Укоопосвіта Білгород -дністровський економіко-правовий коледж контрольні роботи з дисципліни


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Careers in Business

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. There are now five broad fields of areas of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, finance, and data processing. Within each of these fields are specific jobs in which you can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing you can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distribution. The figure below gives an idea of the general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.

In choosing a business career, there are several questions you may want to ask. For instance, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as demand (or need) for job, salary, and chance for advancement? Answers to these kinds of questions and careful planning will help in choosing a suitable and successful career in business.


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Management and Manager

Management means the members of administration of a business or an organization. They may be or may be not the owners of the business. But they are always selected by the owners to be responsible for different functions of the organization.

A typical organization has three layers of management: the senior management, the middle management and the junior management.

A good definition of a manager is given by W. Brown and E. Jaques. A manager is “an individual who is accountable for more work than he/she can do himself and who gets some of it done through other people”. This definition is related to managers who function at all levels.

The main functions of a manager are:


  1. to forecast and plan ( seeing into the future and drawing up plans of action);

  2. to organize (to put plans into operation);

  3. to command (to get the best performance from the staff);

  4. to co-ordinate (to make it sure that each department’s efforts harmonize with those of other departments);

  5. to control (to see that everything works according to plan).

Traditionally, there are the two styles of management - autocratic and democratic. Let us consider them.

Autocratic managers set objective for the group demonstrating their power and authority. They give orders and expect group members to obey them without any question. It is clear that in such situations group members do not make their own decisions.

Democratic managers, on the contrary, let group members set their own objectives. If they give orders, they explain why and give reasons for their orders. Group members take part in decision ­making; they express different points of view. What is more, democratic managers take into consideration all their opinions before making a final decision. They also demonstrate the fact that the opinions of group members influence a final decision.


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State Organs of the United Kingdom include the monarchy, legislative, executive and judicial organs of Government.

Britain’s hereditary monarchy is the oldest institution of government, dating back to at least the 9- century. The present Queen-Elisabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952. Although she has a largely ceremonial and politically impartial role as head of state, she serves as a personal symbol of national unity. The Queen is also head of the Commonwealth and presides over the Church of England.

Britain is the parliamentary democracy, with a constitutional monarch. The House of Commons and the House of Lords with the monarch make up Parliament. Parliament is the legislature and the supreme authority. Parliament passes laws, approves taxation and debates the major issues of the day.

The executive consists of the Cabinet of Ministers. The Prime Minister heads the Government and appoints ministers, about 20 of whom are in the policy-making Cabinet.

The administration of justice in Britain is independent of both Parliament and the Government.

The judiciary determines common law and interprets statute. Every citizen has the right to equal treatment before the law, people accused of more serious crimes are tried in open court by a judge and jury in High Court, Crown Court and Court of Appeal. The House of Lords is the final court of appeal. Less serious cases are tried by lay magistrates in magistrates courts and county’s courts. A person who needs legal advice or representation in court may get help with the costs out of public funds. There are two main political parties in Great Britain the Labour Party and the Conservative Party.

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Computers

Today economy increasingly works with computers. Computers also facilitate our everyday work and study.

Modem companies analyze sales of products as well as potential sales of products, programme their whole production by electronic data processing equipment.

Banks work with computers too. In some cases, they consult computer centres specializing in financial data concerning corporations, sales, cash flow, prices, etc.

Stock exchanges have installed electronic data systems that answer all the brokers' questions.

Computers are widely used in agriculture. Say, analyzing of essential animal characteristics with the help of a computer is important for cattle breeding.

In industry cars, devices, tools and instruments are often designed by computers.

The computer has entered education, hi management young specialists are trained in special courses. All statistical information is put and kept in computer’s memory.

In short, computers arc everywhere in our modem life.

Computer hardware consists of a monitor, a keyboard, a printer and their connections.

Computer software has various programmes, hi everyday business they use such common programmes:


  • word processing;

  • database management;

  • accounting;

  • auditing;

  • communications;

  • process control, etc.

The advantages of computers are evident. They solve problems very rapidly. Now the computer is being more and more involved in making decisions at the senior management level.


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Job Advertisements

The situation of job finding makes people consider job offers in mass media.

Today jobs are being advertised through radio broadcasts television, newspapers and magazines.

In small business, as a rale, they prepare their own copies ащ| give them to different newspapers. They may also prepare forn, letters or circular-letters and distribute them by themselves. Big business uses various advertising mass media means to attract many candidates for a vacancy and to choose the best to be employed.

Reading newspapers and magazines one has a chance to choose the position to apply for. A job advertisement in most cases is, supposed to include a description of the job, the company, the requirements, the location, the salary, benefits, and the promotion prospects.

The language of advertisement is a specific one, so is the language of job advertisements. The typical phrases used in them are:



  • the start you need...

  • here is your chance...

  • we expect you to be...

  • show a capacity for...

  • aged between.. .and...

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Company

Company is made of a number of people united in an industrial or commercial enterprise.

Each company works out its own policy. It is a selected, planned line of conduct in the light of which decisions are made and co-ordination of work achieved.

Limited Liability Company. A joint-stock company is a company where the financial liability of its members is limited by law.

Private Limited Company. A limited company must not invite the public to subscribe for its shares or debentures, and does not allow its members to transfer their shares without the agreement of the other shareholders. It must have at least two but usually not more than fifty members.

Public Limited Company. A limited company which can offer its shares and debentures to the public; there is normally no limit to the right of its members to transfer their shares to other persons. There is no limit to the total number of members except that there must be at least seven. Abbr: P.l.c.; pic; PLC. In Britain, such a company must include the words “public limited company” or the abbreviation as part of its name. In France the equivalent is Society (S.A); in Germany, Aktiengesellshaft (AG); in Holland, Naamlose Vennootschap (N. V.); in Italy, Societa per Azioni (S.p.A.).

Subsidiary Company. A company where more than half of the share-capital is owned by another company is called either a holding company or a parent company. The subsidiaries of the same parent or holding company are said to be affiliates.

Holding Company. In Britain, a company that has been formed for (he special purpose of holding all, or more than half, the share-capital of one or more other companies is called subsidiary' company. In the USA, this is called a pure holding company, while an operating holding company is a company which operates a business, i. e. trading, and also holds more than half the capital of one or more other companies.

Joint Stock Company. In Britain it is a form of business organisation, called a corporation in the US, which has its capital divided into many small units of stock or into shares of low face value so that (hey may be bought by small and large investors.


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Organisation of Business

Economies may differ in the amount of freedom they allow business decision-makers. In market economies, most firms are private. Therefore, most businesses may set their own price, output level and production techniques.

The owners are the individuals who risk their wealth in the name of the success of the business. If a company (firm) is successful, it makes profit and financial gains received by the owners. If, on the contrary, things go badly the company has losses and the owners suffer bad consequences.

So, how do owners share risks and liabilities of the company (firm)?

How do they carry out or participate in the decision-making?

Business may be organised according to three main legal structures. They are:



  • sole proprietorships,

  • partnerships,

  • corporations.

Sole Proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is a business that is owned by an individual. It is he or she who is liable for all the debts of the firm. The proprietor himself/ herself often works directly for the firm. He/she provides both managerial and labour services. Most small businesses surrounding us in a market economy, such as grocery stores, barbershops, repair shops, farms, etc. are business proprietorships.



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Marketing

Marketing is a type of human activity, directed at determination of customers' requirements, or their creation and research of new methods to meet man’s requirements by means of exchange.

The origin of the word “marketing” is the Latin word “mercury” meaning, “to track and barter”. Marketing, therefore, is made up, on the one hand, of such physical activity as transporting, storing and selling goods, and, on the other hand, of series of decisions that must be reached by any organization in the process of moving goods from the producer to the consumer. And it is also necessary to make the “hot line” for consumerrequirements and complaints to facilitate feedback from the market to the producer. So, marketing is such an activity in the result of which enterprises get answer to the questions: what to produce (to sell), where and when to sell, who buys goods and why.

Wholesaling is the part of the marketing system. It is a system of channels of distribution to supply market with goods. Retailing is selling of goods and services to the ultimate customer. It performs many important functions. First, retail sellers create outlets comfortable for buyers. Second, retail sellers often give guarantees and provide further services. Third, they help to promote and advertise goods. Finally, retail sellers can partly finance the buyers through the system of extending credits and discounts. There are different types of retailing shops: outlets, department stores, discount houses, cooperatives,single line retailers.



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London

London, the capital of Great Britain, is also the centre of the United Kingdom. It is one of the largest cities not only in Europe but also in the world.

It is situated in the South East of England on the river Thames. It is divided into two parts by the river, of which the most important part issituated on the north bank.

The area of London is 1 800 square km. Its population is about 9 million people. Also it is said to be one of the most variable in the world. Not only the English but Italians, German, Swiss, French, Ukrainians, Russians and so on live there.

London is divided into three main parts: the City, the West End and the East End.

The City is the oldest part of London. It covers an area of 677 acres and is the financial and business centre of both London and Great Britain. There are a lot of international banks and insurance companies there. It plays a great role in the economic life of the country. In 1666 London was ravaged by the Great Fire. Ch. Wren erected the Monument commemorating the Great Fire in the City.

The West End has a lot of beautiful palaces, parks, shops, elegant stores, hotels, museums.

There is the Buckingham Palace, which is the royal residence. In Trafalgar Square there is the Nelson monument. The Palace of Westminster is today the seat of the Parliament. It is in the West End that the University of London is situated as well as the National Gallery and the British Museum.

The East End was traditionally a working-class district. Families of dockers live here for the Port of London is situated here. The mouth of the Thames is very wide and a lot of large ships go along it from the sea to London. All kinds of ships both small and large go into London docks. London bridges connect the two parts of the capital.

In the East End one can find enterprises dealing with shipbuilding, metal processing, machine building and metallurgy.



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Advertising

In business, they spend billions on advertising. Products and services are advertised through mass media including radio broadcasts television, newspapers and magazines. They are also advertised through billboards, handbills, circulars, skywriting, through space advertising, booklets and giveaways and so on.

In small business, they prepare their own copy and give it to newspapers, as a rule, or they mail circulars or form letters all by themselves.

In big business, however, they employ the whole army of specialists in the field of advertising. They work out advertising programmes, provide means for advertising purposes, discuss and solve many advertising problems with the owner or management of a company. As a rule, they advertise to sell their products and services through various advertising mass media.

Today there are many types of advertising. We can classify the most popular of them:


  1. television advertising;

  2. radio advertising;

  3. space advertising (newspapers, periodicals, house walls);

  4. stores advertising (including special departments);

  5. mail advertising (letters, calendars, catalogues, circulars, booklets, giveaways);

  6. position advertising (street-car, train, bus, window cards, billboards).

What is an effective advertisement? It is one that attracts your attention. It is such an advertisement, which keeps honest information about a product or a service. It often has a clever and interesting picture or drawing, skilful use of colours. It is also put in the right place.

Apart from attracting your attention, a good advertisement must hold your interest. What is more, a really effective advertisement induces action. You simply go and buy this very product. In a word, a good advertisement sells the product or the

service.


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The British Parliament

There are four countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Laws in Great Britain are made by Parliament. It consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

The House of Commons is more important as it governs the country. The members of the House of Commons are elected by secret ballot. They belong to different political parties. The main parties are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. The chief executive is the Prime Minister. He heads the Government but is not the Head of State.

Great Britain is a monarchy and the Head of State is a monarch whose power is limited by Parliament. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the Party that has a majority in the House of Commons. Each new Prime Minister can make changes in his cabinet, appoint new' ministers and make other changes.

The Prime Minister takes policy decisions with the agreement of his ministers. He often holds Cabinet Meetings at his official residence at No 10 Downing Street, which is very near the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. The power of the Cabinet is controlled by Parliament.

There are two chambers in the British Parliament and they are called Houses - the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

In the House of Lords, one can see the throne on which the Queen sits when she opens Parliament. One can also see the woolsack on which the Lord Chancellor sits. The fact is that for hundred of year’s wool had been known as one of the most important exports of Great Britain.

The House of Commons does not look as splendid as the House of Lords with its beautiful red benches.

Each Chamber has galleries. Seats in the galleries are reserved for the use of the public. In the language of the Parliament, they are called “strangers”.

The Stranger’s Gallery is in the House of Commons.

The Speaker sits on the green chair given to the Commons by Australia. On the Speaker’s chair, a switch puts on the light in the Clock Tower above “Big Ben” to tell Londoners that Parliament is in session. The Prime Minister’s seat is on the Government front bench, which is on the Speaker’s right. On the Speaker’s left, one can see the Opposition front bench.



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International Business

The international corporation or global company has its origin. Usually, il is the outgrowth of the great trading companies of the 17th and 18lh centuries. In 1811, a New York statute said corporations could be created by the filling of documents. After that, it became a matter of bureaucratic operations to become a corporation. By 1850, it was a very common thing in the United States and was under general statute in European countries as well. Since that time, the corporate movement began. As the jet plane, satellite communications and computers began; it became possible for a company to control business in the entire world.

The growth of international corporate operations is faster than the economic growth of the industrialised nations. There are some projects, which predict that within a generation; almost a half of the free world’s production will be internationalised.

This trend for internationalism presupposes some benefits such as new jobs, higher living standards and the closing of the gaps between people - economic, educational and technological. At the same time, serious questions can be asked. Is it the most efficient way of use world resources? Can the international corporation be the best force for a better world? Is it politically stronger than government? Can it take care of the self-interest and competitiveness on behalf of the greatest good? And in what way can the global company work toward easing the world’s crises - monetary, political, energy and food?



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hi 1969 the USE Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency needed a system for computers '‘to talk” to each other via the telephone. They created a network of computers called ARPANET. In 1984, the US National Science Foundation started the NSNET network, a system of five supercomputer centres.

More and more people and agencies wanted to join the network. NSNET became known as the In ter-Net-Net work. People started calling it the Internet.

Today, there are millions of computers all over the world, which are connected to the Internet.

The World Wide Web is the most popular area of the Internet. The Web is a huge collection of documents, from all over the world. It contains a mixture of text, images and sounds and is very user-friendly.

The Internet is a source of information that is accessible through a computer. It consists of millions of pages of data about very possible subject. Twenty five million people surf the Internet every day. The Internet is already the biggest source of information of the planet. It will soon be the main source of material for students and teachers of many different subjects.

To access the Internet, you need a service provider, a company, which can bring the Internet to your telephone line. Then you can access the information via your telephone line.

If you have the web site address of a company or service that you want, you simply type it and you arrive automatically at the page you want. If you haven’t got a particular web site address, there are several directories or search engines which can help you, such as Alta Vista, Yahoo! or Infoseek. There are then two ways to find information-directories and key-word searches.


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SOL

SOL is a company in which people work when they like, and flexibility is being strongly tested.



SOL’s owner, Liisa Joronen says that she has thrown out traditional management styles and hierarchies in favour of people motivation and the strict auditing of targets.

The company’s name is from the Spanish for sun, and its sun logo has a curved line turning it into a smile.

The key words around SOL are freedom, trust, goals, responsibility and creativity, joy of working and lifelong learning. People's creativeness is restricted by routine and traditional office hours.

To help staffs towards independence of mind Liisa has abolished territorial space, such as individual offices and desks, and organised a communal area similar to a social club. It has a colourful playground, a nursery, a billiard table, sofas, modern art and kitchen comers.

Staffs sit anywhere. There is not a secretary in sight. Headquarters can be empty in the day and busy in the evenings and weekends.

Liisa tells 3.500 staff at 25 branches to kill routine before it kills them...



  1. Каталог: Icons
    Icons -> Правила техніки безпеки : не доторкатися тильного боку апаратури та екрану, проводів живлення, з'єднувальних кабелів
    Icons -> Методичні рекомендації до написання курсової роботи загальні положення відповідно до навчального плану зі спеціальності «Товарознавство та комерційна діяльність»
    Icons -> Методичні вказівки до виконання контрольної роботи з дисципліни „Українська мова (за професійним спрямуванням)” Згідно з навчальним планом студенти заочної форми навчання виконують контрольну роботу з дисципліни „Українська мова
    Icons -> Методичні вказівки щодо ви­вчення питань контрольної роботи, указана необхідна література і ставляться запитання для самоперевірки
    Icons -> Тематичний план
    Icons -> Кодекс законів про заборону полювання й орання деяких територій. Основні етапи розвитку екології
    Icons -> Методичні рекомендації та завдання з дисципліни «Комп’ютерні правові сиситеми» Для студентів заочної форми навчання
    Icons -> Центральна спілка споживчих товариств укоопспілка білгород-дністровський економіко-правовий коледж облік І аналіз зовнішньоекономічноїдіяльності
    Icons -> Дисципліна Неорганічна хімія Викладач


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