Повідомлення з теми: «Translation as a Notion and Subject».
Повідомлення з теми: «Different Valency».
Повідомлення з теми «Three Types of Lexical meaning».
Повідомлення з теми: «Referential meaning and its Rendering in Translation»
Повідомлення з теми «Divergences in the Semantic Structure of words»
Повідомлення з теми: «Different Translation of Monosemantic Words».
Повідомлення з теми: «Significance of Translating. Ways of Translation.»
Повідомлення з теми: «Machine Translation. Kinds of Translating.»
Повідомлення з теми: «Translation and Interpretation During the Middle Ages»
Повідомлення з теми «Translation During the Period of the Classicism and Enlightenment.»
Повідомлення з теми «Translation During the Renaissance Period».
Повідомлення з теми: «Translation in Ukraine During the Last Decade of the 20th».
Повідомлення з теми «False friends of the translator. Translation of Polysemantic Words».
Повідомлення з теми «Translation During the Ancient Ages»
Exercise I. Translate the following English proper names and surnames into Ukrainian. Substantiate your way of translation. Model: John Джон (common name), Іван/Іоан (Biblical name, name of the Pope, king or prince).
Exercise II. Translate the following Ukrainian proper names and surnames into English. Define the way they are rendered (transcribed, transliterated, partly transliterated or partly transcribed, etc.).
d) Suggest possible methods of translation into Ukrainian for the following English generalizing/characterizing names (промовисті імена та прізвища):
Mrs. Bundle, Mr. Gila Bend, the Giggler, Mr. Happness, Curly Bull, Run Bill Pilgrim, Whistling Dick, Shark Dodson, Lord Rubudub, Lady Singsung, Pennifeather (from K.Vonnegut's works), Mr. Knowall (Maugham), Gimlet of Ghent, Beowulf the Bradawl, Mr. Sparrow, Don Back, farmer Meadowlark, philosophical Philip, Tom Lackford Promoter, Mr. Beanhead, Mr. Newrich, Lord Oxhead, Rollothe Rumbottle (from S.Leacock's works). Mrs. Trotter, Mrs. Struggles, Alfred Jingle, Mr. Mallard, Mr.Walker, Mr.Copperfield, Mr.Gradgrind (from C.Dickens's works); Mr. Crabtree/Backbite, Mrs. Sneerwell (Sheridan).
e) Suggest your versions for the nicknames of the U.S. and Canadian sports clubs and translate the sentences into Ukrainian: 1) In sports many victories were never enjoyed for long and the losses lingered. 2) The New York Yankees sprayed champagne after John Wetteland closed out the World Series, but he soon departed to the Texas Rangers as a $24 million free agent. 3) Jimmy Key took the Baltimore Orioles' money. Jim Leyritz, whose home run fumed the Series, was traded to the Anaheim Angels. 4) Michael Jordan lifted the Chicago Bulls to a fourth National Basketball Association title. 5) John LeClair scored twice as the Philadelphia Flyers stretched the National Hockey League's longest current unbeaten run to 13 games with a 4-2 victory over the slumping Calgary Flames. 6) Tommy Albelin and Sandy McCarthy, with his first goal of the season, led the Flames. 7) The loss left the Panthers in a first-place tie with Philadelphia in the Atlantic Division. 8) The Blues had not beaten the Bruins since 1994. 9) NBA Roundup: Shaquille O'Neal scored 28 points in 28 minutes and Eddie Jones had 20 points and seven steals as the Los Angeles Lakers beat the Philadelphia 76ers. 10) Isaiah Rider scored 19 points while playing less than three quarters as the host Trail Blazers routed the Spurs.
Exercise I. Read carefully the sentences containing some American/British nationally peculiar notions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
A. 1. USAir has gone to «sporks», a combination of fork and spoon to cut down on the number of utensils used. The USA Today asked some Road Warriors who are best described as «grumpy gourmands» because they probably eat more meals on jets than at home. Here's what they say: «The scrambled eggs were OK, moist with decent flavour. The waffles were almost soggy. The coffee was good, but they always serve it in a Styrofoam cup, which drives me crazy.» (J.Y.Oakton) 2) «Breakfast was a Cheddar cheese omelette, it not only appeared to be stable - as compared to some that swim in unidentifiable liquid - but it also tasted like Cheddar cheese and eggs. It was enough cholesterol to have caused a block in my arteries, but it was good.» 3) «I had the grilled chicken, it was a good portion, but it was dry with a fake, smoked flavour. The salad was fresh and cresp. But it was served in a bowl, not on a plate. The wheat roll was moist and served with real butter. For dessert, I had chocolate cake. But, it was too sweet, which was good.» (K.W.) 4) «I had two choices for breakfast: cold cereal or an omelet. I had Quaker Oat Square, a small carton of 2 milk, low-flat peach yoghurt, orange juice and a banana.»
5) «This time, the plate had an ample amount of grapes, pineapple and orange slices, but only one strawberry. I didn't eat the yoghurt or the dry cereal, but I did have a warm blueberry muffin.»
6) «They served a health-food concoction that tasted like the cardboard box it came in. It was a sort of corn-flavored, crispy, chiplike thing, it had no flavour at all. We also had fruit. I like that they serve milk, but I hate that low-fat stuff, it insipid - all airline food is insipid.»
B. Translate the list of meals of a common American restaurant.
1. Traditional barbeque foods: smoked brisket and ham, or turkey; pig picking pork, smoked chicken wings, baby back ribs (half-slab, full slab), spare ribs (short ends, long ends); grilled chicken and greens; Texas chicken, a boneless breast grilled with spicy Texas sauce, topped with thinly sliced smoked brisket and melted Cheddar cheese; burnt ends, smoked apple sausage or brisket. Smoked ribs... tender meaty ribs basted with maple - mustard, glaze, slow roasted and then lightly grilled; hickory chicken... 1/2 chicken smoked and basted with the original BBQ (barbecue) sauce; burnt ends... tender chunks of twice-smoked brisket drenched in our famous sauce; Texas-size beef ribs marinated, slow-smoked and flame-grilled. 2. Garnishes: BBQ baked beans, cole slaw and potato salad, whole wheat, white bread or buns, pickled and barbecue sauce. 3. Apetizers: cheese and assorted crackers, French onion soup, onion straws, corn fritters (hot and fresh long ends), a hickory-grinned chicken breast sliced and served atop, fresh veggies and greens, with our honey-mustard dressing; assorted relishes; vegetable tray with dip. 4. Accompaniments: dirty rice, tossed salads. 5. Desserts: creamy cheesecake, chocolate peanut butter, ice-cream pie; old fashioned cheesecake, apple fritters served hot with powdered sugar and sweet honey butter.
Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:
Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrainian.
A. №10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Commons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Parliament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, bacon, Yorkshire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, farthing, guinea, sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, modern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leggings, stretches, tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.
B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the meaning of peculiarly American government offices and their principal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of translation which you employ for the purpose.
The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia and America has no «government» but only an «administration» or to be more precise, a «president's administration». The latter in its turn has no ministries and consequently no «ministers» but departments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thirteen departments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Department, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as announced by the presidential secretary. The only exception is the Justice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attorney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list include only four departments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Commerce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other departments in the U.S. administration government have Under Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy ministers in other countries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Interior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Department which include building roads, and overseeing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).
Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parliament below and translate it point by point in writing or in viva voce into Ukrainian.
The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life
1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first constitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10, 1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and traditions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Palace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.
2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belonging to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Hereditary Peers, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).
The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.
3. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the «front benches», the «cross benches» and the «back benches».
Exercise I. Translate the following geographical names into Ukrainian and define the method each of them is rendered in part a) and part b):
a) the Channel Islands, the Cheviot Hills, Christmas Island, the Commander Islands, the Crocodile River, Everglades National Park (USA), the Grand Falls, Grand Falls (town), the Great Slave River, the Great Sandy Desert (Australia), the Great Victoria Desert, Hudson Bay, Idaho Falls, Kerch Strait, Maritime Territory (Russia), the Near Islands, the Niagara Falls, the White Nile, the White Mountains, the Yellow River.
b) 1. The Rocky Mountains (the Rockies) are considered young mountains: of the same age as the Alps in Europe, the Himalayas in Asia, and the Andes in South America. 2. There are 48 areas in the Rocky Mountains set aside by state and federal governments for national parks. Among the world-wide known are Yellowstone National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, and, of course, Grand Canyon National Park. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains area best-known is the Yosemite National Park. 3. The Appalachians are old mountains with many coal-rich valleys among them. 4. The Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains catch the largest share of rain off the Pacific Ocean. 5. At the border of the Pacific Ocean lie the Coast Ranges, relatively low mountains. 6. The Grand Canyon cut by the Colorado River in the high Colorado Plateau, is 1.6 kilometers in depth. 7. North of the Central Lowland are the five Great Lakes and West of the Central Lowland are the Great Plains. 8. The Mississippi is one of the world's great continental rivers, like the Amazon in South America, the Congo in Africa, or the Ganges, Amur, and Yangtze in Asia. 9. The winding Mississippi River and its various branches drain a great basin extending from the Appalachians to the Rockies about one-third the land of the United States. 10. Curving through the heart of the whole western half of the Central Basin is the Missouri River, chief western branch of the Mississippi, once the most destructive river in the United States. 11. The Missouri rises high among the snows of the Rocky Mountains. 12. Like the Mississippi all rivers - east of the Rockies finally arrive at the Atlantic. For this reason the crests of the Rocky Mountains are known as the Continental Divide. 13. The Rio Grande is the foremost river of the Southwest between Mexico and the United States. 14. The skyscrapers of New York, the steel mills of Pittsburg and the automobile assembly lines of Detroit which are symbols of industrial America form the «melting pot» of the country. 15. Detroit, heart of automobile industry, began as a waggon-making town, using wood from the forests that covered the peninsula between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. 16. The cargo tonnage which passes between Lake Superior and Lake Huron about equals the combined capacity of the Panama and Suez Canals. 17. From the eastern end of Lake Erie all the way across New York State flows the Hudson River which falls to New York harbour. 18. Great Salt Lake to the north of Salt Lake City in the State of Utah, contains an estimated six thousand millions of tons of soda.