Exercise 84. Read text 14, translate it and then make back translation of it.
Text 14. Servicing Brake and Hydraulic Systems
Brake and hydraulic systems must be serviced in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. As long as these systems operate satisfactorily, service is not normally required at intervals of less than 100 h of operation. When it is necessary to add fluid, it is most important that the correct fluid be added. If the wrong fluid is used, it will be necessary to drain and flush1 the system and probably change all the seals in the components of the system. Petroleum solvents2 can be used to flush a system that uses petroleum fluids. Many large aircraft use a synthetic, fire-resistant hydraulic fluid. If these fluids or any of a similar type are put into a system designed for petroleum fluid, considerable damage can result.
1. flush – промивати струменем рідини / промывать струей жидкости.
2. solvent – розчинник / растворитель.
Exercise 85. Read and translate text 15, then make a list of instructions for tire servicing.
Text 15. Tires
Maintaining proper tire inflation will minimize tread wears1 and help prevent tire ruptures2 caused from running over sharp stones and ruts3. When inflating tires, visually inspect them for cracks and breaks. Reverse the tires on the wheels, if necessary, to produce even wear. All tires and wheels are balanced before installation and the relationship of tire, tube, and wheel should be maintained upon reinstallation. Out-of-balance wheels can cause extreme vibration in the landing gear during takeoff and landing. When landing, tires grow slightly due to the shock load. Normally, this growth is balanced by tread wear so there is no increase in the tire diameter.
Exercise 86. Read, translate text 16 and entitle it.
A most important factor in the maintenance of an aircraft is cleanliness. Although cleaning is not actually a part of the inspection process, it is an important step in preparing an aircraft for redelivery to the owner as well as being a good preventive1-maintenance practice. A film2 of dirt on the surface of a metal or a painted aircraft will attract moisture3 and chemical pollutants4 with the surface of the aircraft. The result is oxidation5, corrosion, and general deterioration6 of the surface. Cleanliness is particularly important in areas near the ocean, where the air is salty, or in areas where air pollution is comparatively severe. Regular cleaning and waxing7 of the exterior surfaces of an aircraft will effectively reduce corrosion and other forms of deterioration. It is desirable to keep an airplane hangered when possible. Since this cannot always be done, the owner or operator of an aircraft should try to keep it as clean as possible.
This section is not intended to describe all the methods for cleaning aircraft and their parts; however, some general principles will be discussed, with particular emphasis on the dangers involved in the use of improper cleaning methods and unsuitable cleaning materials.
Exercise 88. Read and translate text 17 in a written form.
Text 17. ExteriorPaintedSurfaces
When an airplane is covered with dust, sand, or other types of dirt, no attempt should be made to wipe the surface clean with a dry cloth, no matter how soft the material is. Wiping a dirty surface with a dry material will scratch the metal or paint on the surface because of the abrasiveness1 of the fine particles2 of sand or dust. Scratching the surface will destroy the smooth finish3 and will increase the rate of deterioration, particularly if the pure-aluminum coating on clad4 material is scratched through to the base metal.
Generally, the painted surfaces can be kept bright by washing them with water and mild soap, rinsing5 with water, and drying with cloths or a chamois6. Harsh or abrasive soaps or detergents7, which cause corrosion or scratches, should never be used. Remove stubborn oil and grease with a cloth moistened with special solvent. Many of the new-type paints being used on aircraft, such as urethane8, do not require waxing to keep them bright. However, if desired, the airplane may be waxed with a good automotive wax. Soft cleaning cloths or a chamois should be used to prevent scratches when cleaning or polishing. A heavier coating of wax on the leading surfaces will reduce the abrasion problems in these areas.
1. abrasiveness – абразивна твердість / абразивная твердость.
2. fine particle – дрібна частка / мелкая частичка.
3. finish – поліровка / полировка.
4. clad – плакірований / плакированный.
5. rinse – споліскувати / споласкивать.
6. chamois – замша / замша.
7. detergent – миючий засіб / моющее средство.
8. urethane – уретан / уретан.
Exercise 89. Make a list of instructions for cleaning exterior painted surfaces.
Exercise 90. Read, translate and entitle text 18.
The most important part of any inspection is the visual examination given to the airplane to determine its airworthiness. All the related steps in the inspection process, such as service and repair, are dependent on a thorough visual examination. On a 100-h or annual inspection, this step cannot be supervised but instead must be performed by the appropriately certificated person who is returning the aircraft to service. As required by FAR 43.15, a checklist must be used and should be carefully followed. While performing the visual inspection, the inspector should avoid getting sidetracked1 on related service and repair problems but instead should make a written list of all discrepancies found on the aircraft. A discrepancy report should provide a location for the discrepancy write-up2, the corrective action taken, the technician making the repair, and the inspector returning the aircraft to service.
The principal purpose in performing an inspection is to determine if the aircraft is airworthy. In order for an airplane to be declared airworthy, it must meet two criteria: (1) it must be in condition for safe operation, and (2) it must conform to its Type Certificate Data Sheet. Safe operation refers to the condition of the aircraft with relation to wear and deterioration. Some general inspection guidelines that may be followed in making this determination are inspection of:
1) metal parts for security of attachment, cracks, metal distortion3, broken spotwelds4, corrosion, condition of paint, and any other apparent damage;
2) movable parts for lubrication, servicing, security5 of attachment, binding, excessive wear, safetying6, proper operation, proper adjustment, correct travel, cracked fittings, security of hinges, defective bearings, cleanliness, corrosion, deformation, sealing, and tension7;
3) bolts in critical areas for proper installation, correct safetying, and correct torque8 values when visual inspection indicates the need for a torque check;
4) wiring9 for security, chafing10, burning, defective insulation11, loose or broken terminals12, heat deterioration, and corroded terminals;
5) fluid lines and hoses13 for leaks, cracks, dents14, kinks15, chafing, proper radius, security, corrosion, deterioration, obstruction, and foreign matter;
6) filters, screens, and hoses for cleanliness, contamination, and replacement at specified intervals.
The manufacturer’s checklist and maintenance manual will explain what needs to be checked during the inspection.
An airplane’s conformity to its Type Certificate Data Sheet is considered attained when the required and proper components are installed and they are consistent with16 the drawings, specifications, and other data that are a part of the type certificate. In addition to providing for required equipment, the data sheet provides such information as static rpm, control-surface travel limits, and whether or not a flight manual considers required equipment. It also identifies limitations, which must be displayed on the aircraft in the form of markings and placards. Any deviation from the aircraft’s certificated type design is considered a major alteration and should be provided for in an FAA Form 337. An aircraft that does not conform to its Type Certificate Data Sheet is considered to be unairworthy.
An additional item included on most checklists is a review of the aircraft paperwork. The aircraft registration and airworthiness certificate should be located on board the aircraft. If these certificates are not available, the aircraft should be reported as unairworthy; the owner should be informed that the documents must be in the aircraft, with the airworthiness certificate displayed as required in FAR 91.203, when the aircraft is operated.
Other documents often needed, but not a part of the airworthiness requirements might be the state registration, FCC17 radio-station licenses, and similar papers. The owner or operator is responsible for the proper display of these documents. However, the technician will be performing an appreciated service by informing the operator of any deficiencies in the display and carriage of these documents.
At the conclusion of the visual inspection, a meeting with the airplane’s owner is usually held in order to discuss the discrepancies located during the inspection. Discrepancies need to be divided into two categories: those that affect the airworthiness of the airplane and those that may be cosmetic in nature and do not affect the aircraft airworthiness. Those items not affecting the airworthiness of the airplane may have corrective action delayed to a later date. For those discrepancies that affect airworthiness, the owner has the option of having them repaired by the maintenance technician performing the inspection or using the procedures specified in FAR 43.11 and having the aircraft declared unairworthy. This will permit an owner to assume responsibility18 for having the discrepancies corrected prior to operating the aircraft. The discrepancies can be cleared by a technician unless they are major repairs or major alterations. If repairs are preventive maintenance, they can be cleared by the owner or pilot.
There is no stigma19 attached to the aircraft because it is reported to be unairworthy. In effect, the report says that the aircraft is airworthy with the exception of the items on the discrepancy list. When those listed items are corrected, the aircraft is eligible20 to be operated. The owner may want the aircraft flown to another location to have repairs completed, in which case the owner should be advised that a Special Airworthiness Certificate, FAA Form 8130-7 (formerly referred to as a ferry21 permit), is necessary. A special airworthiness certificate may be obtained at the local FAA district office.
1. side track – відволікати від цілі, відвертати вбік / отвлекать от цели, уводить в сторону
2. write up – детальний виклад або опис / подробное изложение или описание.
3. distortion – викривлення / искривление.
4. spotweld – місце точкового зварювання / место точечной сварки.
Exercise 91. Make up key questions on text 18.
Exercise 92. Divide text 18 into logical parts and write a topical sentence for each part.
Exercise 93. Make a report on “Aircraft Inspection and Maintenance”.
Exercise 94. Read, translate and give the gist of each of the paragraphs of text 19.
Text 19. Maintenance Manuals
The maintenance manual provides information which enables a technician to perform servicing functions, to locate and identify faults, to repair all systems and subsystems, and to replace any unit normally requiring such action on the flight line or in the hangar.
Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC)
The IPC, customized for each airline, presents information for provisioning and requisitioning replacement parts and assemblies. The IPC identifies current and superseded parts. It also identifies small replaceable parts such as filters, seals, bearings, and connectors which are components of a line replaceable unit (LRU).
Wiring Diagram Manual
The wiring diagram manual contains four types of information: maintenance instructions on electrical connectors, customized wiring diagrams, various lists and charts of electrical data produced by the automated wiring data system, and electrical equipment location illustrations. These lists and illustrations, which reflect such data as equipment and wire numbers, wiring and connector locations by zone and station, and hook-up information, are organized according to ATA (Air Transport Associaton) numbering format and chapters.
Structural Repair Manual
The structural repair manual contains descriptive information and repair procedures for primary and secondary structure of aircraft. The manual also includes damage classification, fastener substitution, and other information to facilitate repair operations.
Most manufacturers provide separate and self-supporting overhaul instructions and illustrated parts lists for each repairable unit. The instructions provide complete information for repair, replacement, and bench testing1.
The tool and equipment lists present tools and equipment recommended for servicing, line maintenance, and overhaul of the systems, subsystems, and components.
Weight and Balance Manual
The weight and balance manual presents data in sufficient depth for the airline to analyze and establish operating weights, centre of gravity positions, and balance criteria. The manual contains all weight and balance material required by government regulations for commercial aircraft.
Nondestructive Testing Manual
The nondestructive testing manual contains all pertinent data on the inspection and testing of structure by nondestructive means. Such methods as dye-penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic are discussed. Specific conditions are detailed for the inspection of particular structural areas and components.
These are issued to affect modifications to the aircraft, engine, or accessories, authorize critical or urgent parts substitution, and transmit special instructions to maintain the aircraft.
Airworthiness Directives (AD Notes)
Airworthiness Directives are issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for an aircraft, engine, or part thereof when an unsafe condition exists with regard to the operation of the aircraft. ADs are also issued if the unsafe condition is likely to exist or develop in other products of the same type design. An aircraft may not be operated if an airworthiness directive applies to it, except in accordance with the requirements of the AD. Generally, an AD will require inspection of the aircraft with the necessary repair or replacement of aircraft components.
ATA Specification 100
Most transport aircraft manuals use the Air Transport Association of America Specification Number 100, “Specification for Manufactures’ Technical Data”. The subject matter is divided into chapters and groups of chapters to facilitate the location of information. This chapterization provides a functional breakdown of the entire airplane. Information on all units comprising a system will be found in the chapter identified by the name of that system, or by a general name indicative of the several systems which may be covered in that chapter. Thus, all units relating to the generation and distribution of electrical power are covered in Chapter 24, ELECTRICAL POWER, while electrically driven pumps and valves serving the fuel system are covered in Chapter 28, FUEL. Also, all units of the elevator control system, hydraulic, mechanical and electrical units, are included in Chapter 27, FLIGHT CONTROLS. Each chapter begins with a chapter Table of Contents which shows the chapter divided into sections and the assigned subject numbers within that chapter.
Exercise 95. Decode the following abbreviations: AD, IPC, LRU, FCC, AAIP, IA, FSDO.
Exercise 96. Copy out aviation terms which refer to the topic “Inspecting the Aircraft” from the supplementory texts.
Exercise 97. Speak on:
Aircraft Maintenance Practice.
T. We’ll consider the general principles and practices utilized in the engine maintenance. Engines are intended for continuous reliable service; so they are to be kept in the working condition.
S. I have heard that engines should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.
T. Yes, you are right. The manufacturer works out the engine maintenance and troubleshooting technology which is presented in the Engine Maintenance Manual.
S. What is troubleshooting?
T. The troubleshooting is detecting and correcting faults. In order to detect and correct faults the engine must be inspected at regular intervals.
S. What does the term “inspection” mean?
T. The term “inspection” means a visual examination to determine the condition of the engine.
S. What is maintenance repair?
T. Maintenance repair involves inspection of some parts of the engine which are found to be repairable.
S. What should be performed when the engine compiles a predetermined number of operational hours?
T. The engine overhaul should be performed.
Exercise 3. Read, translate and give the gist of text 1.
Text 1. Engine Inspection and Servicing Requirements
Engines are intended for continuous reliable service. Particularly during take-off and landing they must deliver full performance. Engines are to be kept in the working condition so that the high level of safety and reliability is maintained throughout operating life at minimum cost. If the engines are fully functional, safety will not be endangered. “Safety first” is the motto of the civil aviation.
In order to meet safety requiments and to provide efficient operation of aviation engines, aircraft maintenance engineers should be familiar with the engine design, operation, inspection, troubleshooting, repair, maintenance and overhaul procedures. In establishing the engine inspection requirements it is necessary to consider the engine design, size, type, and airplane applied. Engines should be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. The manufacturer works out the engine maintenance and troubleshooting technology which is presented in the Engine Maintenance Manual. The engine design, the principles of the engine operation, its systems, units and assemblies are also given in the Engine Maintenance Manual (Engine Maintenance Guide) and in the charts.
The maintenance inspection concept is based on failure development probability and capability to identify, localize and eliminate failures, that’s to reveal failures and correct them.
Engines must be inspected at regular intervals. The term “inspection” means a visual examination to determine the condition of the engine. Visual inspection of aviation engines can give more reliable assurance of the engine condition. Typical inspections are performed daily or before flight on every turbine engine installation. Periodic checks of engine installations are performed each 100 hours of time in service. Minor inspections include many items not inspected during daily or preflight inspections. Major inspection includes partial disassembly of the engine.
Maintenance repair involves inspection of some parts of the engine which are found to be repairable.
The engine overhaul is performed when the engine compiles a predetermined number of operational hours.
Exercise 4. Translate verb – noun pairs and continue with your own examples.
To operate – operation, to intend – intention, to recommend –
recommendation, to inspect – inspection, to eliminate – elimination,
to accumulate – accumulation, to identify – identification, to localize – localization, to determine – determination, to install – installation,
to examine – examination, to prevent – prevention, to destruct – destruction, to consider – consideration, to present – presentation.
Exercise 5. Define the parts of speech and translate the derivation word chains.
f) engine overhaul, major overhaul, scheduled overhaul, regular overhaul, preventive overhaul, preventive-maintenance overhaul.
Exercise 8. Insert prepositions: of, with, at, for, throughout, in.
1. Engines are intended … continuous reliable service. 2. Engines are to be kept … working condition so that the high level … safety and reliability is maintained … operating life … minimum cost. 3. Engines must be inspected … regular intervals. 4. The visual inspection … the engine can give more reliable assurance … engine condition. 5. Aircraft maintenance engineers should be familiar … the engine design, operation, inspection, troubleshooting, repair, maintenance and overhaul procedures. 6. Engines should be operated … accordance … the recommendations … the manufacturer.
Exercise 9. Answer the questions on text 1.
1. What are engines intended for? 2. When is it critical that engines deliver full performance? 3. What is presented in the Engine Maintenance Manual? 4. What is the maintenance inspection concept based on? 5. What is the motto of the civil aviation? 6. What does the term “inspection” mean? 7. When are periodic checks of the engine installation performed? 8. When is the engine overhaul carried out?
9. Visual inspection of aviation engines can give more reliable assurance of the engine condition, can’t it? 10. Why is it important for engines to be operated in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer?
Exercise 10. Give English equivalents of these word combinations:
виявлення та усунення несправностей / выявление и устранение неисправностей; повне перебирання двигуна / полная переборка двигателя; неполадки в роботі двигуна / неполадки в работе двигателя; вимоги завода-виробника / требования завода-изготовителя; візуальний огляд / визуальный осмотр; термін служби / срок службы; надійне обслуговування / надежное обслуживание; мінімальні витрати / минимальные расходы; посібник з технічного обслуговування та ремонту двигуна / руководство по техническому обслуживанию и ремонту двигателя.
Exercise 11. Write a summary of text 1.
Exercise 12. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 2.
запальна свіча, свіча запалювання
запальная свеча, свеча зажигания
зношування, зтирання; пошкодження
износ, истирание; повреждение
зливний кран, кран для зливу
сливной кран, кран слива
Exercise 13. Read, translate and make up a plan of text 2.
Text 2. Types of Engine Inspection
Daily or Preflight Inspection. The following items indicate typical inspections which should be performed daily or before flight on every turbine-engine installation. In any case, the manufacturer’s inspection procedures must be followed.
The engine compartment or nacelle should be inspected for cleanliness and security of all lines and fittings. It should also be inspected for fuel and oil leaks, loose parts and any other undesirable condition.
Accessory mountings should be inspected for oil leakage, the security of any attachment, safetying, etc.
A complete external inspection of the engine should be accomplished to discover any loose or missing safety wire; loose nuts, bolts, and attachments.
The engine and inlet ducts should be inspected for any loose parts, materials, tools, or other material.
The tail pipe or afterburner should be inspected for heat damage, loose parts, cracking and any other undesirable condition. The turbine wheel should be inspected with a strong flashlight so that any damage may be observed.
Minor Inspections. Minor inspections include many items not inspected during daily or preflight inspections but do not include those items which require the engine disassembly.
During minor inspections, the following items should be checked in addition to those covered under preflight inspections.
The electrical system should be inspected for condition of wiring terminals, thermocouples, spark plugs, and ignition units.
The fuel system units should be removed, cleaned, and reinstalled. Any metal particles should be checked to determine whether excessive wear or other damage has occurred within the engine.
The engine controls should be operated to see that they are free and operate in the proper manner.
The air inlet area should be inspected for damage caused by any foreign matter. The area should be clean and all attachments secure.
The compressor area should be inspected for cracks, the security of nuts and bolts, the security of air-bleed units, and the security of all case-mounted accessories. Combustion chambers should be visually inspected for any damage or deterioration. Drain valves should be checked for proper operation. The rear turbine and nozzle guide vanes should be inspected to the extent possible without disassembly. A strong flashlight will aid in this operation. The exhaust cone, the afterburner tail pipe, and similar units should be checked for warping, buckling, burning, and cracks.
Major Inspections. Major inspections include partial disassembly of the engine to see parts inaccessible during lesser inspections. A complete major inspection includes the previously described operations.
A major inspection requires an examination of the compressor blades and stator vanes, combustion chambers and liners, turbine blades, nozzles, fuel manifolds and fuel system and units, and operating parts of the afterburner.
Exercise 14. Write out sentences with modal verbs from texts 1 and 2 and translate them.
Exercise 15. Write out predicates in the Passive Voice from texts 1 and 2 and comment on their structure.
Exercise 16. Compress the information of text 2 to 5 sentences.
Exercise 17. Tell what you have learned about:
1. Engine Maintenance Inspection Concept.
2. Types of Engine Inspection.
3. Engine Servicing Requirements.
Exercise 18. Memorize the active vocabulary to text 3.
капот (двигуна), обтікач
капот (двигателя), обтекатель
години нальоту, наліт годин
часы налета, налет часов
замір витрати палива
замер расхода топлива
сенсорний датчик; чуттєвий елемент
сенсорный датчик; чувствительный элемент
Exercise 19. Read, translate and give the gist of text 3.
Text 3. Engine MaintenanceTechnology
The engine maintenance covers both the work that is required to maintain an engine and its systems in the airworthy condition while it is installed in an aircraft and the work that is required to return an engine to the airworthy condition once¹ it has been removed from an aircraft.
So there exist two major methods of the engine maintenance: preventive or scheduled and corrective or unscheduled maintenance. The scheduled maintenance attempts to prevent failures during operation by using preventive measures. The scheduled maintenance includes periodic and recurring inspections that must be made in accordance with the engine section of the aircraft maintenance schedule.
These checks range from inspections which do not entail opening of cowls to more elaborate checks within specified time limits, usually calculated in aircraft flying hours or cycles. A flight cycle is normally defined as one take-off and landing.
The unscheduled maintenance covers work necessitated by occurrences that are not normally related to time limits – e.g., a bird ingestion, a strike by lightning, or any heavy landing.
It is essential that all inspection and maintenance practices should be done in accordance with the manufacturer’s and engineer’s maintenance manuals and guides.
The engine maintenance manual presents the engine maintenance technology which consists of:
Removal and Installation
Inspection and Check
Cleaning and Painting
A. Engine maintenance procedures illustrated in charts, as a rule, include the manual cranking of the fan rotor, the low pressure rotor and the high pressure rotor, air discharge from the engine fuel system.
B. The engine removal and installation technology involves the engine unpackaging, the external and internal depreservation of the engine.
C. During the engine operation, the following engine tests are usually performed: the false start, cold cranking, engine run-up, fuel metering.
D. The engine inspection and checks are performed after a heavy landing or severe turbulence, engine surge, collision with birds.
The inspection of the compressor and turbine nozzle blades, the flame tube, the turbine nozzle diaphragm and the fan turbine is carried out by means of optical instruments. It is very important to determine the damage level of compressor rotor blades.
E. Cleaning and painting follow removing corrosion.
F. The routine repair involves the change of units, assemblies, sensors, pipelines.
1 once … – у випадку, якщо … - в случае, если …
Exercise 20. Give Ukrainian/Russian equivalents.
Exercise 21. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations.
Придатний до польоту або експлуатації / пригодный к полету или эксплуатации; регламентне технічне обслуговування / регламентное техническое обслуживание; холодна прокрутка двигуна / холодная прокрутка двигателя; розконсервація двигуна / расконсервация двигателя; хибний запуск / ложный запуск; випробування двигуна / опробование двигателя; помпаж двигуна / помпаж двигателя; періодичний огляд / периодический осмотр; позапланове технічне обслуговування / внеплановое техническое обслуживание
Exercise 22. Complete the sentences.
1. There exist two major methods of the engine maintenance: ….
2. A flight cycle is normally defined as one take-off and … . 3. It is essential that all inspection and maintenance practices should be done in accordance with … . 4. Engine maintenance procedures include the manual cranking of the fan rotor, the low pressure rotor and … . 5. The engine removal and installation technology involves … . 6. During the engine operation, the following engine tests are usually performed: … . 7. The engine inspection and checks are performed after a heavy landing or … . 8. The inspection of the compressor and turbine nozzle blades, the flame tube, the turbine nozzle diaphragm and the fan turbine is carried out by means of … . 9. Cleaning and painting follow … .10. The routine repair involves the change of … .
Exercise 23. Match the synonyms.
Exercise 24. Translate the following verb combinations and use them in sentences of your own.
To localize failures, to eliminate errors, to inspect for cleanliness, to check for cracks, to watch for evidence, to install in place, to keep in the working condition, to perform scheduled maintenance, to indicate internal failures, to determine engine airworthiness, to guarantee safety and reliability, to reveal the foreign object damage, to be familiar with inspection procedures, to identify the progressive hot section deterioration, to carry out periodic engine checks, to conduct the engine power check, to ensure consistency of engine check parameters.
Exercise 25. Answer the questions on text 3.
1. What are major methods of engine maintenance? 2. What does scheduled maintenance include? 3. What work does unscheduled maintenance cover? 4. What is a flight cycle? 5. What is the engine maintenance technology? 6. What does the engine maintenance technology consist of? 7. What engine tests are usually performed? 8. What is carried out by means of optical instruments? 9. What does routine repair involve? 10. What is “Engine Maintenance Manual”?
Exercise 26. Match the synonyms.
4) improper engine operation
d) detecting and correcting faults
e) engine failure
Exercise 27. Make up sentences using the following word combinations.
To replace damaged parts of the engine, to monitor operating characteristics of the engine, to take necessary urgent measures, to conduct the engine-icing test, to be out of service, to transmit to the central computer, to stabilize engine parameters, to identify and solve technical problems, to include special sensors, to indicate developing problems, to cause engine failures, to troubleshoot engine problems, to increase engine service reliability, to provide the optimum engine performance, to require the major repair, to accumulate know-how in technical services.
Exercise 28. Memorize the following definitions.
1. Engine repair is making engine parts suitable for further service. 2. The engine maintenance is keeping it in good repair or working order. 3. Troubleshooting is detecting and correcting faults. 4. The engine inspection is checking it for condition and serviceability. 5. Cleaning the engine and its parts is using chemical cleaners (organic solvents or paint-stripping solutions) for washing, degreasing, for removing corrosion, heat scale and carbon from certain components. 6. Engine overhaul is removing the engine from the aircraft and sending to an overhaul base to disassemble, clean, inspect, repair and reassemble the complete engine and its accessories. 7. Engine test is ensuring its correct performance.
Exercise 29. Give definitions of the following terms: engine maintenance, engine overhaul, engine repair, engine cleaning, engine test, engine inspection, troubleshooting.
Exercise 30. Put special questions to all parts of these sentences.
1. Many present-day airlines have been accumulating know-how in technical services. 2. The computerized Reliability On Demand (ROD) program records all technical faults occurring in our fleet. 3. Engines have to be maintained according to a cost-efficient formula that guarantees safety and reliability, and is approved by the airworthiness authorities. 4. The oil pressure, temperatures, vibrations, possible leaks, and revolutions at all power settings up to full take-off power are all checked on the engine test stand. 5. The engine design, the principles of the engine operation, its systems, units and assemblies, the engine parameters control, the engine maintenance and the troubleshooting technology are presented in the Engine Maintenance Manual (Engine Maintenance Guide) and in the charts. 6. The main objectives of civil aviation enterprises are maximum safety, high level of reliability and high profitability.
Exercise 31. Change the sentences into the Active Voice adding subjects wherever necessary.
1. Engines are checked continually, using Engine Condition Monitoring. 2. Defects are revealed, localized and eliminated. 3. The preventive engine maintenance is performed according to the Engine Maintenance Manual. 4. The material fatigue and corrosion should be identified and classified at the earliest possible stage. 5. Final inspection results are recorded on a special chart. 6. The restauration of all damages occurred are ensured with regular intermediate checks during the entire repair process. 7. Repairable parts are processed and then they are given a rigid inspection. 8. The ultrasonic scanning is employed to detect irregularities in bonded joints and reinforcements. 9. The magnetic particle inspection is performed for checking high tensile steel for cracks. 10. X-rays are used to inspect areas that are otherwise not accessible. 11. The final check of an engine after its overhaul is performed on the engine test stand. 12. All maintenance and overhaul work is aimed at ensuring maximum efficiency as well as reliability. 13. The overhaul of the engine is accomplished by the manufacturer or at approved overhaul stations.
Exercise 32. Comment on the following statements.
1. “Safety first” is the motto of the civil aviation. 2. Engines are to be kept in the working condition so that the high level of safety and reliability is maintained throughout operating life at minimum cost. 3. The major task of the maintenance sector lies in developing the aircraft and engine maintenance program. 4. The maintenance concept is based on failure development probability and capability to identify, localize and eliminate failures. 5. The possibility of any failure is to be kept at the minimum. 6. There are two basic methods of engine maintenance: the preventive or scheduled maintenance and corrective maintenance. 7. In civil aviation there exists an international computerised information system which allows airlines and aircraft manufacturers to take necessary urgent measures in serious flight incidents. 8. All maintenance operations should be performed strictly according to established procedures. 9. A measuring device installed in the engine monitors such operating characteristics as temperature, pressure, engine speed, etc. and outputs the collected data through on-board printer. 10. The flight being completed, the data printouts are fed into the ground-based computer system and then these data are transmitted to the central computer. 11. The computer compares the data obtained with the standard parameters and produces engine condition parameters, then an engine condition preliminary assessment (diagnostics) is printed out to be analysed for further thorough checks and, if needed, an engine replacement follows.
12. For operation purposes, the maintenance system combining preventive and corrective maintenance measures should be put into practice.
Exercise 33. Translate into English.
1. “Безпека в першу чергу”– девіз цивільної авіації.
1. “Безопасность в первую очередь” – девиз гражданской авиации.
2. Основною метою підприємств цивільної авіації є: максимально висока безпека, високий рівень надійності і висока рентабельність.
2. Основными целями предприятий гражданской авиации являются: максимально высокая безопасность, высокий уровень надежности и высокая рентабельность.
3. Необхідно утримувати двигуни працездатними, аби зберігати високий рівень безпеки і надійності протягом усього часу експлуатації, при мінімальних витратах.
3. Необходимо содержать двигатели в исправности, чтобы высокий уровень безопасности и надежности сохранялся на протяжении всего времени эксплуатации, при минимальных расходах.
4. Головне завдання технічного сектора полягає у складанні програм технічного обслуговування і ремонту літаків і двигунів.
4. Главная задача технического
сектора состоит в составлении программ технического обслуживания и ремонта самолетов и двигателей.
5. Концепція технічного обслуговування базується на вірогідністі виникнення дефектів і можливості їх виявлення, локалізації та усунення.
5. Концепция технического об-
служивания базируется на вероятности возникновения дефектов и возможности их обнаружения, локализации и устранения.
6. Вірогідність виникнення дефекту має бути мінімальною.
6. Вероятность возникновения дефекта должна быть минимальной.
7. Існують два основних методи технічного обслуговування двигуна: профілактичне (превентивне) або планове і корективне.
7. Существуют два основных метода технического обслуживания двигателя: профилактическое (превентивное) или плановое и коррективное.
8. Завданням планового технічного обслуговування двигуна є запобігання виникненню дефектів під час експлуатації за допомогою профілактичних засобів.
8. Задачей планового технического обслуживания двигателя является предотвращение возникновения дефектов во время эксплуатации с помощью профилактических мер.
9. Основні питання програми технічного обслуговування: а) які дефекти можуть виникнути; б) який вплив цих дефектів; в) які приховані дефекти можуть виникнути та який їхній вплив у поєднанні з іншими дефектами.
9. Основные вопросы програм-мы технического обслуживания: а) какие дефекты могут возникнуть; б) каково влияние этих дефектов; в) какие скрытые дефекты могут возникнуть и каково их влияние в сочетании с другими дефектами.
10. У цивільній авіації існує міжнародна автоматизована інформаційна система, яка дозволяє авіакомпаніям та літакобудівельним підприємствам вживати необхідних заходів при виникненні серйозних інцидентів під час польотів, при великих пошкодженнях або аваріях.
10. В гражданской авиации существует международная автоматизированная информационная система, которая позволяет авиакомпаниям и самолетостроительным предприятиям принимать необходимые меры при возникновении серьезных инцидентов во время полетов, при больших повреждениях или авариях.
11. Усі технічні операції необхідно виконувати за чітко встановленими приписами.
11. Все технические операции должны выполняться в соответствии с четко установленными предписаниями.
12. Встановлені на двигуні датчики слідкують за такими параметрами, як температура, тиск, кількість обертів, тощо і виводять зібрану інформацію за допомогою бортового друкувального пристрою.
12. Установленные на двигателе датчики следят за такими параметрами, как температура, давление, число оборотов и т.д. и выдают собранную информацию с помощью бортового печатного устройства.
13. Роздруковані дані після польоту надходять до наземної комп’ютерної системи, а потім передаються у центральний комп’ютер.
13. Данные распечатки после полета вводятся в наземную компьютерную систему и затем передаются в центральный компьютер.
14. Комп’ютер порівнює отримані дані зі стандартними параметрами і видає характеристику стану двигуна, внаслідок чого проводяться ґрунтовні перевірки, а в разі необхідності – заміна двигуна.
14. Компьютер производит сравнение полученных данных со стандартными параметрами и выдает характеристики состояния двигателя, вследствие чего проводятся обстоятельные проверки, а в случае необходимости – замена двигателя.
15. З метою забезпечення надійної експлуатації двигуна має бути створена система технічного обслуговування, яка б об’єднувала в собі профілактичні та корегувальні заходи.
15. Для обеспечения надежной эксплуатации двигателя должна быть создана система технического обслуживания, объединяющая в себе профилактические и корректировочные меры.
Exercise 34. Put 7 key questions to text 3.
Exercise 35. Write a short summary of text 3.
Exercise 36. Speak on:
1. Engine Maintenance Technology.
2. Major Methods of Engine Maintenance.
Exercise 37. Get acquainted with the types, forms and functions of the Participle.
There are two Participles in English – Participle I and Participle II, traditionally called the Present Participle and the Past Participle.
As you can see in the table, the Present Participle (Participle I) may have various forms.
Simple (Indefinite) Tenses
having been inspected
having been written
Repairing engine parts you make them suitable for further service. Ремонтуючи частини двигуна, ви робите їх придатними до подальшої експлуатації. / Ремонтируя части двигателя, вы делаете их пригодными к дальнейшей эксплуатации.
Havinginspected the compressor blades, the technician determined the damage level. – Оглянувши лопатки компресора, технік встановив рівень пошкоджень. / Осмотрев лопатки компрессора, техник опеределил уровень повреждений.
All necessary measures beingtakenby the crew, the destruction of the engine may be prevented. – Коли екіпажем вживаються всі необхідні заходи, можна запобігти руйнування двигуна. / Когда экипажем принимаются все необходимые меры, можна предотвратить разрушение двигателя.
All necessary measures havingbeentakenby the crew, the destruction of the engine was prevented. – Оскільки екіпажем було вжито всі необхідні заходи, руйнування двигуна було попереджено. / Так как экипажем были приняты все необходимые меры, разрушение двигателя было предотвращено .
The Past Participle (Participle II) has only one form for all tenses. The Past Participle of regular verbs ends in -ed. The Past Participles of irregular verbs do not have distinctive endings, e.g.: swum, gone, drunk.
Exercise 38. Form the Present Participles of the verbs and translate the pairs.
to operate – operating
працювати – працюючий / работать – работающий
To maintain, to inspect, to check, to troubleshoot, to eliminate, to repair, to test, to assemble, to disassemble, to reassemble, to identify, to localize, to correct.
Exercise 39. Translate the “Present Participle + Noun” combinations.
Exercise 40. Replace the attributive clauses by Participial constructions.
The device which provides indication ofthe oil pressure is new. – The device providing indication of the oil pressure is new.
1. The onboard computer which records the engine operation data is of great importance. 2. The centralized computer which presents information on its own display is widely used. 3. This device which indicates the vibration of the engine casing is of a new design. 4. Warning devices which give all necessary information to the crew in flight are located in the cockpit. 5. The troubles which result in the “low oil pressure warning indicator” response are dangerous.
Exercise 41. Complete the sentences making Participial constructions from the words in brackets and translate them.
We discuss the problem (deal with flight safety).
We discuss the problem dealing with flight safety.
1. The engineer installed a device (determine the quantity of fuel).
2. The teacher explains material (to have a great significance for further investigation of the problem).
3. The computerized system produces a cassette (record engine parameters).
4. The explosion resulted from the substance (be volatile).
5. We recognized the engineer (sign the engine maintenance chart).
Exercise 42. Give the Past Participle forms of the following verbs and translate the pairs.
To test, to give, to maintain, to detect, to rise, to indicate, to correct, to hold, to centralize, to drive, to perform, to get, to repair,
to break, to accumulate, to bring, to examine, to install, to shut, to prevent, to begin, to present, to think, to determine.
Exercise 43. Translate the Past Participles of the verbs.
Exercise 45. Write out sentences with the Present and Past Participles from texts 1, 2, 3 and translate them.
Exercise 46. Replace the attributive clauses by Participial constructions.
Warning devices which are installed on board an aircraftgive all necessary information to the crew in flight. – Warning devices installed on board an aircraft give all necessary information to the crew in flight.
1. The airplane which is operated on the grass strip is small.
2. The data which were submitted for consideration were of great importance. 3. The chips which were detected in the oil system caused oil filter choking. 4. The fire which was detected in APU caused engine drive damage. 5. The fuel which is used for jet engines must be clean.
Exercise 47. Translate the sentences in the way shown.
The device used is a fire-detector. – Використовуваний пристрій– датчик пожежі./Используемое приспособление – пожарный датчик.
1. The control system used is reliable. 2. The method employed is progressive. 3. The article mentioned is very interesting. 4. The warning device used is an engine failure warning indicator. 5. The defects detected are hazardous. 6. The experts concerned are informed.
Exercise 48. Translate the sentences into your mother tongue.
1. Testing new engines, the engineer sets them to low revolutions. 2. Nickel is a hard metal resembling silver in colour. 3. We have some aviation plants producing engines of various types. 4. Any vibrating object produces a sound. 5. Being covered with a thick layer of grease, the engines were delivered in good condition. 6. Having put the engine on its foundation, we fastened it with bolts and nuts. 7. Removing the engine from its box, we carefully hoisted it with chains and winches.
8. Having been cleaned and oiled, the bearings were packed in the boxes. 9. We heard an airplane flying somewhere not from the island. 10. The carbon combines chemically with oxygen, forming the carbon dioxide.
Exercise 49. Get acquainted with the forms and functions of the Gerund.
The Gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with the Participle I.
The forms of the Gerund in English are as follows.
Simple (Indefinite) Tenses
having been inspected
having been written
A lot depends on engineer’s following the procedures specified by the manufacturer. – Багато залежить від того, чи виконують інженери інструкції завода-виробника. / Многое зависит от того, выполняютлиинженеры инструкции завода-изготовителя.
They were blamed for nothaving taken into account the corrosion of the surface. – Їх звинуватили в тому, що вони не звернули уваги на корозію поверхні. / Их обвинили в том, что они не обратили внимание на коррозию поверхности.
The engineers do this work without beingreminded. – Інженери виконують цю роботу без нагадувань. / Инженеры выполняют эту работу без напоминаний.
The technician was to blame for these cracks nothavingbeenrevealed. – Технік винен у тому, що тріщини не було виявлено. / Техник виноват в том, что трещины не были обнаружены.
The Gerund may fulfill the following syntactic functions:
Filling up the engine maintenance log book is important. – Заповнення бортового журналу – важливе. / Заполнение бортового журнала – важно.
Its function is fuelling the aircraft. – Його призначення – заправляти літак./ Его назначение – заправлятьсамолет.
He likes reading books. – Він любить читати книги./ Он любит читать книги.
They insisted on changing this unit. – Вони наполягали на заміні цього блоку./ Они настояли на замене этого блока.
a) I don’t like his manner of speaking. – Мені не подобається його манера говорити./ Мне не нравится его манера разговаривать.
b) There are many waysoftranslating Gerund into Ukrainian. – Існує багато способів перекладу герундія українською мовою./ Существует много способов перевода герундия на украинский язык.
After reading the book, he returned it to me. – Прочитавши книгу, він повернув її мені./ Когда он прочитал книгу, он вернул ее мне.
Air is expanded byburning fuel. - Повітря розширяється шляхом спалювання палива. / Воздух расширяется путемсжигания топлива.
Exercise 50. Write out sentences with the Gerund from texts 1, 2 and 3. Name their functions and translate.
Exercise 51. Name the functions of the non-finite forms of the verbs and translate the sentences.
1. Reading English books is necessary to master the language.
2. Speaking foreign languages is of great importance for all people throughout the world. 3. Travelling into the space has always been one of the greatest dreams of men. 4. The flight engineer participates in checking all systems and units. 5. I like translating technical articles from English into Ukrainian. 6. For ages mankind has dreamed of flying to the Moon. 7. He was afraid of connecting this device to the circuit.
8. His task was to use these materials for constructing the device. 9. On studying theory we can begin experimenting. 10. An instrument measuring current is called an ammeter, and that for measuring voltage is known as a voltmeter. 11. Compass is known to be a device for determining the direction of flight.
Exercise 52. Replace the subordinate clauses of time by the “in+Gerund” construction.
Much skill is needed when you repair an engine.
Much skill is needed in repairing an engine.
1. Great care is necessary when we secure and balance cargo.
2. Deep concentration of attention is required when you carry out the visualinspection.
3. We don’t find any difficulty when we solve such problems.
4. The maintenance engineer feels satisfaction when he eliminates failures.
Exercise 53. Answer the questions using the “for+Gerund” construction.
What is the computer used for?
For controlling engine performance.
1. What does the Engine Maintenance Manual serve for? 2. What does the flight engineer prepare postflight reports for? 3. What does the log book serve for? 4. What should the samples be taken for? 5. What are fire-extinguishers used for? 6. What is the routine repair carried out for? 7. What is the cargo secured for?
Exercise 54. Join the sentences, to make a single on using the “of+Gerund” construction after the model.
We should use this fire detector.
Its advantage is beyond any doubt.
- The advantage of using this fire detector is beyond any doubt.
1. It is necessary to check this system.
The procedure is described below.
2. The flight engineer should determine the actual fuel level, the total weight and the centre of gravity.
He knows these methods.
3. He must inform the crew about the fuel level.
This task is rather important.
4. We can measure the fuel quantity in the fuel tank.
This method is accurate enough.
5. We must inspect turbine nozzle blades.
The procedure is illustrated in this chart.
Exercise 55. Join the sentences to make a single on using the “by+Gerund” construction after the model.
This device was tested. We increased the load.
- The device was tested by increasing the load.
1. We eliminated the overloading. We reduced the weight.
2. The defects were eliminated. We replaced the damaged parts.
3. The danger of fire was reduced. They added this inhibitor to jet fuels.
4. The possibility of damage has been eliminated. We installed this device.
5. The samples were drawn for a visual check. We used the method of direct sampling.
Exercise 56. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. Specialists’ training requires special equipment. 2. Speaking English isn’t great importance for every educated person. 3. Studying theory leads to experimenting. 4. Defuelling is supplying additional fuel to aircraft tanks. 5. Checking the quantity of the remaining fuel is very important. 6. Inspecting all the components critical to the mechanical operation of the engine is a flight operator’s duty. 7. Observing aircraft maintenance rules is a vital factor of providing flight safety. 8. Repairing aircraft turbojet engines of present-day generation is an easy job.
9. Troubleshooting is defined as the detection of fault indications.
10. Inspecting parts after they have been repaired consists mainly of magnetic inspection. 11. Reading English technical articles on aviation can’t help you learn English better.
Exercise 57. Complete the sentences and translate them, paying attention to prepositions.
1. On revealing the failures … . 2. For understanding the operating principles ... . 3. Before finishing the experiment ... . 4. After studying the engine design ... . 5. Without increasing the speed ... . 6. In replacing the engine … . 7. Instead of including additional sensors … .
8. In spite of taking necessary measurers … .
Exercise 58. Read, translate and define non-finite forms of the verbs.
1. Training is an important element of preparing for any flight.
2. Having been subjected to all necessary tests, the device was accepted to serial production. 3. Learn to speak English by speaking English.
4. By introducing new educational means students are enabled to master the subjects quicker. 5. Aluminium has a melting point of 658.7° C.
6. Mankind is interested in atomic energy being used only for peaceful purposes. 7. We know of Newton’s having developed the principles of mechanics. 8. Loading a motor always results in reduction of speed.
9. In establishing the engine inspection requirements, it is necessary to consider the engine design, size, type and airplane applied.
10. Removing and installing the engine involve engine unpackaging, external and internal depreservation of the engine.
Exercise 59. Translate the sentences focusing on the functions of the non-finite forms of the verb.
1. New technologies occupy one of the leading places among the greatest achievements of modern engineering. 2. Speaking about the new maintenance technology the engineer told us much interesting.
3. The surface of the inlet ducts being tested should be free from any loose parts or other materials. 4. When inspecting the compressor and turbine nozzle blades, turbine nozzle diaphragm, the maintenance engineer uses optical instruments. 5. Being heated a magnet loses some of its magnetism. 6. Having revealed cracks, warping, buckling, burning, the engineer must eliminate them in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. 7. Having completed the research, the scientist made a thorough analysis of the collected data. 8. Metals being used in industry in the form of alloys have better properties than pure metals. 9. Having been carefully tested, the device was put into operation. 10. Having been measured with inaccurate instruments, the data were incorrect.
Exercise 60. Translate text 4 in a written form.
Text 4. Gas-Turbine Engine Troubleshooting
The troubleshooting of turbine engines follows, in general, the procedures traditionally employed for any engine; however, new and improved techniques have been developed which aid considerably in identifying and solving technical problems. Troubleshooting may be defined as the detection of fault indications and the isolation of the fault or faults causing the indications. When the fault is isolated or identified, the correction of the fault is simply a matter of applying the correct procedures.
Manufacturers and operators of gas-turbine engines work together to develop information and techniques regarding the operation of the engines and to establish techniques for troubleshooting. Numerous systems have been developed by which faults are detected, analyzed, and corrected.