectional area of the nozzle outlet is most critical. If the area is too large, the engine will not develop maximum thrust, and if the area is too small, the exhaust temperature will be excessive at full-power conditions and will damage the engine. On some early gas-turbine engines, the exhaust nozzle area was adjusted by means of small fittings. These were installed at the nozzle exit as required to give the correct nozzle area.
If the exhaust gases of a turbojet engine reach supersonic speed, it is necessary to employ a convergent-divergent (C-D) exhaust duct in order to obtain maximum thrust. To ensure that a constant weight or volume of a gas will flow past any given point after sonic velocity is reached, the rear part of a supersonic duct must be enlarged to accommodate the additional weight or volume that will flow at supersonic speeds. The rate of increase in area in a divergent duct is just sufficient to allow for the increase in the rate of change in volume of the gases after they become sonic.
Exhaust nozzles on modern airliners usually include thrust-reversal devices and noise suppressors.
Exercise 47. Give key-questions to text 5.
Exercise 48. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents for the following words:
b) to explain, to assemble, to combust, to exit, to leak, to comprise, to pass, to attach, to drive, to prevent, to mount, to rivet, to incorporate, to obtain, to ensure, to reach, to accommodate, to allow, to hold in place;
c) convergent, divergent, excessive, supersonic, sufficient, additional, rear, certain, critical, too large, excessive, correct, constant, continuous; properly, comparatively.
Exercise 49. Read, translate and entitle text 6. Write a brief summary.
As explained previously, the turbine section of the JT9D engine is comprised of two turbine assemblies. The first is the high-compressor drive turbine and the second is the low-compressor drive turbine. The high-compressor drive turbine consists of the first two stages of the turbine which are located immediately to the rear of the combustion section.
The first-stage turbine disc is attached to the second-stage disk by means of a bolted flange. Knife-edge airseals are provided to prevent air leakage between the turbine blades and vanes. The second-stage disk is splined to the high-compressor drive shaft.
The nozzle vanes and turbine blades are cooled by means of air which flows through interior passages. The turbine blades are coated and the vanes are chromalized to reduce gas erosion and high-temperature corrosion.
The first-stage turbine has 116 blades mounted in fir-tree slots in the rim of the disc. The blades are held in place by 29 blade-retaining plates riveted to the disc and to each other by 116 long rivet pins. The cooling airflow flows into the blades.
In the first-stage turbine, the blades are not shrouded, which makes it possible to exit the blade-cooling air through holes in the tips of the blades.
In the second-stage turbine, there are 138 blades mounted in fir-tree slots. The low-pressure-compressor drive turbine, often termed the low-compressor drive turbine, drives the fan and three stages of the compressor. This turbine section includes the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth turbine stages.
The low-compressor drive turbine incorporates four disks to which the turbine blades are attached in fir-tree slots. The blades are held in place by rivets.
Exercise 50. Translate text 7 in a written form using a dictionary. Make a list of new words and memorize them.
Text 7. Low-pressure Turbine Section
The low-pressure turbine for the CF6 engine has two different configurations. The CF6-6 model has five stages and the CF6-50 has four stages. In either case, the low-pressure turbine utilizes a rotor supported between roller bearings mounted in the turbine midframe and the turbine rear frame. A horizontally split low-pressure turbine casing containing stator vanes is bolted to these frames to complete the structural assembly. This provides a rigid, self-contained module which can be precisely and rapidly interchanged on the engine without requiring a subsequent engine test run. The low-pressure turbine shaft engages the long fan drive shaft through a spline drive and is secured by a lock bolt. The forward flange of the turbine midframe is bolted to the aft flange of the compressor rear frame, after installation of the high-pressure turbine, to complete the engine assembly.
Since the temperature of the exhaust gases is reduced considerably through the high-pressure turbine, the low-pressure turbine blades do not require cooling. Compressor-seal leakage air is used to cool the first two low-pressure turbine disks to reduce thermal gradients.
The increased flow and higher wheel speed of the CF6-50 engine would result in very low stage loadings if a five-stage low-pressure turbine were used on the engine. According to engineering studies, the four-stage turbine performs more efficiently.
Exercise 51. Compose a dialogue comparing the structural features of GT9D and CF6 turbines, basing on the information of the previous two texts.
Exercise 52. Read, translate and give the gist of text 8.
Text 8. How Thrust is Developed
Thrust is the pulling or pushing force developed by an aircraft engine. Aircraft need thrust to propel them through air. The required thrust may be developed by rotating pulling or pushing propellers by means of piston or reciprocating engines, or by throwing back masses of air by means of gas turbine engines. Spacecraft need thrust to propel them through space. They develop thrust using the power of their rocket engines and do not need air for support. Spacecraft carry the required supply of fuel and oxidizer with them.
A simple piston engine works on a four-stroke cycle, consisting of induction, compression, combustion and exhaust. But air flows straight through a jet engine. Yet a jet engine has the same four stages. The simplest of all jet engines is a ram jet. It is a tapered tube, open at both ends, into which fuel can be injected. When the tube moves, air flows into the tube, and this corresponds to the induction stage in the piston engine. Once inside the tube, the air slows down because the tube widens. The kinetic energy released by this loss of velocity is converted into pressure energy and heat, and this corresponds to the compression stage in the piston engine. Then fuel is injected and ignited. As in a piston engine, this causes a big rise in temperature, but there is very little rise in pressure because the exhaust gas is free to escape through the rear of the tube. This corresponds to the combustion stage in the piston engine. Finally the exhaust gases escape into the atmosphere, driving the engine forwards, which corresponds to the exhaust stage of the piston engine.
To understand the mechanics of thrust development, we must remember Newton's third law of motion: "For every force acting upon a body, there is an equal and opposite reaction". In our case, the "body" is the volume of air that is passing through the engine. We must also understand that the forward thrust occurs inside the engine itself, it is not caused by the high-pressure exhaust gases acting on the outside atmosphere. This is well illustrated by rocketengines which propel spacecraft through empty space.
Exercise 53. Find in text 8 English terms corresponding to the following definitions.
1. Engines that develop thrust by throwing back masses of air.
2. Engines that develop thrust by rotating pulling or pushing propellers.
3. A tapered tube, open at both ends, into which fuel can be injected.
4. The stage during which the exhaust gases escape into the outside atmosphere. 5. The stage during which a big rise in temperature occurs.
6. The stage during which the air slows down and its pressure and temperature increase
Exercise 54. Speak on:
1. Turbine types.
2. Gas turbine design.
3. Turbine rotor assembly.
4. Exhaust section: design and functions.
II.5. TYPES OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1.
internal combustion engine
двигун внутрішнього згорання
двигатель внутренне-го сгорания
1. реактивний стру-мінь 2. реактивний літак
1. реактивная струя
2. реактивный самолёт
турбореактивний двигун (ТРД)
турбореактивный двигатель (ТРД)
прямоточний повітряно-реактивний двигун (ППРД)
прямоточный воздушно-реактивный двигатель (ПВРД)
турбогвинтовий двигун (ТГД)
турбовинтовой двигатель (ТВД)
1. тяга, сила тяги
2. створювати тягу
1. тяга, сила тяги
2. создавать тягу
конус реактивного сопла
конус реактивного сопла
1. привод, передача, тяга 2. приводити в дію
1. привод, передача, тяга 2. приводить в действие
liquid-propel-lant rocket engine
рідинний ракетний двигун (РРД)
жидкостный ракет-ный двигатель (ЖРД)
solid-propellant rocket engine
ракетний двигун на твердому паливі
ракетный двигатель на твердом топливе
specific fuel consumption
питома витрата палива
удельный расход топлива
Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
T. We'll consider the types of aircraft engines. You know that a source of power in an airplane is the power plant. What does the power plant consist of?
S. The power plant consists of one engine or engines and different systems.
T. Right. There are two main types of aviation engines: piston or reciprocating engines and jet engines.
S. Are jet engines divided into any groups?
T. Yes, they are. Jet engines are divided into three main groups: gas turbines, ram jets and rocket engines.
S. Gas turbine engines are widely used nowadays, aren’t they?
T. Yes, they are rather popular. Gas turbine engines are subdivided into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan or bypass and turboshaft engines. The Ukrainian equivalent of "turboprop engine" is "турбогвинтовий двигун / турбовинтовой двигатель"
S What does "bypass engine" mean?
T. "Bypass engine" means "двоконтурний двигун / двухконтурный двигатель"."Turbofan engine" (турбовентиляторний двигун / турбовентиляторный двигатель) has an axial-flow fan. I am sure you know the meaning of the word "shaft".
S. Yes, I do. "Shaft" means "вал/вал".
Т. So "turboshaft engine" is translated as "турбовальний двигун / турбовальный двигатель". Do you know where turboshaft engines are used?
S. I have heard that turboshaft engines are used in helicopters.
T. There the turbine connected to a drive shaft drives, in addition to the compressor, helicopter rotors.
S. Are rocket engines subdivided into groups?
T. Yes, they are. Rocket engines are subdivided into two basic types: liquid-propellant and solid-propellant rocket engines. “Liquid-propellant rocket engine” means "рідинний ракетний двигун/жидкий ракетный двигатель" and “solid-propellant rocket engine” is translated "ракетний двигун на твердому паливі / ракетный двигатель на твердом топливе".
S. As far as I know turbojet engines operate on the jet thrust.
T. You are quite right.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Aircraft Engines A source of power in an airplane is the power plant. The power plant consists of one engine or engines and different systems.
There are two main types of aviation engines: the piston or internal combustion engines and jet engines. Jet engines are divided into three main groups: gas turbines, ram jets and rocket engines.
The first to be considered is a piston or reciprocating engine. The piston engines are also called internal combustion engines as combustion takes place inside the cylinder. Gas turbine engines are widely used nowadays. They are subdivided into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan or by-pass and turboshaft engines.
Turbojet engines operate on the jet thrust. If a gas turbine engine has a propeller on the same shaft as the compressor, it is called a turboprop.
A turbofan engine differs little from a turboprop. Instead of the propeller the turbofan engine has an axial-flow fan. Unlike the turboprop engine, the turbofan obtains additional energy from the gases passing through the exhaust cone. Usually all turbofan engines are called by-pass engines.
Turboshaft engines are used in helicopters where the turbine connected to a drive shaft drives, in addition to the compressor, helicopter rotors. Rocket engines are subdivided into two basic types: liquid-propellant and solid-propellant rocket engines.
The last generation of jet engines is advanced technology engines.
All aviation engines must meet the following requirements: low weight, low cost, low specific fuel consumption and higher reliability.
Exercise 4. Look at this picture (Figure II.5.l). Make sure you
remember the types of aircraft engines.
Fig. II.5.1. Aircraft engine classification.
Exercise 5. Translate word combinations with the term “engine”.
Exercise 7. These words are used both as verbs and nouns. Translate and remember them.
To use - use, to call - call, to control - control, to drive - drive, to fan - fan, to speed - speed, to cost - cost, to ram - ram, to thrust -thrust, to fuel - fuel, to flow - flow, to power - power, to place - place, to advance - advance, to pass - pass.
Exercise 8. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. solid-propellant rocket engine
a) осьовий вентилятор / осевой вентилятор
2. exhaust cone
b) газотурбінний двигун / газотур-бинный двигатель
3. axial-flow fan
c) рідинний ракетний двигун / жид-костный реактивный двигатель
4. liquid-propellant rocket engine
d) двигун внутрішнього згорання / двигатель внутреннего сгорания
g) турбовентиляторний двигун / турбовентиляторный двигатель
8. reciprocating engine
h) прямоточний повітряно-реактивний двигун / прямоточный воздушно-реактивный двигатель
9. bypass engine
i) ракетний двигун на твердому паливі / ракетный двигатель на твердом топливе
10. specific fuel consumption
j) поршневий двигун / поршневой двигатель
11. ramjet engine
k) питома витрата палива / удельный расход топлива
Exercise 9. Match synonymous expressions.
a) last generation engines
b) power plant
3. piston engine
d) reciprocating engine
5. source of power
6. advanced technology engines
Exercise 10. Make up sentences using the following verb-combinations.
To take place inside the cylinder; to operate on the jet thrust; to obtain additional energy; to pass through the exhaust cone; to drive the helicopter rotor; to meet the requirements; to consider the types of aircraft engines; to subdivide into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan and turboshaft engines.
Exercise 11. Match the definitions in the left column with the terms in the right column.
1. gas turbine engine with a propeller on the same shaft
a) turboshaft engine
2. source of power in an airplane
b) advanced technology engines
3. gas turbine engine with an axial-flow fan
c) an engine used for propelling or lifting aircraft
4. last generation engines
d) turbofan engine
e) power plant
6. an engine used in helicopters where the turbine drives the helicopter rotor
f) turboprop engine
Exercise 12. Give definitions to the following terms.
1. What does the power plant consist of? 2. What requirements must aircraft engines meet? 3. What main types of aviation engines are there? 4. What groups are jet engines divided into? 5. What engines are widely used nowadays? 6. What engines operate on the jet thrust?
7. What does the turbofan engine have instead of the propeller? 8. What does the turbofan engine obtain from additional gases passing through the exhaust cone? 9. What engines are called bypass engines? 10. What engines are used in helicopters? 11. What basic types are rocket engines subdivided into?
Exercise 14. Put questions to the italicized words.
1. A source of power in an airplane is the power plant. 2. Turbojet engines operate on the jet thrust. 3. Usually all turbofan engines are called bypass engines. 4. Rocket engines are subdivided into two basic types. 5. A turbofan engine differs little from a turboprop.6. Gas turbine engines are subdivided into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan or bypass and turboshaft engines. 7. Piston engines are also called internal combustion engines. 8. The power plant consists of one engine or engines and different systems. 9. The last generation of jet engines is advanced technology engines. 10. Gas turbine engines are widely used nowadays.
Exercise 15. Сomplete the sentences.
1.Aircraft engines must meet the following requirements ... .2. Jet engines are divided into three main groups: … . 3. A turbofan engine differs little from ... . 4. Instead of the propeller the turbofan engine has ... . 5. Gas turbine engines are subdivided into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan or bypass and ... . 6. Turbojet engines operate on ... . 7. If a gas turbine engine has a propeller on the same shaft as the compressor, it is called ... . 8. Unlike the turboprop engine, the turbofan obtains additional energy from the gases passing through ... . 9. Usually all turbofan engines are called ... . 10. Rocket engines are subdivided into two basic types:… .
Exercise 16. Play the role of an interpreter.
1. Газотурбінні двигуни широко використовуються в цивільній авіації?/ Газотурбинные двигатели широко используются в гражданской авиации?
1. Yes, gas turbine engines are widely used in civil aviation.
2. На які типи діляться гaзотypбiннi двигуни? / На какие типы делятся газотурбинные двигатели?
2. Gas turbine engines are subdivided into turbojet, turboprop, turbofan and turboshaft engines.
3. Які двигуни використовуються в гелікоптерах? / Какие двигатели используются на вертолетах?
3. Turboshaft engines are used in helicopters.
4. Які основні вимоги висуваються до авіаційних двигунів? / Какие основные требования предъявляются к авиационным двигателям?
4. All aviation engines must meet the following requirements: low weight, low cost, low specific fuel consumption and higher reliability.
5. Які двигуни зазвичай називають двоконтурними двигунами?/ Какие двигатели обычно называют двухконтурными двигателями?
5. All turbofan engines are usually called bypass engines.
6. Джерелом потужності в літаках є силова установка, чи не так? / Источником мощности в самолетах является силовая установка,
не так ли?
6. Yes, a source of power in an aircraft is the power plant.
7. На якій тязі працюють турбореактивні двигуни? / На какой тяге работают турбореактивные двигатели?
7. Turbojet engines operate on the jet thrust.
8. Що використовуєгься замість гвинта в турбовентиляторному двигуні? / Что используется вместо винта в тубовентиляторном двигателе?
8. Instead of the propeller the turbofan engine has an axial-flow fan.
Exercise 17. Get acquainted with PC-90A engine performance data.
1. Maximum continuous power
Максимальна потужність / Максимальная мощность
Тяга / Тяга
2. Take-off power
Specific fuel consumption
Зльотна потужність / Взлетная мощность
Швидкість обертання / Скорость вращения
Тяга / Тяга
Питома витрата палива / Удельный расход топлива
3. Cruising power
Specific fuel consumption
Питома витрата палива/ Удельный расход топлива
4. Dimensions and masses
Engine dry mass (weight)
Розміри та маси / Размеры и массы
Довжина двигуна / Длина двигателя
Диаметр впускного каналу / Диаметр впускного канала
Maca сухого двигуна / Масса сухого двигателя
Maca реверса/ Масса реверса
2,800 k g
Number of stages
Total compression ratio
Кількість ступенів / Количество ступеней
Загальний ступіньстиснення / Общая степень сжатия
rotor, with two pressure stages on fan shaft
Number of high-pressure stages
Number of low-pressure stages
Турбіна / Турбина
Тип / Тип
Кількість ступенів високого тиску / Количество ступеней высокого давления
Кількість ступенів низького
тиску/ Количество ступеней низкого давления
Запуск двигуна/ Запуск двигателя
starter, with air bled from APU or from ground air starting unit.
7. Fuel and Oil
Fuel used and its foreign equivalents
Oil used and its foreign equivalents
Палива та мастила (олива)/
Топлива и смазки (масла)
Палива, що використовуються та їх іноземні еквіваленти/ Топлива, которые используются, и их иностранные эквиваленты
Масла, що використовуються та їх іноземні еквіваленти/ Масла, которые используются, и их иностранные эквиваленты
ИПМ – 10
50 -1 - 4 Ф
8. Time Limits
Engine service life
Time between overhauls
Обмеження в часі/ Ограничения по времени
Ресурс двигуна/ Ресурс двигателя
Міжремонтний ресурс/ Межремонтный ресурс
Exercise 18. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
Take-off power, rotational speed, cruising power, engine diameter, engine length, inlet diameter, compressor type, compressor stages, turbine stages, reverser mass, turbine nozzle, engine starting, fuel used, maximum continuous power, specific fuel consumption, number of high-pressure stages, number of low-pressure stages, total compression ratio, engine service life, time between overhauls, engine dry mass, ground air starting unit.
Exercise 19. Translate text 2 in a written form.
The A-310 CFM-56-5 engines are high bypass ratio turbofan engines with reduced fuel consumption, maintenance cost and noise level. A330s can be powered by engines from all three major manufacturers (CF6-80E1 series from General Electric, PW4000 series from Pratt & Whitney, Trent 700 series from Rolls-Royce), with high bypass ratio, low fuel burning, low noise and low emission technology. The thrust of CF6-80 is 70,000 lb/72,000 lb.
The L-1011-500 TriStar is powered by the Rolls-Royce 3RB211-524 Bs. It is a three-shaft, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The advanced technology high bypass ratio turbofan engines offer two outstanding features: economical fuel consumption and the low-noise/low-smoke emission characteristics. The thrust is 50,000 lb.
The Dornier 328PW119B turboprop engine has two centrifugal impellers driven by independent axial turbines, a reverse flow annular combustor and a two-stage power turbine which provides the drive for the reduction gearbox. Concentric shafts connect the two-stage power turbine to the gearbox and the single stage LP and HP turbines to the impellers without the need for intershaft bearings.
The 737 airplanes are powered by two wing-mounted CFM56-3 high bypass ratio turbofan engines at several thrust ratings. The power plant consists of the inlet cowl, basic engine, thrust reverser and exhaust plug.
The AN-72 is powered by two Д-36 turbofan engines rated at up to 6500kg take-off thrust.
The AN-28 is powered by two AИ-20D turboprop engines. They enable the aircraft to operate successfully on short runways under various climates assuring in-flight reliability and safety.
Exercise 20. Put key questions to text 2.
Exercise 21. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3. Entitle the text.
GE90: The highest thrust engine in the industry, the GE90 powers the Boeing 777. The company is currently developing the GE90-115В as an exclusive engine for the longer-range Boeing 777 aircraft scheduled to enter service in 2013.
CF6: CF6 engines lead the industry as the power plant of choice for wide-body aircraft such as the Airbus Industry A300, A310, A330, Boeing 747, 767, and MD-11 wide-body aircraft. GEAE has recently introduced higher thrust variants of the CF6-80C and CF6-80E engines for the Boeing 767-400ER and the Airbus A330-200/-300, respectively.
CFM56: The CFM56 product line includes six engine models spanning the thrust range from 18,500 to 34,000 lb thrust and power the single-aisle Airbus Industry A320 and long-range A-340 aircraft and the Boeing Classic and Next-Generation 737 aircraft. Today, CFM is the world's leading supplier of commercial transport jet engines with firm orders for nearly 14,000 engines for nearly 300 customers.
CF34: The CF34 has evolved from being a corporate jet engine in the early 1980s to helping create the fast-growing regional jet aircraft market today. The newest models, the CF34-8 and CF34-10, are the engines of choice for virtually every regional airliner within their thrust class.
CT7: The CT7 is the most widely used turboprop engine in its class, powering helicopters, regional airliners, and multipurpose aircraft worldwide. The CT7-8 turboshaft engine is scheduled for certification on S-92 helicopter.
Exercise 22. Compose a dialogue on comparative performance data of different aircraft engines basing on the information of texts 2 and 3.
Exercise 23. Make sure you remember the names of present-day aircraft engines.
Exercise 24. Translate text 4 in a written form and entitle it.
The growing demand for cheaper, larger, faster and more capable helicopters continues to drive turboshaft development at a rapid pace. Much of the search for cutting-edge turboshaft technology in the USA is conducted by the Defense Department Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology program, which has goals of increasing the kilowatt/weight ratio by 120% relative to the late 1980s production standard. It also aims to cut specific fuel consumption by 40% and production and maintenance costs by 35%.
New technologies, advanced materials and maintenance procedures can enable major improvements in fleet maintainability / reliability, plus a major reduction in life cycle costs.
Exercise 25. Make a list of the new terms referring to the topic "Aircraft Engines" and memorize them.
Exercise 26. Get ready for the word dictation on "Aircraft Engines" terminology.
Exercise 27. Make up a plan of the topic "Aircraft Engines".
Exercise 28. Speak on:
1. Types of Aircraft Engines.
Main Engine Performance Data.
Exercise 29. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 5.
1. pyx вперед; приведения до руху 2. рушійна сила; тяга
1. движение вперед; приведение в действие 2. движущая сила; тяга
реверсивна тяга; зворотна тяга
реверсивная тяга; обратная тяга
1. екран 2. захищати; прикривати; екранувати
1. экран 2. защищать; прикрывать; экранировать
Exercise 30. Read, translate and give the gist of text 5.
Text 5. Jet Engines, Turboprops and Turbofans
The most common type of jet engines is the turbojet. The turbojet relies entirely upon the jet thrust to develop its propulsive force. The turbojet draws air into a compressor, usually consisting of several stages. This compressed air then enters a combustion chamber where fuel is added and the mixture is burned. The hot gas is then expelled, producing thrust.
Turbine blades in jet engines suck air into the engine and compress it prior to ignition, and the escaping gases drive another set of turbine blades to provide the necessary propulsion for the ingestion. When a gas turbine engine has a propeller on the same shaft with a compressor, it becomes a turboprop. A propeller provides most of the propulsive thrust. The turboprop combines features of both piston and turbojet engines. It provides better performance at lower speeds and altitudes than would be possible with a jet engine.
The operating ceilings of turboprop aircraft are somewhat lower than those of pure jets. On the other hand, the propeller can produce great amounts of thrust instantly at low altitudes resulting in shorter take-off and landing capabilities, the latter because of the availability of reverse thrust which also permits turboprop aircraft to taxi backwards.
The turbofan engine operates on the same principle as the turboprop engine. In turbofan engines, the propeller is a shrouded fan which directs part of the air around the outside of the turbines and combustion chambers to produce "cold" thrust. The remainder of the air goes through the engine and is expelled in normal fashion.
Advantages of the turbofan include good performance at low altitudes and the shielding of the exhaust gases from the engine inside a circle of cooler air, thus reducing the noise which is created by hot exhaust gases hitting a cold atmosphere abruptly.
A ramjet differs from a turbojet or turbofan in having no moving parts. A ramjet cannot operate from rest, but it is suitable for augmenting thrust on a turbojet engine, or as the main power source when rocket boosters can be provided for take-off.
In a turboshaft engine the turbine has another drive shaft, usually a rotor drive shaft of a helicopter. So turboshaft engines are widely used in helicopters.
Exercise 31. Translate the verb-noun derivation pairs.
a) to ignite – ignition
to ingest - ingestion
to direct - direction
to retract - retraction
c) to ignite- igniter
to cool - cooler
to reduce - reducer
to produce – producer
b) to move - movement
to accomplish - accomplishment
to require - requirement
to attach - attachment
d) to direct – director
to create - creator
to augment - augmentor
to separate – separator
Exercise 32. Read the following derivative chains, translate and define parts of speech.
Exercise 33. Translate the adjective-adverb pairs.
Easy - easily, separate - separately, abrupt - abruptly, great -greatly, short - shortly, instant - instantly, direct - directly, complete -completely, clear – clearly, efficient - efficiently, brief – briefly.
Exercise 34. Write out of text 5 the words that are used both as verbs and nouns. Translate them. There are more than 20 of such words.
Exercise 35 Give the initial form of the following words. Translate the pairs.
inboard – outboard lower - upper
Exercise 40. Make up sentences with each of the following verb-combinations.
To draw air, to enter a combustion chamber, to produce thrust, to suck air into the engine, to provide the necessary propulsion for the ingestion, to combine features of piston and turbojet engines, to provide better performance at lower speeds, to taxi backwards, to direct a part of air, to rely upon the jet thrust, to develop propulsive force, to reduce noise, to operate on the same principle.
Exercise 41. Fill in this table using the words below.
Gas Turbine Engine
Shrouded fan, rotor, buckets, drive shaft, compressor, cylinder, exhaust nozzle, turbine, air inlet, combustion chamber, propeller, helicopter, jet thrust, propulsive force, turbine wheel, piston, air intake, exhaust nozzle, booster, turbine and compressor blades, guide vanes.
Exercise 42. Complete the following sentences.
1. The turbojet draws air into a compressor, usually consisting of several ... . 2. The compressed air enters a combustion chamber where fuel is added and the mixture ... . 3. The hot gas is then expelled, producing ... . 4. The propeller can produce great amounts of thrust instantly at low altitudes resulting in ... . 5. A ramjet differs from a turbojet or turbofan in having no ... . 6. The turboprop engine operates on the same principle as ... . 7. The turboprop engine provides better performance at lower speeds and altitudes than would be possible with ... . 8. In turbofan engines, the propeller is ... . 9. Advantages of the turbofan include ... . 10. The shielding of the exhaust gases from the engine inside a circle of cooler air reduces ... . 11. A ramjet cannot operate from ..., but it is suitable for augmenting thrust on ... .
Exercise 43. Put all types of questions to the following sentences.
1. Thrust is a pushing or pulling force developed by aircraft engine or propeller, making a plane move forward. 2. Propulsion is a force that drives a vehicle forward. 3. The piston is a part of an engine consisting of a short solid piece of metal inside a tube, which moves up and down to make the other parts of the engine move. 4. The blades are shrouded at their tips. 5. The shield is a protection arrangement that protects a person or thing from harm or damage. 6. The generator drive is a mechanical device that drives the generator at desired revolutions per minute. 7. The shaft has a series of cranks as an integral part and is used to transform the reciprocating motion of the engine pistons into rotary motion to drive the propeller. 8. The air inlet ducts must be protected so as to minimize the ingestion of foreign matters during take-off, landing and taxiing.
Exercise 44. Answer the questions on text 5.
1. What engine provides better performance at lower speeds and altitudes than would be possible with a jet engine? 2. What are the operating ceilings of turboprop aircraft? 3.What features does the turboprop engine combine? 4. What engine operates on the same principle as the turboprop engine? 5. What is the main difference between a ramjet and a turbofan? 6. What engines have a shrouded fan which directs a part of the air around the outside of the turbine and combustion chambers to produce “cold” thrust? 7. Can a ramjet operate from rest? 8. What are the advantages of a turboprop?
Exercise 45. Complete the questions to the subject attribute and answer them.
1. ...engine combines features of both piston and turbojet engines? 2. ... engine provides better performance at lower speeds and altitudes than would be possible with a jet engine? 3. ... engine operates on the same principle as the turboprop engine? 4. ... engine differs from a turbojet or turbofan in having no moving parts? 5. ... engine cannot operate from rest?
Exercise 46. Match the terms with their definitions.
1. A pushing or pulling force developed by aircraft engine or propeller, making a plane move forward.
a) generator drive
2. A part of an engine used for drawing in air.
3. A part of an engine consisting of a short solid piece of metal inside a tube, which moves up and down to make the other parts of the engine move.
4. A protection arrangement that protects a person or thing from harm or damage.
d) air intake
5. A mechanical device that drives the generator at desired revolutions per minute.
Exercise 47. Put questions to the italicized words.
1. The burntgases are expelled through the exhaust valve. 2. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited. 3. The power for flight is provided by the power plant. 4. The new era in aviation was opened by the introduction of jet engines.5. Both jet engines and piston engines are used in aviation. 6. In turbofan engines the propulsive force is provided by fans. 7. The compressoris driven by a gas turbine. 8. Turboshaft engines are widely used in helicopters.
Exercise 48. Change the following sentences into Passive Voice after the model.
The power plant provides power for flight.
The power for flight is provided by the power plant.
In turbofan engines the fan provides the propulsive force.
2. The introduction of jet engines opened a new era in aviation. 3. The electric spark ignites the compressed mixture. 4. The early aircraft used gasoline as fuel. 5. The turbine takes the energy of heated gases, in the form of velocity. 6. Jet engines completely replaced piston engines.
7. The turbofan engine obtains additional energy from the gases passing through the exhaust cone. 8. This shaft drives a propeller as well as other engine accessories. 9. Helicopters use turboshaft engines.
Exercise 49. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tense and voice form.
1. In 1885 the first airplane (to power) by a steam engine. 2. In a short time piston engines (to replace) by jet engines. 3. A new era in aviation (to open) with the introduction of jet engines. 4 The steady progress of aviation (to connect) with the development of aircraft power plants. 5. The compressed air (to mix) with fuel. 6. Jet engines (to use) in civil aviation. 7. The energy of heated gases, in the form of velocity (to take) by a turbine. 8. This energy (to use) for driving the engine shaft. 9 All turbofan engines (to call) bypass engines. 10. A ram pressure (to create) when the airplane moves through the air at a great speed.
Exercise 50. Translate into English.
1. Реактивні двигуни широко використовуються в цивільній aвiaцii.
1. Реактивные двигатели широко используются в гражданской авиации.
2. Турбореактивний двигун розвиває тягу повністю за рахунок реактивного сопла.
2. Турбореактивный двигатель развивает тягу полностью за счет реактивного сопла.
3. Повітряний гвинт знаходиться на одному валу з компрессором.
3. Воздушный винт находится на одном валу с компрессором.
4. У турбогвинтовому двигуні основна частина тяги створюється гвинтами i тільки від 10 % до 25 % за рахунок реактивного сопла.
4. В турбовинтовом двигателе основная часть тяги создается винтами и только от 10 % до 25% за счет реактивного сопла.
5. У турбовентиляторному двигуні замість повітряного гвинта використовується вентилятор, який обертається зі швидкістю турбіни.
5. В турбовентиляторном двигателе вместо воздушного винта используется вентилятор, который вращается со скоростью турбины.
6. Турбовентиляторний двигун є вapiaнтом турбогвинтового двигуна.
6. Турбовентиляторный двигатель представляет собой вариант турбовинтового двигателя.
7. Турбовальні двигуни використовуються в гелікоптерах.
7. Турбовальные двигатели используются в вертолетах.
8. Турбовальний двигун приводить в дію привідний вал гвинта гелікоптера.
8. Турбовальный двигатель приводит в действие приводной вал винта вертолета.
9. Силова установка рухає літак вперед та забезпечує необхідну підіймальну силу.
9. Силовая установка двигает самолет вперед и обеспечивает необходимую подъемную силу.
10. Поршневі двигуни повністю замінені реактивними.
10. Поршневые двигатели полностью заменены реактивными.
Exercise 51. Read, translate and entitle text 6.
The ПС-90 A is a two-spool, high bypass ratio1 turbofan engine with the flow mixing, fitted with a common exhaust nozzle and thrust reverser. Structurally the engine is made of 11 modules which except for the main one can be replaced. Provision has also been made for replacement of separate parts of the modules and of the parts most likely to get damaged, such as fan blades and compressor pressure stages, flame tubes, combustion chamber jets, thrust reverser cascade vanes.
The engine is equipped with the compressor and turbine radial clearances2 control system. The engine gas flow duct is fitted with sound-absorbing components.
1 bypass ratio – ступінь двоконтурності / степень двухконтурности
2 clearance – проміжок / зазор
Exercise 52. Read and translate text 7 in a written form.
Text 7. Turbojets
Gas-turbine engines for aircraft come in many types and sizes, each of which has its advantages and also its limitations. The most common type is the uncomplicated turbojet. Because they have no added features such as a fan, propeller, or free turbine, turbojets are sometimes referred to as straight jets.
Most turbojets operate best at relatively high altitude, in the 25,000 to 40,000 ft range, although they are able to go very much higher, if need be. There is no simple explanation for the fact that turbojets are so well suited to high-altitude operation. The high-altitude capability of a turbojet is due to a number of reasons, some of which are rather complex. For one thing, this capability is designed into an engine at the time the plans are first laid down on a drawing board. For another, the cold temperature of the air at high altitude gives an engine extra thrust. More importantly, the rarified atmosphere at high altitude reduces airplane drag (which may be thought of as the air resistance of flight). Low drag means that the Mach number selected for cruising can be attained at a low engine thrust setting. This, in turn, results in a relatively low fuel consumption for the airspeed attained - a feature that makes for economical operation.
But, good as they are at their optimum altitude, high thrust at low airspeed is not a turbo-jet characteristic. To be at their best, turbojets need the ram-air pressure at their inlet which comes only with speed. Therefore, they require very long runways for take-off.
Turbojets are classified according to the kind of compressor they use. For years, they had only centrifugal compressors because this was the type that designers knew best how to build. Centrifugal compressors operate by taking in air near a hub at the centre and rotating it with an impeller.
As the impeller whirls the air at high speed, centrifugal force carries the air to the perimeter of the impeller at a considerable velocity. Here the air is collected in a diffuser to increase the pressure, then led to a manifold which, in turn, feeds it to the engine burners.
The early centrifugal compressor turbojets were (and still are) both reliable and simple. But the amount of thrust they can produce is relatively low because their compression ratio is not very high. Nevertheless, there are several turboprop and turboshaft engines now in current production that employ a compressor arrangement using one or more centrifugal type compressors. The improved design of these engines makes them far superior to the centrifugal compressor
power plants of several years ago.
The majority of today's turbojets use an axial compressor. Axial compressors are used, especially in the larger engines, because they are capable of producing high compression ratios, sometimes as high as 13:1, or more. An axial compressor, as the name implies, compresses air as it flows in an axial direction through an engine. A series of rotating blades and stationary vanes work on the air as it passes through a series of stages inside the compressor. Each stage adds to the compression process.
There are two types of axial-compressor engines, those with so-called single compressors and those with dual compressors. In dual-compressor engines (sometimes called twin-spool engines), there are two compressors that are mechanically independent of one another, although they are related as to airflow. Each compressor has its own turbine. The turbine for .the forward, or low-pressure compressor, is the rear turbine. It is connected to the low-pressure compressor by a drive shaft that passes through the hollow drive shaft for the high-pressure compressor and turbine unit.
Exercise 53. Make a summary of text 7.
Exercise 54. Write out all the terms referring to the "Turbojet
Exercise 55. Make up a plan of the topic "Turbojets ".
Exercise 56. Translate text 8 in a written form.
Text 8. Rocket Engines
There are two general types of rockets: the solid-propellant rocket and the liquid- or bipropellant rocket. Rocket fuels and oxidizers are called propellants.
Solid-propellant rockets are simplest in arrangement and least susceptible to control. Liquid-propellant rockets are somewhat more complex than the solid type, but they are susceptible to a much greater range of control during operation. This control is accomplished by varying the rate of flow of the fuel and oxidizer to the combustion chamber.
The rocket engine consists of a propellant injector, combustion chamber surrounded by a cooling jacket, and a nozzle to allow the natural expansion of the combustion gases.
The rocket engines all operate on the same principle whether they are solid - fuel or liquid-fuel types.
Exercise 57. Comment on texts 5, 6, 7, 8 using the following speech patterns.
The text is devoted to …
is about …
draw attention to …
focuses on …
touches upon …
Exercise 58. Read, translate and give the gist of text 9.
Text 9. Turboprops
If a gas generator (turbojet) turns an aircraft propeller through a system of gears, it becomes a turboprop. The propeller drive reduction gearing may be driven by the shaft from the same turbine that rotates the compressor, or the gearing may be driven by a shaft from a so-called free turbine that rotates independently in the exhaust gas stream of the basic gas generator. In either case, the gas generator for a turboprop might be either a single- or dual-compressor type, although there are no dual-axial compressor turboprops in production.
Although a turboprop is more complicated and heavier than a turbojet engine of equivalent size and power, it will deliver more thrust up to medium-high subsonic airspeeds. However, the advantage decreases as flight speed increases. In normal cruising-speed ranges, the propulsive efficiency1 (output divided by input) of a turboprop remains more or less constant, whereas the propulsive efficiency of a turbojet increases rapidly as airspeed increases. The spectacular performance of a turboprop during take-off and climb is the result of the ability of the propeller to accelerate a large mass of air while the aircraft is moving at relatively low ground and flight speed.
1 propulsive efficiency – тяговий ККД (коефіцієнт корисної дії) / тяговый КПД (коэффициент полезного действия)
Exercise 59. Divide text 10 into logical parts and write a topical sentence for each part.
Text 10. Turbofans
Fanjets and turbofans are one and the same thing. In principle, the turbofan (or fanjet) is the same as the turboprop except that the ratio of the secondary airflow (i.e., the airflow through the fan or propeller) to the primary airflow through the basic engine is less. Also, in the turbofan, the gear-driven propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed, axial-flow fan whose rotating blades and stationary vanes are considerably larger but otherwise similar to the blades and vanes of an axial compressor.
There are two principal configurations for a turbofan, each of which has several variations. In one configuration, the fan is placed at the front of the engine where it is an integral part of the compressor. When the engine is a dual-compressor type, it is a part of the forward, low-pressure compressor. In the other configuration, the fan is mounted at the rear of the engine where it forms the rim, or outer perimeter, of a free turbine that rotates by itself in the exhaust gases discharged from the engine. These two turbo-fan designs are called forward-fan and aft-fan engines, respectively.
In both turbo-fan configurations, the fan makes a substantial contribution to the total thrust. Over and above the thrust produced by the basic engine, the fan accelerates the air passing through it to generate thrust of its own in the manner of the propeller of a turboprop. The fan air is exhausted without passing through the engine; it is not burned with fuel or used for internal engine cooling.
Two different duct designs are used with forward-fan engines. Either the air exhausted by the fan may be ducted overboard directly after it leaves the fan, or it may be ducted along the outer case of the basic engine to mix, or not mix (depending upon the design), with the turbine exhaust gases before the gases pass through the jet nozzle.
The fundamental difference between a turbofan and a turboprop is that the airflow through the fan is controlled by the design of the engine in such a manner that the air velocity through the fan blades is not affected very much by the speed of the aircraft. This means that the loss of operational efficiency at high air speeds that limits the airspeed capability of turboprop aircraft is eliminated in turbo-fan aircraft. Indeed, supersonic aircraft not only can, but are being powered by turbofans.
Turbofans are rapidly becoming the most widely used of all the types of jet engines, particularly in large multi-engine aircraft. The turbofan is, in effect, a compromise between the good operating efficiency and high-thrust capability of a turboprop and the high-speed, high-altitude capability of a turbojet. At cruising altitude, the engine-propeller combination of a turboprop loses efficiency rapidly at airspeeds above 400 knots. Not only does the turbofan have no such limitation but it is much simpler than a turboprop.
The complexity and weight of the propeller reduction gearing and the intricate propeller-governing feature of a turboprop are completely eliminated in a turbofan. The turbofan is therefore not only lighter than a turboprop but can never be plagued by any of the malfunctions to which a propeller and its associated systems are susceptible.
The fact that the fan air does not pass through the basic engine enables a turbofan to achieve a relatively low specific fuel consumption. In addition, because it accelerates a large mass of air to relatively low velocity, even at very low aircraft speeds, a turbofan, like a turboprop, produces much more thrust than a turbojet during take-off and the initial climb.
Another advantage of the turbofan is a lower noise level, which is an important feature at all commercial airports. The lower level of noise occurs because a turbofan engine has at least one additional turbine stage to drive the fan. Extraction of more power from the engine exhaust gases as they pass through the additional turbine (or turbines) serves to reduce the velocity of the engine exhaust. Less velocity through the jet nozzle results in less noise.
Exercise 60. Make up a brief summary of text 11.
Text 11. Ramjets and Pulsejets
The simplest jet engine of all is the ramjet, which has no moving parts. Such an engine is but little more than a pipe equipped with a fuel metering and injection system. Because a ramjet must be accelerated by some means other than the engine's own power to a very high speed before it will operate, the engines have limited use. They have principally been employed in guided missiles that must be carried aloft and launched by a conventional aircraft.
A pulsejet is a ramjet with a set of shutters, spring-loaded to remain in the closed position normally, placed across the engine air inlet. When the engine is launched at a speed sufficient to maintain operation, ram air pressure forces the shutters open. Fuel is injected and burned continuously in the combustion chamber. As soon as the combustion chamber pressure equals the ram air pressure, the shutters close. The combustion gases are ejected through the jet nozzle at the rear, generating thrust. When the pressure in the combustion chamber drops off, the shutters open again, admitting more air. The cycle repeats itself with great rapidity.
Exercise 61. Render text 12 in brief.
Text 12. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
The APU is located in the aft end of the fuselage, behind the pressure bulkhead and below the horizontal stabilizer. The APU generator is mounted on the accessory drive pad and is used to furnish 60 kilovolt-ampere (KVA) of electrical power on the ground or it can be used as an alternate power source of 50 KVA in flight. Bleed air from the APU can be used to operate two air-conditioning packs or for main engine starting. Using APU bleed air for air-conditioning during take-off improves take-off performance. Airplane ground servicing, including refueling, may be accomplished with the APU operating. Exhaust noise heard by passengers and the ground crew is minimized through two factors:
- use of an acoustically treated air inlet and exhaust duct;
- its distance from the cabin and ground service points.
The APU is readily accessible for inspection, maintenance or removal through a large door in the fuselage directly below it. Removal is accomplished by lowering the assembly with a simple hoist and cable system.
Exercise 62. Write key questions to text 13.
Text 13. Pratt and Whitney JTI5D Engines
Two Pratt & Whitney of Canada JT15D engines power the Cessna Citation aircraft. The JT15D is a light-weight, two-spool, medium bypass turbofan that produces between 2,200 and 2,550 lbs of static takeoff thrust.
After air enters the engine inlet, a front fan driven by the low pressure (LP) turbine accelerates air rearward toward the axial and centrifugal compressors and the full-length, annular bypass duct. Approximately 75 % to 66 % of the total air flows around the engine core through the bypass duct.
After air passes through the fan, an axial compressor, driven by the low pressure turbine, accelerates the air before passing it to the centrifugal compressor. The compressor, driven by the high-pressure (HP)turbine, slings air outward to accelerate it to a high-velocity, low-pressure flow. The diffuser converts the high-velocity flow into a low-velocity, high-pressure flow before it reaches the combustion section.
Exercise 63. Read, translate and copy out aviation terms from
Text 14. RB.211-22B Engine
The Rolls-Royce RB.211-22B is a three-shaft, high-bypass ratio, turbofan engine. Advantages of this compact design include great structural rigidity, fewer parts, low specific fuel consumption, reduced noise and smoke, and outstanding thrust growth potential.
Twoengines are pylon-mounted on the wing; the third is located at the aft fuselage. This arrangement satisfied the design requirements for the optimum airplane balance, low structural weight, ease of access and maintainability, minimum drag.
Engines are interchangeable between wing and tail locations with someminor components changes. On-the-wing maintenance is facilitated by new design internal couplings that allow major assemblies to be separated from each other if replacement is required.
Exercise 64. Read and translate text 15 without a dictionary.
Text 15. CFM56-3 Engines
The 737 airplanes are powered by two wing-mounted, CFM56-3 high bypass-ratio turbofan engines at several thrust ratings. The engine is an axial flow turbofan with two spools and variable stator vanes. The single-stage fan and three-stage low pressure compressor are driven, via the low-speed (№1) shaft, by a four-stage low pressure turbine. The nine-stage high pressure compressor is driven, via the high speed (№2) shaft, by a single stage high pressure turbine. The fan and core airflows have separate exhaust nozzles and the fan exhaust system includes a cascade type thrust reverser. Power for aircraft and engine accessories is provided by the main gearbox side mounted on the fan case. The gearbox is driven by the high-speed (№2) engine rotor.
Exercise 65. Scan text 16 for aviation terms, make up a list of them with the help of a dictionary and make sure you know them.
Text 16. Engine Buildup
During engine buildup, the following components are installed on the basic engine: starter, constant speed drive (CSD) generator or optional variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) generator, hydraulic pump, cowling, thrust reverser, thrust reverser extension ring, fire/overheat detectors, engine instrumentation, pneumatic ducting, potable water pressurization tubing, and electrical harness. Except for the vortex control device on the fan cowl and the thrust reverser, engine buildup is identical for left or right engines.
The engine nacelle is composed of the nose cowl and fixed and hinged cowl panels to provide smooth airflow over the engines and to protect exterior engine components from damage.
Cowl panels, hinged at the top, may be opened or completely removed to provide ground level access to the engine without using ground stands. Three cone bolts secure the engine to the wing. Two front cone bolts take thrust, vertical and side loads. The one rear cone bolt takes vertical and side loads.
Special options allow the installation of nearly any of the above engines on the -300, -400. -500 airframes because of the unique thrust-limiting system at the interface.
Exercise 66. Speak on:
Turbojets: operation principle and advantages.
Turboprop and Turbofan Engines.
4. Auxiliary Power Unit.
II.6 AIR ACCIDENTS Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1.
обумовлена опадами імпульсна перешкода електростатичного походження
импульсная помеха электростатического происхождения, обусловленная осадками
повна витрата палива
полная выработка топлива
зупинка, вимкнення (двигуна)
останов, выключение (двигателя)
1. тривога, попередження про небезпеку; сигнал небезпеки 2. попереджати про небезпеку
1. тревога, предупреждение об опасности; сигнал опасности 2. предупреждать об опасности
Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
T. We’ll consider the causes of air accidents. I am sure you know what the main cause of air accidents is.
S. I think human factor affects any flight.
T. You are quite right. More flights will bring more accidents. Human errors in the cockpit and inadequate actions of the crew and ground personnel are the main cause of engine failures. Engine failures complicate flight conditions.
S. What may engine failures be caused by?
T. Engine failures may be caused by design or manufacture errors, improper engine operation, errors by the crew, ground personnel, air traffic control.
S. Do adverse weather conditions cause engine failures?
T. Yes, they do. Stormy weather, gusty crosswinds, severe icing on the aircraft skin result in engine failures.
S. What does “midair collision” mean?
T. It means aircraft-to-aircraft collision, collision with birds, aircraft-mountain collision, ground collision.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Causes of Engine Failures
Engine failures may be caused by design or manufacture errors, improper engine operation, errors by the crew, ground personnel, air traffic control. Human errors in the cockpit and inadequate actions of the crew and ground personnel (so called human factor) are the main cause of engine failures.
Foreign objects in engine ducts or midair collisions (aircraft-to-aircraft collision, collision with birds, aircraft-mountain collision, ground collision) and adverse weather conditions (stormy weather, gusty crosswinds, severe icing on the aircraft skin) also result in engine failures.
Turbulence in clouds causes vibration and unstable engine operation, i.e. engine surge. Heavy and precipitation statics lead to failure of electronic equipment. Overloading results in partial engine thrust. The asymmetrical and incomplete thrust reversal is the reason of engine failures. The fuel and oil leakage may cause minor engine failure. Fuel exhaustion leads to engine shutdown. Oil exhaustion is the reason of engine seizure and overheating. Engine failures complicate flight conditions and may lead to an emergency or crash.
Exercise 4. Find English equivalents in text 1.
Зіткнення в повітрі / столкновение в воздухе, обледеніння / обледенение, відмова двигуна / отказ двигателя, дії екіпажу/ действия экипажа, експлуатація двигуна / эксплуатация двигателя, тракт двигуна / тракт двигателя, складні (несприятливі) погодні умови / сложные (неблагоприятные) погодные условия, конструктивні дефекти / конструктивные дефекты, зіткнення з птахами / столкновение с птицами, дії наземних служб / действия наземных служб, виробничі дефекти / производственные дефекты, сторонні предмети/ посторонние предметы.
Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions: in, from, between, to, with, by, of, on.
1. Human errors … the cockpit are the main cause … engine failures. 2. Foreign objects … engine ducts, midair collisions, adverse weather conditions, icing cause engine failures. 3. Engine failures may lead … an emergency or crash. 4. Inadequate actions … the crew and ground personnel lead … improper engine operation. 5. C-5 crashed during an approach … the base, … May 10, as a result … colliding.
6. AN-32 crashed during an approach … Kiev. 7. Airplanes may collide … birds. 8. Engine failures may be caused … design or manufacture errors. 9. Heavy icing … the tail unit was the major factor … TU-134 emergency landing. 10. During an approach … landing … bad weather the pilot went below minimum altitude. 11. The midair collision … two military aircraft taking part … Air show killed two people.
Exercise 8. Translate the following prepositional word combinations and make up sentences with them.
a) in the area
d) for taking off
in that direction
for safe landing
in the cockpit
for aircraft maintenance
in poor visibility
for preventing engine destruction
in the civil aviation
for defining the failure
b) at night
e) in spite of the bad weather
at each airport
because of snow
at both ends
due to fuel exhaustion
at the beginning of
during an approach
at the time of the incident
as a result of colliding
c) on top of the wing
f) except for vibration
on that day
apart from bad weather
on May, 10
in order to escape
on the occasion
in between two flights
on either side
as regards engine failures
Exercise 9. Complete the sentences using the words given in brackets (vibration, emergency, conditions, failures, operation, errors, crash).
1. Engine failures may be caused by design or manufacture … . 2. Adverse weather conditions cause engine … . 3. Engine failures complicate flight … . 4. Human errors in the cockpit are the main cause of engine … . 5. Inadequate actions of the crew and ground personnel lead to improper engine … . 6. Engine failures may result in … . 7. Foreign objects in engine ducts lead to … .
Exercise 10. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents. Use a dictionary if need be.
Exercise 11. Make up sentences with the following verb combinations.
To result in an emergency, to cause engine failure, to detect failure, to prevent failures, to alert collisions, to complicate flight conditions, to avoid collision, to board an airplane, to lead to an accident, to collide with a mountain.
Exercise 12. Match the pairs of:
a) synonyms: ground, icing, accident, cockpit, cause, fault, speed, work, velocity, operation, collision, flight deck, security, failure, ice formation, land, reason, strike, crash, safety;
b) antonyms: large, advantage, complicate, reduce, possible, proper, difficult, impossible, increase, disadvantage, small, easy, simplify, inadequate.
Exercise 13. Translate the verb – noun pairs. Give other examples of noun formation and noun – building suffixes.
a) to act – action, to move – motion, to operate – operation, to collide – collision, to complicate – complication, to indicate – indication, to reduce – reduction, to provide – provision, to direct - direction;
b) to move – movement, to equip – equipment, to develop - development, to improve – improvement, to require - requirement;
c) to assist – assistance, to depend – dependence, to differ - difference, to maintain – maintenance, to clear - clearance;
d) to operate – operator, to instruct – instructor, to design - designer, to lead – leader, to manufacture - manufacturer.
Exercise 14. Match the attributes and the nouns to form as many nominative word combinations as possible.
main, engine, design, manufacture,
human, midair, weather, flight,
production, crew, mechanical,
structural, sudden, critical, adverse,
automatic, landing, instrumental,
relative, external, ground, personnel,
vibration, improper, bird
Exercise 15. Make up all possible verb – object collocations and translate them.
damage, failure, collision,
condition, emergency, crash,
overheating, engine seizure,
to result in
hazard, vibration, malfunction,
incident, icing, accident, operation,
engine surge, shutdown, leakage,
to lead to
oil exhaustion, icing, accident, error
Exercise 16. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense and voice form.
1. It is common knowledge that flight conditions (complicate) by engine failures. 2. Yesterday adverse weather conditions (cause) the engine failure. 3. Inadequate actions of the crew and ground personnel (to result) in improper engine operation. 4. Engine failure may (lead) to emergency or crash. 5. Human errors in the cockpit (to be) often the cause of engine failures. 6. Engine failure may (cause) by design or manufacture errors. 7. It was clear that foreign objects in engine ducts (lead) to vibration and fairing damage during take-off. 8. If the temperature is well below 0o C, wing edges and tail unit icing (result) in engine failure.
Exercise 17. Answer the questions on text 1.
1. Do engine failures complicate flight conditions? How? 2. What may engine failures be caused by? 3. What may engine failures result in? 4. Do adverse weather conditions cause engine failures? Which? 5. What does “midair collision” mean? 6. Are human errors in the cockpit the main cause of engine failures? Why?
Exercise 18. Translate the sentences.
1. За останнє десятиріччя в СНД сталося багато авіакатастроф з різних причин.
1. За последнее десятилетие в СНГ случилось много авиака- тастроф по разным причинам.
2. 5% авіаційних пригод сталося з вини розробників та виробників, а 4% - результат хибних дій персоналу керування повітряним рухом.
2. 5% авиационных происшествий случились по вине разработчиков и производителей, а 4% - результат неправильных действий персонала управления воздушным движением.
3. Хибні дії наземного персоналу завдали 9% авіаційних пригод.
3. Ошибочные действия наземного персонала привели к 9% авиационных происшествий.
4. Хибні дії екіпажів минулого року спричинили 82% авіаційних пригод у СНД
4. Ошибочные действия экипажей в прошлом году привели к 82% авиационных происшествий.
Exercise 19. Play the role of an interpreter.
1. Які основні причини авіаційних пригод?/ Какие основные причины авиационных происшествий?
1. As far as I know human errors are the main cause of air accidents.
2. А відмова двигуна може призвести до аварії?/ А отказ двигателя может привести к аварии?
3. Що спричиняє відмови двигунів?/ Что приводит к отказу двигателей?
3. Engine failures may be caused by design or manufacture errors, midair collisions, errors of the crew, ground personnel, air traffic control as well as adverse weather conditions.
4. Яким чином погодні умови впливають на роботу двигунів?/ Каким образом погодные условия влияют на работу двигателей?
4. Wing edges and tail unit icing as well as strong crosswinds may result in engine failures.
5. Що відбувається, якщо в тракт двигуна потрапляють сторонні предмети?/ Что происходит, если в тракт двигателя попадают посторонние предметы?
5. Foreign objects in engine ducts lead to vibration and fairing breaking.
Exercise 20. Translate into Ukrainian/ Russian.
1. Stormy weather and gusty crosswinds appeared to be a major factor in Douglas DC-10 crash at Faro, Portugal. 2. Boeing 727-200 crashed during an approach to Tripoli International airport, Libya, as a result of colliding. 3. Inadequate actions of the crew and ground personnel might be a major factor in TU-134 crash at Ivanovo, Russia.
4. Yak-40 crashed during an approach to Khorog (Tadjikistan). It was caused by overloading. 5. Heavy icing of the wing leading edge resulted in TU-134 emergency landing at Kiev, Ukraine. 6. An-32 crashed during an approach to Kiev, Ukraine, due to errors of the flight deck’s crew. 7. The air crash near Islamabad (Pakistan aircraft) that left 152 people dead took place due to a communication gap between the cockpit and the control tower. 8. A midair collision between two light aircraft taking part in a competition in Britain killed two people. One of the planes crashed into a dense woodland near Ryde. 9. Seven pilots were killed in 19 crashes involving MiG-21 planes of the Indian Air Force (IAF) since 2005. 10. An investigation into the four month old Mangalore air crash that involved death of 158 lives, has revealed that the mishap occurred due to pilot's error.
Exercise 21. Read and reproduce in Ukrainian / Russian.
1. On approach to landing the crew of a three-engine airliner noticed a defective landing gear warning. While all the members of the cockpit crew were busy attending to the problem, the unmonitored plane flew on autopilot into the swamps of Florida killing one hundred people.
2. A flight engineer inadvertently cut off the flow of fuel to all the engines but then managed to restart them. He was worried about his critically ill wife and was totally absent mentally at the time of the incident.
3. The captain of a regional aircraft was known to be a difficult manager. He paid no attention to his staff. During an approach to landing in bad weather he went below minimum altitude. Out of fear for his position the copilot did not intervene. The aircraft was destroyed when it crashed into a wood. The flight captain lost his life.
Exercise 22. Rewrite the passages of exercise 20 using the following expressions: appear to be a major factor of, result in, as a result of, be caused by, due to, lead to. Exercise 23. Translate text 2 in a written form and entitle it.
Before take-off the crew of a short-haul flight received instructions to proceed to flight level 170. During the climb at a speed of 270 knots, air traffic control instructed the crew “go to 300”. The crew understood this to mean the altitude and a corresponding message back to ground control was not corrected. Only when the aircraft appeared on radar at an altitude of more than flight level 180, misunderstanding was discovered. Air traffic control had not meant altitude but speed when it said “300”. The incident was passed on to all interested bodies and has assisted other crews and air controllers in recalling the importance of correct radio procedure.
Exercise 24. Make up a short summary of text 3.
Text 3. Polish Air Force Tu-154 Crash
The 2010 Polish Air Force Tu-154M crash occurred in April, 2010, when the Tupolev Tu-154M aircraft of the Polish Air Force crashed near the city of Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 people on board. These included the Polish president Lech Kaczyński and his wife, the chief of the Polish General Staff and other senior Polish military officers, the president of the National Bank of Poland, Poland's deputy foreign minister, Polish government officials, 15 members of the Polish parliament, senior members of the Polish clergy, and relatives of victims of the Katyn massacre. They were en route from Warsaw to attend an event marking the 70th anniversary of the massacre; the site is approximately 19 kilometers (12 mi) West of Smolensk.
The pilots attempted to land at Smolensk North Airport, a former military airbase, in thick fog that reduced visibility to about 500 m (1,600 ft). The aircraft was too low as it approached the runway. Striking trees in the fog, it rolled upside down, impacted the ground, broke apart, and eventually came to rest 200 m (660 ft) short of the runway in a wooded area.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) annex 13, the responsibility for investigating the accident fell to Russia as the accident occurred on Russian soil. Both countries, Poland and Russia, agreed that annex 13 would be used in this case even though the flight was flown by a military aircraft and Smolensk Northern is a joint civil-military airport not certified by ICAO. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev appointed a special state commission to investigate the accident and placed Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin in charge. Additional parties involved in the investigation were the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC- МАК), accredited representatives and advisors from the Republic of Poland, the USA's National Transportation Safety Board, and the USA's Federal Aviation Administration. Poland has set up its own committee to investigate the crash of the flight and (in separate cases not bounded by MAK or Polish commission conclusion) prosecutors of both countries also investigate criminal responsibility in the case.
The final accident report, created by MAK, was published in January, 2011, and placed the majority of the blame for the accident on the pilots.
According to the Polish report the main cause of accident was trial approach and the descent below the allowed altitude at an excessive rate of descent in bad weather conditions, in conjunction with too late execution of the go-around procedure. Circumstances that led to this are incorrect training of Polish Pilots but also wrong work of Russian Air Traffic Controllers who gave bad information to crew of Tu-154M.
Exercise 25. Discuss with your groupmates “Causes of Engine Failures” using the expressions:
The point is (that) …, the trouble is (that) …, I think …,
I believe …, I guess …, I feel …, I should say …, I would say …,
I wonder …, You mean …, It is beyond comparison …, It goes without saying … .
Exercise 26. Write out of text 3 all the new terms referring to “Causes of Engine Failures”.
Exercise 27. Make a report on “Engine Failures”.
UNIT III. AIRCRAFT AND ENGINE MAINTENANCE III.1. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Exercise 1. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 1.
багатомоторний, з декількома двигунами (про літак)
многомоторный, с несколькими двигателями (о самолете)
1. юрисдикція 2. сфе-ра повноважень
1. юрисдикция 2. сфе-ра полномочий
1. засіб, забезпечення 2. прилад, апарат
1. средство, обеспечение 2. устройство, аппарат
огляд, контроль, перевірка
осмотр, контроль, проверка
Exercise 2. Practise out the dialogue.
Dialogue T: What is the first responsibility of a crew to their passengers?
S: To provide safety for passengers, their luggage and baggage, the airplane itself and to get to the destination safe and on time.
T: Absolutely. And to guarantee that an airplane must remain airworthy and safe to operate. To provide that, the airplane should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. What, do you think, may be recommendations of the manufacturer?
S: I suppose, that airplanes should be inspected regularly, and the inspection must be carried out according to the approved regulations.
T: You are right. The regulations are developed by highly specialized institutions and civil aviation organizations and are approved at the Administration level, in the USA, for example, it is the Federal Aviation Administration. Our purpose is to discuss aircraft inspection and maintenance requirements and practices.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Aircraft Inspection
and Servicing Requirements Airplanes are designed and built to provide many years of service. For an airplane to remain airworthy and safe to operate, it should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and cared for with sound inspection and maintenance practices. The Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) require the inspection of all civil aircraft at specific intervals to make sure that the aircraft condition is equal to its original or properly altered condition with regard to aerodynamic function, structural strength, and resistance to vibration.
Aircraft inspection may range from a casual “walk around” to a detailed inspection involving complete disassembly and the use of complex inspection aids. Our purpose is to discuss aircraft inspection and maintenance requirements and practices as well as review activities, such as servicing and lubrication, that generally accompany inspections.
In establishing aircraft inspection requirements, it is necessary to consider the aircraft size and type as well as the purpose for which it is used and its operating environment.
Some aircraft must be inspected each 100 hours of time in service, while others must be inspected only once every 12 calendar months.
The inspection requirements for aircraft in various types of operation are stated in FAR 91.409. Small aircraft usually fall under the requirements of annual, 100-h, and progressive inspections. Large aircraft (over 12 500 lb) and turbine-powered multiengine airplanes (turbojet and turboprop) fall under the jurisdiction of a different set of inspection programs.
Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
To remain airworthy, safe to operate, in accordance with, to care for, inspection and maintenance practices, Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs), to make sure, to be equal to, with regard to, operating environment, to fall under, a set of programs.
Exercise 5. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1) make sure
a) надійний в роботі / надежный в работе
2) fall under
b) стосовно чого-небудь / относительно чего-либо
3) inspection and
c) підпадати під юрисдикцію / подпадать под юрисдикцию
4) safe to operate
d) ряд програм / ряд программ
5) in accordance with
e) федеральні авіаційні правила / федеральные авиационные правила
6) the Federal
Aviation Regulations (FARs)
f) дорівнювати(ся) / равняться
7) with regard to
g) технологія огляду та обслуговування /
технология осмотра и обслуживания
8) care for
h) упевнитися / убедиться
9) set of programs
i) придатний для польотів / годный к летной эксплуатации
10) remain airworthy
j) умови експлуатації / условия эксплуатации
11) be equal to
k) турбуватися про, опікуватися чимось / заботиться, беспокоиться о чем-то
12) operational environment
l) відповідно до / в соответствии с чем-либо
Exercise 6. Work in pairs. Make a question for each answer below with reference to text 1.
1. In accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. 2. The Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) does. 3. From a casual “walk around” to a detailed inspection involving complete disassembly. 4. To discuss aircraft inspection requirements and practices. 5. The aircraft size and type. 6. Each 100 hours of time in service. 7. In FAR 91.409. 8. Large aircraft and turbine-powered multi-engine airplanes.
Exercise 7. Give definitions to the following terms:
1. Airplanes are designed and built to provide many years … service. 2. An airplane should be operated … accordance … the recommendations. 3. The aircraft condition should be inspected … specific intervals, to be sure it is equal … its original or properly altered condition. 4. Aircraft inspection may range … a casual “walk around” … a detailed inspection. 5. Our purpose is to discuss … aircraft inspection requirements. 6. It is necessary to consider the aircraft size and type as well as the purpose … which it is used. 7. Some aircraft must be inspected every 100 hours … time … service. 8. Others must be inspected only once … every 12 calendar months.
Exercise 10. Join words from the left and right column to make compound words. Translate them.
Exercise 11. Write a summary of text 1.
Exercise 12. Memorize the active vocabulary to texts 2 and 3.
оперативне технічне обслуговування
оперативное техническое обслуживание
оперативне / поточне технічне обслуговування
оперативное / текущее техническое обслуживание
maintenance in sto-rage
технічне обслугову-вання під час зберігання (консервації)
техническое обслуживание при хранении (консервации)
технологічна карта, карта технічного обслуговування
технологическая карта, карта технического обслуживания
довідник, посібник з технічної експлуатації
руководство, справочник по технической эксплуатации
повне перебирання (двигуна), капітальний ремонт
полная переборка (двигателя), капитальный ремонт
the Continuous Airworthiness Program
програма збереження льотної придатності
программа сохранения летной годности
що відповідає заведеному порядку, рутинний
соответствующий заведенному порядку, рутинный
ретельний, повний, ґрунтовний
тщательный, основательный, полный
технологія, порядок роботи, методика проведення, процедура
технология, порядок работы, методика проведения, процедура
Exercise 13. Read, translate and give the gist of text 2.
Text 2. Aircraft Maintenance In order to keep the aircraft airworthy, it must be properly maintained. Aircraft maintenance includes:
- operational maintenance (called “trip check”)
- periodic maintenance (called “service check”)
- scheduled maintenance
- maintenance of aircraft in storage
- seasonal maintenance
- special maintenance
- on-condition (OC) maintenance.
Operational maintenance or on-line maintenance consists of:
- visual inspection of aircraft
- fitting an aircraft for departure
- maintenance at short-time parking.
Visual inspection of an aircraft is performed just prior to every take-off and after landing with the view of inspection of the fuselage skin, wings, tail unit, landing gear, locks and door locks.
Fitting an aircraft for departure includes checking systems and separate units for condition and serviceability and also checking the quantity of fuel, oil, hydraulic fluid and water, operation of control surfaces, electrical, radio and special equipment.
Maintenance operations at short-time parking are performed with the view of preparing an aircraft for further flight. It is necessary to refuel the aircraft, inspect the engine intakes, exhaust pipes, fuselage skin, doors, landing lights and navigation lights.
During periodic maintenance, that is “Check A”, “Check B”, “Check C”, and “Check D”, a mechanic should inspect thoroughly the pipelines of the fuel, oil and hydraulic systems, the attachment fittings of the engine and fire-extinguishing equipment. He must check the operation of pumps, clean filters. It is also necessary to check if there is any condensate in the fuselage and drain it.
During maintenance of aircraft in storage, the mechanic should examine all systems and units for condition and serviceability, clean the skin, drain fuel and water, check the fuel system for leakage, control cables for wear, corrosion and broken wires.
Seasonal maintenance involves operations on an aircraft to adjust them to seasonal changes.
Special maintenance is performed following any accident.
Exercise 14. Answer the questions on text 2.
What procedures does aircraft maintenance include? 2. What does operational maintenance consist of? 3. What operations are performed at short-time parking? 4. What should a mechanic inspect during periodic maintenance? 5. What should a mechanic examine during maintenance of an aircraft in storage? 6. What is meant by seasonal maintenance? 7. When is special maintenance performed?
Exercise 15. Translate the following words and word combinations.
Operational maintenance, visual inspection of an aircraft, maintenance of an aircraft in storage, fitting an aircraft for departure, maintenance at short-time parking, readiness for flight, attachment fittings of the engine, control cables, broken wires, to inspect thoroughly the pipelines, to clean filters, to drain condensate, to check the operation of pumps, to check for condition and serviceability, to refuel an aircraft.
Exercise 16. Find in text 2 English equivalents of the following terms.
Технічне обслуговування / техобслуживание, поточне технічне обслуговування / текущее техобслуживание, технічне обслуговування під час короткочасної стоянки / техобслуживание во время кратковременной стоянки, технічне обслуговування під час зберігання літака / техобслуживание при хранении самолёта, сезонне технічне обслуговування / сезонное техобслуживание, спеціальне технічне обслуговування / специальное техобслуживание, підготовка літака до вильоту / подготовка самолёта к вылету, оперативне технічне обслуговування / оперативное техническое обслуживание, періодичне технічне обслуговування / периодическое техническое обслуживание, регламентне обслуговування / регламентное обслуживание, обслуговування за станом / обслуживание по состоянию.
Exercise 17. Complete the sentences translating the words in brackets into English.
Operational maintenance consists of visual inspection of an aircraft, fitting the aircraft for departure and (технічне обслуговування під час короткочасної стоянки / техобслуживание при кратковременной стоянке).
Aircraft maintenance includes (поточне технічне обслуговування / оперативное техобслуживание, регламентне техобслуговування / регламентное техобслуживание, технічне обслуговування під час зберігання / техобслуживание при хранении самолёта, сезонне технічне обслуговування / сезонное техобслуживание та спеціальне техобслуговування / специальное техобслуживание).
It is necessary (дозаправити літак паливом / дозаправить самолёт топливом).
During periodic maintenance, a mechanic should inspect thoroughly pipelines of the fuel, oil and hydraulic systems, attachment fittings of the engine and (протипожежне обладнання / противопожарное оборудование).
During maintenance of an aircraft in storage, the mechanic should examine all systems and units for condition and (придатність до експлуатації / годность к эксплуатации).
Exercise 18. Ask questions to which the given sentences may be answers.
1. Operational maintenance consists of visual inspection of an aircraft, fitting an aircraft for departure and maintenance at short-time parking. 2. Special maintenance is performed following any accident. 3. Visual inspection of aircraft is performed just prior to every take-off and after landing. 4. During periodic maintenance, a mechanic should inspect thoroughly the pipelines of the fuel, oil and hydraulic systems. 5. Seasonal maintenance involves operations on an aircraft to adjust it to seasonal changes.
Exercise 19. Learn definitions.
Check. The term “check” shall mean the procedure necessary to determine the operating conditions of a mechanism, component or part of an aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance by measurement, or operation, or both.
Inspection. The term “inspection” shall mean a visual examination to determine the condition of an aircraft, engine propeller, or appliance of any component, or part thereof.
Terminal Check. “Terminal” checks may be performed at stations where equipment and personnel are available.
Routine Check. “Routine” checks covering specified items are made at the end of a trip or at completion of several trips.
Station Check. “Station” checks cover all items reported on a pilot’s airplane and engine performance report. The station check is to be performed at stations where trips originate and maintenance personnel are based.
Exercise 20. Fill in the blanks using the terms given in brackets below.
(condensate, seasonal maintenance, periodic maintenance, short-time parking, regular intervals). In order to keep the aircraft in airworthy condition, it should be inspected at … … 2. Maintenance operations at … … … are performed with the view of preparing an aircraft for further flight. 3. During … … the mechanic should inspect thoroughly pipelines of fuel, oil and hydraulic systems, the attachment fittings of the engine and fire-extinguishing equipment. 4. Aircraft maintenance includes operational maintenance, periodic maintenance, maintenance of an aircraft in storage, … … and special maintenance. 5. It is also necessary to check if there is any … in the fuselage and drain it.
Exercise 21. Translate into English.
1. Аби тримати літак в робочому стані, його необхідно регулярно оглядати.
1.Чтобы содержать самолёт в рабочем состоянии, его необходимо регулярно осматривать.
2.Технічне обслуговування літаків включає поточне технічне обслуговування, періодичне та регламентне технічне обслуговування, обслуговування під час зберігання літака, сезонне обслуговування, технічне обслуговування за станом та спеціальне технічне обслуговування.
2. Техническое обслуживание самолётов включает текущее техобслуживание, периодическое и регламентное техобслуживание, техобслуживание при хранении самолёта, сезонное техобслуживание, техническое обслуживание по состоянию и специальное техобслуживание.
3.Поточне (оперативне) технічне обслуговування складається з огляду літака перед кожним вильотом та після посадки, робіт, пов’язаних з підготовкою літака до вильоту і обслуговування під час короткочасної стоянки.
3.Текущее (оперативное) техническое обслуживание состоит из осмотра самолёта перед каждым полетом и после посадки, работ по подготовке самолёта к вылету и технического обслуживания при кратковременной стоянке.
4.Під час регламентного технічного обслуговування механік повинен уважно оглянути паливні трубопроводи, маслопровід, протипожежне обладнання, вузли кріплення двигуна та ін.
4. Во время регламентного технического обслуживания механик должен тщательно осмотреть топливные трубопроводы, маслопровод, противопожарное оборудование, крепежные узлы двигателя и др.
5. Для технічного обслуговування під час зберігання літака механік повинен злити паливо та масло, перевірити паливну систему на витікання, троси проводки керування на зношення, корозію та розриви.
5. Во время технического обслуживания при хранении самолёта механик должен слить топливо и масло, проверить топливную систему на утечку, тросы проводки управления - на износ, коррозию и обрывы.
6. Під час сезоннного технічного обслуговування проводиться підготовка літака до експлуатації в різні часи року (весняно-літня навігація і осінньо-зимова навігація).
6.При сезонном техническом обслуживании производится подготовка самолёта к эксплуатации в различное время года (весенне-летняя навигация и осенне-зимняя навигация).
Exercise 22. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1) to provide a complete
2) at specified intervals
3) acceptable condition
4) to be due for
5) to set forth
6) to follow in detail
7) to hold an inspection authorization
8) to perform an annual
9) to substitute for
10) to exceed (by)
11) an aircraft make and
a) підлягати огляду / подлежать осмотру
b) мати право (повноваження) на огляд /
иметь право (полномочия) на осмотр
c) забезпечувати повний огляд /
обеспечивать полный осмотр
d) допустимий стан льотної придатності /
допустимое состояние летной годности
e) виконувати все до дрібниць / исполнять все до мелочей
f) з визначеними інтервалами / с
g) викладати, видавати, формулювати /
излагать, издавать, формулировать
h) тип і модифікація літака / тип и
i) проводити щорічний огляд / проводить
j) заміняти чимось / заменять чем-то
k) перебільшити термін (на), прострочити
(на) / превысить срок (на), просрочить (на)
Exercise 23. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.
Text 3. Annual and 100-hour Inspections
The annual and 100-hour (h) inspections are designed to provide a complete inspection of aircraft at specified intervals. These inspections determine the condition of an aircraft and the maintenance required to return the aircraft to an acceptable condition of airworthiness.
For aircraft operating under FAR Part 91, the maximum interval between annual inspections is 12 calendar months, meaning the aircraft will again become due for inspection on the last day of the same month, 12 months later. In addition to an annual inspection, aircraft operated commercially are also required to have a 100-h inspection. The procedures and scope of these inspections are set forth in Appendix D of FAR Part 43 and should be followed in detail. The regulations speak of 100-h and annual inspection as being of identical scope; the only difference between the two is the persons authorized to perform them. A certificated airframe and power plant maintenance technician, holding an inspection authorization (IA) issued by the FAA, may perform the annual inspection.
An annual inspection may be substituted for a 100-h inspection. The 100-h time limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10 h, if necessary, to reach a place where the inspection can be performed. The excess time, however, is included in computing the next 100 h of time in service. As an example, an aircraft that flew 105 h between inspections would have only 95 h until the next inspection is due. However, the reverse does not apply. For example, an aircraft that has been inspected after only 90 h does not have 110 h before the next inspection. There is no provision for exceeding an annual inspection. To move an aircraft that is “out of annual” requires a special flight permit from the local FAA flight standards district office (FSDO).
FAR 43.15 provides a list of rules for persons performing inspections. One of the rules is that a checklist must be used by a person performing an inspection. The technician may use the checklist in FAR 43 Appendix D, the manufacturer’s inspection checklist, or a checklist designed by the technician that includes the items listed in Appendix D to check the condition of the entire aircraft. In most instances, it is preferable to use the manufacturer’s checklist, since it was written specifically to include the procedures and details necessary to adequately inspect that particular make and model of aircraft. The checklist will usually be found in the aircraft maintenance manual.
Exercise 24. Decode the following abbreviations:
FAA, FAR, IA, FSDO, ICAO, IATA, OC maintenance, h.
Exercise 25. Translate the “noun + noun” collocations.
Aircraft condition; flight permit; airframe maintenance; power plant maintenance; airframe and power plant maintenance; an airframe and power plant maintenance technician; 100-hour inspection; 100-h time limitation; excess time; flight standards district office; manufacturer’s inspection checklist; aircraft maintenance manual.
Exercise 26. Find the words or phrases from text 3 having the following meanings. (They are given in the same order as in the text).
1) thorough investigation; 2) in proper condition for flight; 3) taking place once every year; 4) methods and range; 5) to be formulated; 6) a page of additional information; 7) to give the right to… 8) some extra time; 9) people providing technical maintenance; 10) a list of necessary operations; 11) aircraft producing factory; 12) type and code of aircraft.
Exercise 27. Complete the sentences choosing the variant which fits best, in your opinion. Begin with one of the following:
I think, I guess, I suppose, to my mind, I am sure etc.
1. The annular and 100-h inspections are designed …
a) to make an airplane fit to take off;
b) to provide a complete inspection of aircraft;
c) to provide personnel training.
2. The interval of 12 calendar months between annual inspections means that…
the airplane is not in airworthy condition;
b) the airplane will again become due for inspection in 12 months;
c) the airplane can fly for 12 months without being inspected at all.
3. The only difference between 100-h and annual inspections is…
a) the character of inspections;
b) the methods used to perform inspections;
c) the persons authorized to perform inspections.
4. An aircraft that flew 105 h between inspections would have…
a) only 95 h until the next inspection is due;
b) the same 100 hours until the next inspection is due;
c) 105 h until the next inspection is due.
5. FAR 43.15 provides…
a) a list of instruments used to perform inspections;
b) a list of persons authorized to perform inspections;
c) a list of rules for persons performing inspections.
6. To check the condition of the entire aircraft, it is preferable…
a) to use the manufacturer’s checklist;
b) to use the first pilot’s checklist;
c) to use the checklist recommended by the air carrier.
Exercise 28. Work in pairs. Make a question for each answer below with reference to text 3. Use the question word given in brackets.
1. To provide a complete inspection of aircraft at special intervals.
(What…for?) 2. The condition of the aircraft. (What?) 3. 12 calendar months. (What?) 4. In Appendix D of FAR Part 43. (Where?) 5. Certified airframe and power plant maintenance technicians. (Who?) 6. A list of rules for persons performing inspections. (What?) 7. By a person performing an inspection. (Who... by?) 8. The manufacturer’s checklist. (What?) 9. In the aircraft maintenance manual. (Where?)
Exercise 29. Look at the phrases expressing opinions below and decide how strongly the speaker is asserting his or her views. Put them in the appropriate box.
It seems to me that…
I’m sure that…
I don’t think…, I am quite certain that…, I would have thought…, I don’t doubt that…, I believe…, I feel sure that…, As I see it…, It strikes me that…, My impression is that… , If I’m not mistaken, As far as I remember …, As far as I know… .
Exercise 30. Now answer the questions on text 3 beginning with one of the previous phrases depending on how strongly you are asserting your opinion.
1. The annual and 100-h inspections are designed to provide a partial inspection of aircraft, aren’t they? 2. What do these inspections determine? 3. What is the maximum interval between annual inspections for aircraft operating under FAR Part 91? 4. How should the procedures and scope of the inspections be followed? 5. What can you tell about the regulations of 100-h and annual inspections if compared? 6.Who is authorized to perform a 100-h inspection? 7. What may an annual inspection be substituted for? 8. What checklist is preferable to use and why?
Exercise 31. Write a summary of text 3 in no more than 7 sentences using the following terms.
Annual and 100-h inspection; condition of airworthiness; become due for inspection; certified technicians; 100-h time limitation and FAA flight standards; Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs); excess time; inspection checklist.
Exercise 32. Read text 4 and translate it in a written form.
Text 4. Manufacturer’s Recommended
One of the more popular ways to satisfy the inspection requirements of FAR is by the adoption of an aircraft manufacturer’s inspection program. Under this arrangement, the aircraft manufacturer’s program, including its methods, techniques, practices, standards of accomplishment, and inspection intervals, is adopted in its entirety.
The aircraft manufacturer’s program in most cases contains the frequency and the extent of maintenance necessary for the aircraft, engine, propeller, and rotors. It may also include the frequency of overhauls and the life limit of the components requiring replacement.
A manufacturer’s inspection program is a comprehensive program that will include all the necessary forms and manuals required to conduct the program. Manufacturers often assign names to these programs, such as The Continuous Airworthiness Program or The Continuous Inspection Program. These names should not be confused with the FAA use of the term “continuous inspection program”.
Exercise 33. Tell what you know now about the Aircraft Manufacturer’s Inspection Programs.
Exercise 34. Translate the sentences paying attention to passive constructions. Comment on the passive tense forms.
1. A more careful approach is needed. 2. Information on the volume of the tank is required. 3. A large disparity between various published data is being discussed now. 4. Numerous classifications have been used. 5. At these frequencies vibration can be prevented. 6. Students are given every opportunity to acquire knowledge in different branches of science. 7. Any conclusion is usually preceded by a number of experiments and observations. 8. They were promised every support in their work. 9. The explosive mixtures should be avoided. 10. It was shown by Reynolds that the affect of the flow was negligible. 11. The identity of these materials has been established by careful studies.
12. Some urgent problems will be discussed at the symposium.
Exercise 35. Read, translate and give the gist to text 5.
Text 5. Operator-Developed Inspection Programs
An operator-developed inspection program is developed and published by the operator. It must include the methods, techniques, practices, and standards necessary for proper accomplishment of the program. These programs are usually not developed from scratch but instead are manufacturer’s programs that have been modified to suit the operator’s particular needs. If the program is, in effect, a manufacturer’s maintenance program with variations (such as a higher engine overhaul period), those variations categorize it as an operator-developed program, not an adoption of a manufacturer’s program. An operator-developed program bears no prior FAA approval.
Significant variations from the manufacturer’s recommendations have to be fully substantiated by the applicant, and the program being approved must provide alternative actions which will ensure an equivalent level of safety. These actions include such things as manufacturer-recommended special inspections and special structural inspections.
Exercise 36. Copy out the sentences from text 5 in which predicates (присудок, / сказуемое) are in the Passive Voice (there are 6 sentences). Translate them. Then close your book and translate the sentences back into English.
Exercise 37. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice.
Model: We can fix the shelf. – The shelf can be fixed.
1. They postponed the meeting last week. The meeting… 2. An electrical fault has caused the fire. The fire… 3. The operator developed and published the inspection program. The inspection program … 4. The manufacturer’s inspection program will include forms and manuals to conduct the program. Forms and manuals to conduct the program … 5. FAA authorized certificated maintenance technicians to perform annual inspections. Certificated maintenance technicians … 6. The customs officer always checks our luggage when we go through the customs. Our luggage…7. Authorized technicians should follow the procedures and scope of the inspections. The procedures and scope of the inspections should … .
Exercise 38. Translate into English, using passive constructions.
1. На ці дані можна покластися (rely on). / На эти данные можно положиться. 2. Термін прибуття було узгоджено (agree upon) тиждень тому. / Срок прибытия был согласован неделю тому назад. 3. Про нове відкриття (discovery) говорять дуже багато. / О новом открытии много говорят. 4. До рішення ще не прийшли (arrive at). / К решению еще не пришли. 5. Нелегко відмовитись (refuse) від старих традицій. / От старых традиций трудно отказаться. 6. Зміни, які відбуваються зараз, нелегко врахувати (account for). / Изменения, происходящие в настоящее время, трудно учесть. 7. За необхідними інструментами було послано годину тому. / За необходимыми инструментами послали час тому назад. 8. В цій главі (chapter) йдеться про деякі властивості металів. / В этой главе речь идет о некоторых свойствах металлов. 9. Сертифікованому технічному персоналу дозволено проводити огляд літака. / Сертифицированному техническому персоналу позволено проводить осмотр самолета. 10. Літак пройшов огляд після 100 годин нальоту / Самолет прошел осмотр после 100 часов налета. 11. АН-225 був створений конструкторським бюро ім. О.К. Антонова у Києві (the Antonov Designing Bureau). / АН-225 был создан конструкторским бюро им. О.К. Антонова в Киеве.
Exercise 39. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 6.
що є в розпорядженні; доступний
имеющийся в распоряжении; доступный
спостерігати; завіду-вати, керувати
наблюдать; заведовать, руководить
1. позивач 2. кандидат
1. заявитель 2. кандидат
походити (з), виходити (з)
Exercise 40. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. progressive inspection
a) вимоги щодо огляду / требования к осмотру
2. on a predetermined basis
b) підтримувати постійну льотну придатність / поддерживать постоянную летную годность
3. inspection costs
c) на раніше встановленій основі / на заранее установленной основе
4. maintain continuous airworthiness
d) витрати на огляд / расходы на проверку
5. inspection requirements
e) узгоджуватися з / согласовываться с
6. inspection procedures manual
f) поточний огляд / поточный осмотр
7. be consistent with
g) інструкції з проведення огляду / инструкции по проведению осмотра
Exercise 41. Match English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. Type Certificate Data Sheet
a) візуальний огляд /визуальный осмотр
2. airworthiness directives
b) бюлетень на доробку; експлуатаційний бюлетень / бюллетень на доработку; эксплуатационный бюллетень
3. service bulletin
c) перелік даних відповідно до сертифікату типу ЛА / перечень данных в соответствии сертификатам типа ЛА
j) директиви щодо льотної придатності / директивы относительно летной годности
11. field-service experience
k) графік проведення поетапного огляду / график проведения поэтапного осмотра
12. progressive inspecttion schedule
l) досвід обслуговування в аеропорту / опыт обслуживания в аэропорту
13. conform (to)
m) бути вигідним, доцільним /быть выгодным, целесообразным
Exercise 42. Red, translate and give the gist of text 6.
Text 6. Progressive Inspections
The progressive inspection system has been designed to schedule inspections of aircraft on a predetermined basis. The purpose of the program is to allow maximum use of the aircraft, to reduce inspection costs, and to maintain the maximum standard of continuous airworthiness. This system is particularly adaptable to larger multiengine aircraft and aircraft operated by companies and corporations where high use is demanded. A progressive inspection satisfies the complete airplane inspection requirements of both the 100-h and annual inspections. The instructions and schedule for a progressive inspection must be approved by a representative of the local district office of the FAA having jurisdiction over the area in which the applicant for the progressive inspection is located. Approval for such an inspection system requires that a person holding an inspection authorization supervises the inspection program and that an inspection procedures manual be available and readily understandable to the pilot and the maintenance personnel.
The frequency and detail of the progressive inspection must provide for the complete inspection of the aircraft within each 12 calendar months and be consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations, field-service experience, and the kind of operation in which the aircraft is engaged. The progressive inspection schedule must insure that the aircraft at all times is airworthy and conforms to all applicable Aircraft Specification, Type Certificate Data Sheets, Airworthiness Directives, and other approved data such as service bulletins and service letters issued by the manufacturer.
A typical progressive inspection schedule is the program, according to which the airplane is inspected and maintained in four operations, called events, scheduled at 50-h intervals. The events are arranged so that a 200-h flying cycle results in a complete aircraft inspection.
An event inspection is a group of several predetermined location inspections, both routine and detailed. A routine inspection consists of a visual examination or check of the aircraft and its components and systems insofar as1 is practicable without disassembly. A detailed inspection consists of a thorough examination of the aircraft and its components and systems with such disassembly as is necessary. It would not be beneficial to place an aircraft on a progressive inspection unless it is operated a minimum of 200 h a year, since one of the requirements of a progressive schedule is that it be completed at least every 12 calendar months. The decreased maintenance costs and increased use stem from the fact that the inspection is divided up into smaller segments than a 100-h inspection and also that some parts of the airplane, such as the fuselage, wings, and empennage receive a detailed inspection only every 200 h.
1insofar as – до такої міри, настільки / до такой степени, настолько.
Exercise 43. Work in pairs. Make a question for each answer below with reference to text 5. Use the question word given in brackets.
1. The progressive inspection system has been designed to schedule inspections of aircraft. (What … for?) 2. The purpose of the program is to allow maximum use of the aircraft. (What?) 3. The instructions and schedule for a progressive inspection must be approved by a representative of the local district office of the FAA. (Who?) 4. The complete inspection of the aircraft must be consistent with manufacturer’s recommendations. (What…with?) 5. A typical progressive inspection schedule is the program according to which the airplane is inspected and maintained in four operations. (What kind of…?) 6. The events are arranged so that a 100-h flying cycle results in a complete aircraft inspection. (How? What … in?) 7. A detailed inspection consists of a thorough examination of the aircraft and its components. (What … of?) 8. The decreased maintenance costs stem from …. (What … from?)
Exercise 44. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. The progressive inspection system has been designed to sche-dule inspections of aircraft on a seasonal basis. 2. The purpose of the program is to allow maximum use of the aircraft to increase the price of tickets and profitability of the aircraft. 3. This system is particularly adaptable to small one-engine aircraft for short-haul routes. 4. The instructions and schedule for a progressive inspection must be approved by a representative of the local district office of the FAA. 5. The frequency and detail of the progressive inspection must provide for minor inspection of the aircraft within each 12 calendar months. 6. An event inspection is a group of several predetermined location inspections both routine and detailed.
Exercise 45. Retell text 6 focusing on the main points below.
1. The progressive inspection system has been designed to schedule inspections of aircraft on a predetermined basis.
2. The instructions and schedule for a progressive inspection must be approved.
3. The frequency and detail of the progressive inspection must be consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
4. An event inspection is a group of several predetermined location inspections.
5. A routine inspection consists of a visual examination or check of the aircraft without disassembly.
Exercise 46. Translate text 7 in a written form.
Text 7. Special Inspections
In addition to the regularly scheduled inspections, many manufacturers provide for special inspections that are to be performed in the event that an aircraft is subjected to stresses outside of its normal operating environment. These inspections may be for such events as lightning strikes, sudden engine stoppages, severe wind-gust loads, or extremely hard landings. Since these inspections tend to be very specific in nature, it is necessary to refer to the manufacturer’s maintenance manual for performance details.
Exercise 47. Make a list of key words and then give the gist of text 7 in Ukrainian / Russian and English.
Exercise 48. Get acquainted with the specifics of English modal verbs.
Modal Verbs We use can, can’t, may, should, shouldn’t and needn’t, must, mustn’t to express different meanings.
We can speak English. They can’t read. (They are too young.)
You may leave now. You can’t sit here. (It is my seat.)
You should ask at the airline office. She shouldn’t stay out so late.
You can send a wire in the post-office on the second floor.
She needn’t check in her hand luggage.
You must be there at 10 o’clock. They mustn’t smoke here.
“Can, “may”, “must” and “should” are followed by an infinitive without “to”. There is no “s” with “he” or “she”: Can you help me? She must go through a security check.
We do not use an auxiliary verb to form questions with “can”, “may”, “must” and “should”: Should I buy some traveler’s cheques?
The positive form of needn’t is “need to”. “Need to” is a full verb, not a modal. It also has a negative form, “don’t need to” (an alternative form to “needn’t”) and a question form: Do you need to leave now?
We often use “have to” instead of “must” in questions: Do I have to check in over there?
“Can’t” is common in spoken English. “Cannot” is used in formal writing.
Exercise 49. Translate the sentences with modal verbs.
1. You should tell me the truth. 2. You needn’t go into details.
3. I need hardly to say that I agree with you. 4. I don’t see any reason why they shouldn’t be happy. 5. Her English is very poor, she must study very hard. 6. My cousin can’t walk much, you know, but he can ride perfectly. 7. The Manufacturers informed the buyers that they could deliver the equipment within a month. 8. Why should you do it for her? 9. He may appear any moment. 10. I might be mistaken.
Exercise 50. Complete the sentences with can, can’t, may, should, shouldn’t or needn’t, must, mustn’t.
1. You look tired. You … overwork yourself. 2. You … take your textbook to the class because I’m taking mine. You … sit next to me and we’ll share one book. 3. I’m very thirsty. … I have a glass of water.
4. You don’t feel very well. You … go to a doctor. 5. How many languages … you speak. 6. I’m sorry, I … speak to you now because I’m in a hurry. What about tomorrow? 7. Why … I cross the street when the red light is on? Because it’s dangerous. 8. In England you … drive on the left of the road. 9. … I go out?
Exercise 51. Translate the following sentences. Then close your book and translate them back into English.
1. Could you translate this text without a dictionary? Yes, I could.
2. Can you translate this text for 10 minutes? No, I can’t. It’s too long. 3. Do you have to go to the university 7 days a week? No, I don’t.
4. You needn’t do this exercise in writing. 5. We mustn’t forget about it. 6. You should get up earlier tomorrow, otherwise you will be late.
Exercise 52. Translate into English.
1. Я не можу закінчити роботу сьогодні. Залишилось обмаль часу. / Я не могу закончить работу сегодня. Осталось мало времени. 2. Коли вони прибули до Лондону, він зміг вести переговори (carry on negotiations), не користуючись послугами перекладача / Когда они прибыли в Лондон, он смог вести переговоры без переводчика. 3. Графік регламентного огляду має бути затвердженим представником місцевої адміністрації ФАА. / График регламентного обслуживания должен быть утвержден представителем местной администрации ФАА. 4. Слід бути дуже уважним до зміни температури під час роботи цього пристрою. / Следует быть очень внимательным к изменению температуры во время роботы этого механизма. 5. Немає потреби в огляді шасі зараз. Це було зроблено перед вильотом. / Нет необходимости осматривать шасси сейчас. Это было сделано перед вылетом.
Exercise 53. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 8.
1.карта-наряд, робоча картка, табель 2. кошторис, рахунок
1. карта-наряд, рабочая карточка, табель 2. смета, счет
облікові документи; данні; записи
учетные документы; данные; записи
1. відповідати (за щось) 2. звітувати (в чомусь) 3. пояснювати (щось)
4. складати (якусь частину чого небудь)
1. отвечать (за что-л.) 2. отчитываться (в чем-л.) 3. объяснять (что-л.) 4. составлять (какую-то часть чего-л.)
перевірка за допомогою рентгеновипромінювання
проверка с помощью рентгеноизлучения
1. авіатранспортна компанія; експлуатаційне підприємство 2. оператор
1. авиатранспортная компания; эксплуатационное предприятие 2. оператор
Exercise54. Read, translate and give the gist of text 8.
Text 8. ContinuousAirworthiness
MaintenancePrograms Air carriers operating under FAR Part 121 are required to have a continuous airworthiness maintenance program. The continuous airworthiness maintenance program is a compilation of the individual maintenance and inspection functions used by operators to fulfil their total maintenance needs.
Continuous airworthiness maintenance programs are included in the maintenance section of an air carrier’s operations specifications approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. These specifications prescribe the scope of the program, including its limitations, and the reference manuals and other technical data to be used as supplements to the specifications. The following are the basic elements of continuous airworthiness maintenance programs.
1. Aircraft inspection. This element deals with the routine inspections, servicing, and tests performed on the aircraft at prescribed intervals. It includes detailed instructions and standards (of related references) by work forms, job cards, and other records which also serve to control the activity and to record and account for the tasks that comprise this element.
Each airline is free to develop its own terminology which is assigned to the different parts that comprise the inspection program. The use of terms such as A-Check and D-Check is common in a continuous inspection program.
2. Scheduled maintenance. The element concerns maintenance tasks performed at prescribed intervals. Some are accomplished concurrently with the inspection tasks that are part of the inspection element and may be included on the same form. Other tasks are accomplished independently. The scheduled tasks include: the replacement of life-limited items and components requiring replacement for periodic overhaul, special inspection such as X-rays checks or tests for on-condition items, lubrication and so on.
Special work forms can be provided for accomplishing these tasks, or they can be specified by a work order or some other document. In any case, instructions and standards for accomplishing each task should be provided to ensure that it is properly accomplished and that it is recorded and signed for.
Exercise 55. Answer the questions on text 8.
1. What is a continuous airworthiness program? 2. In what section are continuous airworthiness programs included? 3. What organization must approve this program? 4. What are the basic elements of the continuous airworthiness maintenance program? 5. What does the element “Aircraft inspection” deal with? 6. What does it include? 7. What does the element “Scheduled maintenance” concern? 8. What should be provided to ensure that scheduled maintenance is properly accomplished?
Exercise 56. Give definitions to the following terms; the text will help you with some of them.
.Exercise 57. Match the English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. air carrier
2. airworthiness main-
3. fulfil maintenance
4. Federal Aviation
5. the scope of the
6. reference manual
7. routine inspection
8. prescribed interval
9. work form
10. job card
11. be free to
12. comprise the
14) be accomplished concurrently
a) форма (бланк) виконання робіт / форма (бланк) выполнения работ
b) довідник, посібник / справочник,
c) Федеральне авіаційне управління/
Федеральное авиационное управление
d) мати право на розробку /
иметь право на разработку
e) звичайний огляд /обычный осмотр
f) карта-наряд / карта-наряд
g) встановлений інтервал / установленный
h) виконувати вимоги техобслуговування / выполнять требования техобслуживания
i) складати програму огляду / составлять
j) авіакомпанія / авиакомпания
k) рамки програми /рамки программы
l) проводитися одночасно /
m) програма огляду для визначення льотної придатності / программа осмотра для определения летной годности
n) регламентне обслуговування /
Exercise 58. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. The continuous airworthiness maintenance program is a compilation of the individual maintenance and inspection functions used by operators to fulfil their total maintenance needs. 2. Continuous airworthiness maintenance programs must be approved by ICAO. 3. Aircraft inspection deals with inspections, servicing and tests performed on the aircraft at any convenient time. 4. Scheduled maintenance is performed at prescribed intervals. 5. Special work forms are not provided for accomplishing scheduled maintenance. 6. Procedures for reporting, recording, and processing inspection findings are an essential part of scheduled maintenance. 7. Inspection discrepancy forms are usually used for processing unscheduled maintenance tasks in conjunction with scheduled inspections.
Exercise 59. Match the English-Ukrainian/Russian equivalents.
1. life-limited items
2. periodic overhaul
5. accomplish a task
6. work order
9. failure analysis
10. processing inspec-
11. hard landing
12. aircraft log book
13. discrepancy form
14. pilot’s report
a) виконувати завдання /выполнять задание
b) замовлення на виконання робіт/ заказ на
c) форма реєстрації відхилень від норми /
форма регистрации отклонений от нормы
d) аналіз відмов / анализ отказов
e) обслуговування поза графіком /обслужи-
вание вне графика
f) обробка даних (результатів) стосовно огляду / обработка данных (результатов) осмотра
1. The essence of the Continuous Airworthiness Maintenance Program.
2. Aircraft Inspection.
3. Scheduled Maintenance.
4. Unscheduled Maintenance.
Exercise 61. Translate into English.
1.Відповідно до статті 121 ФАК (Федеральний авіаційний кодекс) всі авіаперевізники повинні мати програму обслуговування для забезпечення постійної льотної придатності літаків.
1. Согласно статьи 121 ФАК (Федеральный авиационный кодекс) все авиаперевозчики должны иметь программу обслуживания для обеспечения постоянной летной годности самолетов.
2. Програму обслуговування для забезпечення постійної льотної придатності літаків включено до посібника з технічної експлуатації літаків.
2. Программа обслуживания для обеспечения постоянной летной годности самолета включена в руководство по технической эксплуатации самолетов.
3. Звичайний огляд, обслуговування та випробування, які проводяться на літаку за регламентом, мають назву “технічне обслуговування літака”.
3. Обычный осмотр, обслуживание и испытания, проводимые на самолете по регламенту, называются “техническое обслуживание самолета”.
4.Заміна пристроїв з обмеженим ресурсом, перевірка за допомогою рентгенівського випромінювання, змащування та ін. є складовою планового технічного обслуговування.
4. Замена частей самолета с ограниченным ресурсом, проверка с использованием рентгеновских лучей, смазка и др. являются частью планового техобслуживания.
5. Для виконання всіх видів обслуговування технічному персоналу необхідно видавати спеціальні форми, які мають бути заповнені та підписані по закінченню роботи.
5. Для выполнения всех видов обслуживания техническому персоналу необходимо выдавать специальные формы, которые необходимо заполнять и подписывать по завершению работы.
6. Обслуговування поза графіком базується на збиранні інформації за поданнями та повідомленнями пілотів, аналізі несправностей чи незвичайних ситуацій, таких як важке приземлення та ін.
6. Обслуживание вне графика производится на основе сбора информации из рапортов и сообщений пилотов, анализа неисправностей, или внештатных ситуаций, таких как тяжелая посадка и др.
Exercise 62. Read, translate and entitle the text and be ready to back-translate it.
Large aircraft (over 12500 lb.) and turbine-powered multi-engine aircraft are excluded from using 100-h or annual and progressive inspections. Due to their complexity, the inspection programs for these aircraft tend to be more specific than the 100-h or annual inspections. FAR Section 91.409 provides four options to the owner or operator in the selection of an inspection program:
Option 1. A continuous airworthiness inspection program currently in use by a person holding a certificate issued under FAR Part 121.
Option 2. An approved aircraft inspection program currently in use by a person holding an air-taxi certificate under FAR Part 135.
Option 3. A current inspection program recommended by the manufacturer.
Option 4. Any other inspection program established by the registered owner or operator of the airplane and approved by the FAA Administrator.
In the first three options listed, the provision “current” is mentioned. This requirement is intended to prevent the use of obsolete programs.
Exercise 63. Read text 9 and make up 5 key questions to it.
Text 9. Approved Aircraft Inspection Programs
The Approved Aircraft Inspection Program (AAIP) concept was first developed for the benefit of FAR Part 135 air-taxi operators who requested the regulatory authority to develop and use inspection programs more suitable to aircraft in their operating environments than the environments suitable to conventional 100-h annual inspections required by Part 91.
The AAIP allows each operator to develop a program which is tailored to meet his or her particular needs in satisfying aircraft inspection requirements. It provides for the operator to adjust the intervals between individual inspection tasks in accordance with the needs of the aircraft rather than repeat all tasks at each 100-h increment. It also allows the operator to develop procedures and standards for the accomplishment of those tasks. Along with these benefits there is the responsibility to achieve an acceptable level of equivalent safety to the conventional Part 91 inspection requirements. The AAIP serves as the operator’s specification for each segment of the program. This is in contrast to the 100-h or annual inspection, where the performing technician or repair station determines, in accordance with Appendix D of Part 43, what work is required. Under the AAIP, the operator is responsible for the program content and standards, and the performing mechanic or repair station is responsible for the accomplishment of the inspection as specified by word sheets and other criteria designated by the program.
An approved aircraft inspection program should encompass the total aircraft, including all installed equipment such as communications and navigational gear, cargo provisions, and so forth. It should include a schedule of the individual tasks or groups of tasks that comprise the program and their frequency of accomplishment.
Exercise 64. Translate text 9 in a written form.
Exercise 65. Get acquainted with the Infinitive forms and functions.
As you can see in the table, the Infinitive may have various forms:
to be reading
to have read
to have been reading
to be read
to have been read
Hi, I’m so glad to see you. – Привіт, я такий радий тебе бачити./ Привет! Я так рад тебя видеть.
It was so good tohavemet with you all. – Так добре, що я зустрівся з вами всіма. / Так хорошо, что я встретился с вами всеми.
Where is Mike? He must be playing football in the yard. – Де Михайло? Він, певно, грає в футбол у дворі. / Где Михаил? Он, должно быть, играет в футбол во дворе.
He seems tohavebeenplaying since 9 a.m. – Здається, що він грає з 9 ранку. / Он, кажется, играет с 9 утра.
The Negative Infinitive is formed with “not” before it.
The doctor told the patient not to go out for some time. – Лікар наказав пацієнтові не виходити деякий час. / Врач рекомендовал пациенту не выходить некоторое время.
Exercise 66. Translate the sentences focusing on the translation of the Infinitive.
1. It is too early yet to properly appreciate the significance of this method. 2. The intention of the author has been to show some newly developed methods. 3. Care is to be taken not to overheat the engine. 4. If fuels are to be burned efficiently, it is necessary to mix air with fuel before it is burned. 5. The explosion must have occurred long ago.
6. There are many problems to be solved. 7. These methods are to be described in the new chapter. 8. The method to be chosen in any particular case depends on many factors. 9. To begin with, one can say that an electric current is the result of a flow of electrons. 10. The effect is too small to be detected.
Exercise 67. Insert the Infinitive in the correct form.
1. I would like…a new coat (buy). 2. Pete was the first…a question (answer). 3. I can’t…a word? Though he seems…something very important (hear, say). 4. We didn’t expect the technician…the damage so soon (find). 5. I’m sorry…that you have missed so many classes (find out). 6. He was very sorry…so many classes before the exams. (miss) 7. He was the only one…this case (mention). 8. They would never allow the inspection…carelessly (do). 9. …this simple fact is not so very easy (explain). 10. A larger motor takes a long time…speed …very widely nowadays (get up, use).
Exercise 68. Read text 10, find nine Infinitives in it, state their functions and translate the text. After that, try to translate it back into English sentence by sentence without looking into the text.
Text 10. Walk-Around Inspections
To keep an aircraft in proper operating condition and to locate defects that arise between major inspections, manufacturers recommend various types of walk-around and preflight inspections. Frequent minor inspections of airliners are to be conducted by flight engineers or maintenance personnel. The inspections must usually be conducted at every stop at which time permits. For example, the inspector might carry a flashlight and check the interior of the tailpipe for the condition of the turbines and thrust reversers. The inspector further should check the tires, look for fluid leaks, and examine the fuselage and control surfaces for wrinkles and any other condition that indicates deterioration or damage.
Exercise 69. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 11.
перевіряти (на наявність)
проверять (на наличие)
видаляти; усувати; знімати
удалять; убирать, устранять; снимать
вимірювальна рейка (для вимірювання рівня рідини)
мерная рейка (для измерения уровня жидкости)
вимірювальне скло, трубка виміру рівня (рідини в баці)
мерное стекло, трубка измерения уровня (жидкости в баке)
прямоточний паливний фільтр
прямоточный топливный фильтр
тиск у шинах
давление в шинах
незакріплений, що хитається
незакрепленный, болтающийся, шатающийся
тріщина, щілина, зазубень
трещина, щель, зазубрина
stand clear (of)
стояти на відстані (від)
стоять на расстоянии (от)
капот (двигуна); обтікач
капот (двигателя); обтекатель
запальна свіча, свіча запалення
запальная свеча, свеча зажигания
допуск, зазор; допустиме відхилення
допуск, зазор; допустимое отклонение
Exercise 70. Read, translate and give the gist of text 11.
Text 11. Daily and Preflight Inspections
Before the first flight of an airplane each day, a daily inspection should by performed. This inspection will usually involve the following instructions.
Check the fuel tanks for quantity by removing the fuel caps and observing the level of fuel in the tanks. A dip-stick is sometimes necessary.
Check the quantity of oil in the oil tank by means of a dip-stick or sight gauge.
Drain a small amount of fuel from each of the fuel drains and strainers. This is to ensure that sediment and water are removed from the tanks.
Check the inflation of all tires.
Check the extension of the shock struts to ensure that they are properly inflated.
Check the engine compartment for loose wires and fittings. Visually inspect spark-plug leads, nuts, air ducts, exhaust pipes, controls, and accessories. Check for oil leaks.
Examine the propeller blades for nicks, cuts, and evidence of any other damage.
With the ignition switched off, turn the propeller by hand at least two revolutions and note any unusual noises or other indications of malfunction. Stand clear of the propeller’s plane of rotation.
Examine the cowling and the inspection plates for proper fastening.
Inspect the hinges and the control attachments of all control surfaces. Test each control for freedom of movement.
Visually inspect the exterior of the aircraft for damage, loose parts, or any other unsatisfactory condition. Check for fluid leaks.
Inspect the windshield, windows, and doors for damage. Check the door or doors for proper latching and locking.
Inspect the interior of the cabin and cockpit, including the seat belts, the seats, and any loose parts on the floor.
Test the operation of all controls from within the cockpit, including the operation of brakes.
After starting the engine, check the operation of all instruments, the radio, and the propeller (if the propeller is a constant-speed type). See that the engine-oil pressure is indicated within 30s after the engine starts.
Test the operation of the landing, navigation, cabin, and instrument lights.
If the aircraft is flown several times during the day, it is not necessary to make all the inspections just listed; however, a general check of the aircraft, including the quantity of fuel and oil, should be made before each flight.
Exercise 71. Read the list of instructions again. Name the principle structural units of the airplane and major components of the airplane engine to which all the mentioned items in text 11 belong and define their principal functions.
Model: Fuel tanks – engine fuel system.
The function of fuel tanks is to store fuel, or: Fuel tanks are used for fuel storage.
Exercise 72. Role-play.
You have been working for Ukraine International Airlines for 5 years as a mechanic. Explain to a new member of the staff how to make daily and preflight inspections. Explain why it has to be done in a particular way. Speaking about the sequence of operations use:
First (-ly) → Then → Next → After that → Finally.
Exercise 73. Study carefully a typical inspection format for a continuous airworthiness inspection program.
No. 1 service “walk – around”
Before each flight
Mechanic and pilot
Exterior check of aircraft and engines for damage and leakage; includes specific checks such as brake and tire wear
No. 2 service
During overnight layovers at maintenance locations; at least every 45 hours of domestic flying or 65 hours of international flying
Same as No. 1 service plus specific checks including oils, hydraulics, oxygen, and unique needs by aircraft type
Approximately every 200 flying hours, or about every 15 to 20 days – depending on type of aircraft
More detailed check of aircraft and engine interior including specific checks, services, and lubrication of systems such as:
B-/ M-/ L-checks
Heaviest level of routine line maintenance; approximately every 550 flying hours or every 40-50 days; work performed overnight
Similar to A-Check but in greater detail, with specific aircraft and engine needs such as torque tests, internal checks, and flight controls
Every 12-15 months, depending on aircraft type; airplane out of service for 3-5 days
150-200 mechanics and inspectors – depending on aircraft type
Detailed inspection and repair of aircraft, engines, components, systems and cabin, including operating mechanisms, flight controls, and structural tolerances
Most intensive inspection; every 4-5 years, depending on aircraft type; airplane out of service up to 30 days
150-300 mechanics and inspectors – depending on aircraft type
Major structural inspections for detailed needs which include attention to fatigue corrosion; aircraft is dismantled, repaired and rebuilt as required; systems and parts are tested, repaired or replaced
Exercise 74. Answer the questions on inspection format.
1. What is considered to be the heaviest level of routine line maintenance?
2. What type of check requires the greatest number of mechanics and inspectors and why?
3. What is the most frequent service and what does it consist in?
4. During what type check should the greatest number of operations be carried out?
Exercise 75. Memorize the active vocabulary to texts 12 and 13.
1. складати перелік, перерахувати по пунктах 2. уточнювати, деталізувати
1. составлять перечень, перечислить по пунктам 2. уточнять, детализировать
1. відповідність 2. піддатливість, поступливість
1. соответствие 2. уступчивость, податливость
1. дослідження, вивчення, науково-дослідна праця 2. досліджувати
1. исследование, изучение, научно-исследовательская работа 2. исследовать
1. тривога, попередження про небезпеку; сигнал небезпеки 2. попереджати про небезпеку
1. тревога, предупреждение об опасности; сигнал опасности 2. предупреждать об опасности
1. тріщина 2. давати тріщину, тріскатися
1. трещина 2. давать трещину, трескаться
ділянка / зона, де може виникнути проблема або ускладнення
участок / зона, где может возникнуть проблема или осложнение
форма / бланк невідповідності
форма / бланк несоответствия
прилад для випробування тиску / компресії
прибор для определения давления / компрессии
Exercise 76. Match English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. along with
a) кишеньковий ліхтар / карманный фонарь
2. discrepancy form
b) пристрій для перевірки компресії / прибор для проверки компрессии
3. Type Certificate Data Sheet
c) перелік даних відповідно до сертифікату типу /перечень данных в соответствии с сертификатом типа
Exercise 77. Match English-Ukrainian / Russian equivalents.
1. to commence with the owner’s request
а) звіти про обслуговування
літака / отчеты об обслуживании самолета
2. to fill out (in) a work order
b) відомість технічного контролю / ведомость технического контроля
3. to itemize the work
c) вартість огляду / стоимость осмотра
4. to reach firm understanding
d) починатися зі звертання власника / начинаться с обращения владельца
5. the cost of inspection
e) складати облік робіт / составлять перечень работ
6. airplane maintenance records
f) заповнювати бланк замовлення на виконання роботи / заполнять бланк заказа на выполнение работ
7. researching airworthiness directives
g) до початку огляду / до начала осмотра
8. to bring into compliance with
h) досягти повного взаєморозуміння / достигать полного взаимопонимания
9. it makes no sense
i) привести у відповідність до / привести в соответствие с
10. prior to beginning the inspection
j) вивчення інструкцій щодо визначення льотної придатності / изучение инструкций по определению летной годности
k) це не має сенсу / это не имеет смысла
Exercise 78. Read, translate and give the gist of text 12.
Text 12. Inspection Preparation
Although specific inspection practices and procedures will vary, depending on the size of the aircraft and the type of inspection being conducted, the basic fundamentals followed in conducting an inspection do not change.
The inspection process commences with the owner or operator requesting that an inspection be performed on the airplane. At this point a work order should be filled out itemizing the work that is to be accomplished. A firm understanding should be reached about the cost of the inspection, what is included in this cost (e.g., servicing, lubrication, airworthiness directive compliance, and so on), and the approximate time period planned for completing the inspection. In order to gain a better understanding of the history and the present condition of the aircraft, it is necessary to obtain the airplane maintenance records for thorough study and review.
An important part of the preinspection process is researching airworthiness directives (ADs) and service bulletins. The technician must determine whether all applicable airworthiness directives on the aircraft, power plant, propeller, instruments, and appliances have actually been accomplished.
If the maintenance records indicate compliance with an AD, the technician should make a reasonable attempt to verify this. The reason for this verification is that it is not uncommon for a component, that was brought into compliance with an AD and properly recorded, to then be replaced by another component, which had not yet been brought into compliance with the AD.
The FAA general aviation airworthiness alerts (AC43-15) are also an important source of service experience. These alerts are selected service difficulties reported to the FAA on malfunction or defect reports. It makes sense to use the experiences other persons have had on similar products. These publications help ensure that a problem area is not overlooked.
Prior to beginning the inspection, the checklist to be used should be located, along with discrepancy forms, the appropriate maintenance manual, and the Type Certificate Data Sheet.
The tools needed to perform the inspection should then be readied. Inspection tools can be many and various, ranging from a pocket-sized magnifying glass to a complete X-ray machine. The principal tools for most inspectors are a flashlight and an inspection mirror; however, additional items such as a magneto-timing light, compression tester, and jacks are among the other tools usually required.
.Exercise 79. Match the words with the definitions given below.
(Verify, fundamentals, malfunction, bulletin, record, inspection, make sense, airworthy, bring into compliance, research, owner).
1. The person who owns something. -
2. An official looking closely into, examining officially to make sure that everything is being done correctly. -
3. Serving as a base or foundation, essential, primary, original from which others are derived. -
4. Adequate, appropriate, good condition of an airplane when it is permitted to fly. -
5. Action in accordance with request, command, directive, order etc. -
6. Official report of proceedings, piece of evidence or information, account of facts preserved in permanent form. -
7. Short official statement of public event or news. -
8. Establishing the truth of, examining smth. for this purpose, e.g. statement, figures, references etc. -
9. Actual observation of or practical acquaintance with facts or events, knowledge resulting from this. -
10. Something wrong with a machine, caused by a mistake in the way it was made or designed.-
11. The ability to behave in an intelligent and sensible way and to avoid doing anything stupid. -
Exercise 80. Answer the questions on text 12.
1. What changes and what does not change in the process of aircraft inspection? 2. What does the inspection process start with? 3.What is an important part of the preinspection process? 4. What should be carefully verified by a technician and why is it obligatory? 5. What else is an important source of service experience? 6. What should be done prior to beginning an inspection? 7. What tools are needed to perform an inspection?
Exercise 81. Insert prepositions: in, out, with, on, of, from, into, to, for, by.
1. Specific inspection practices and procedures vary depending … the size of the aircraft. 2. The process of inspecting commences … the request … the owner to perform an inspection … the airplane. 3. A work order should be filled …, itemizing the work that is to be accomplished. 4. It is important to reach a firm understanding … the cost of the inspection and what is included … this cost. 5. … order to gain a better understanding of the present condition … an aircraft, it is necessary to obtain the airplane maintenance records. 6. All airworthiness directives … the aircraft must be accomplished. 7. The technician should verify if the maintenance records indicate compliance … an AD. 8. The reason … this verification is that any component that was brought … compliance with the AD and properly recorded, may then be replaced … another one. 9. The alerts are selected service difficulties reported … the FAA … malfunction or defect reports. 10. The checklist to be used should be located prior … beginning the inspection. 11. There are various inspection tools ranging … a pocket-sized magnifying glass … a complete X-ray machine. 12. The principal tools … most inspectors are a flashlight and an inspection mirror.
Exercise 82. Role-play.
You are an experienced mechanic who has to conduct an inspection of an airplane. Number the procedures in the correct order.
Ready the tools needed to perform the inspection.
Make an attempt to verify if the maintenance records indicate compliance with ADs.
Fill out a work order itemizing the work that is to be accomplished.
Find out if there is the owner’s request for performing inspection on the airplane.
Read through all publications concerning the FAA general aviation airworthiness alerts.
Locate the checklist to be used along with discrepancy forms, the appropriate maintenance manual and the Type Certificate Data sheet.
Reach a firm understanding about the cost of the inspection and what is included in this cost.
Obtain the airplane maintenance records for thorough study and review.
Exercise 83. Read and translate text 12; study the inspection-panel diagram (Fig. III.1). After studying it: 1) translate the names of all inspection panels shown in the figure; 2) tell what parts and units of the airplane each inspection-panel gives access to.
Text 13. Opening and Cleaning
Each person performing an annual or 100-h inspection shall, before that inspection, remove or open all necessary inspection plates, access doors, fairings and cowlings. He shall thoroughly clean the aircraft and the aircraft engine.
New technicians often have difficulty in knowing which inspection plates and panels must be removed. Many manufacturers provide assistance in the form of an inspection-panel diagram, such as the one illustrated in Figure III.1. When opening inspection plates and cowlings, the technician should take notes of any oil or other foreign-material accumulation, which may offer evidence of fluid leakage, or some other abnormal condition that should be corrected.