Укоопосвіта Білгород -дністровський економіко-правовий коледж контрольні роботи з дисципліни


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Текст 15

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Letters of Application

Special attention is paid to writing a letter of application for a job.

Suppose there are a lot of applicants for a particular job. Consequently, there are a lot of CVs and letters of application. A good CV and a letter may get you an interview, whereas a bad CV and a letter may be ignored.

There is one common mistake many applicants make. That is, they phrase their letter of application in an unusual way. Remember a straightforward letter gives more favourable impression.

A letter of application must be hand written. Do not use coloured ink. Black or dark blue is best.

In many countries, it is the custom to enclose a recent photograph with an application. Sometimes a photo is included in CV.

Generally, there are two types of letters of application:


  1. in answer to an advertisement in a newspaper, a magazine, a circular letter, etc;

  2. a speculative letter.

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Спеціальності: 5.091711 Технологія харчування

Текст 61



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Number of Meals per Day

A meal can be defined as the amount of food eaten at one period of time, and which provides 200 kilocalories or more. This definition covers much more than the popular meaning of the word, which is that of hot, cooked food eaten while sitting down. People may eat from two to six or more suchjneals a day. The arrangement of a meal can be determined by custom, life style and by working conditions.

Although the amounts of nutrients in different meals may be different, the total intake of each nutrient should meet an individual’s needs. And if the food eaten is to be absolutely adequate for health, an individual’s needs in total nutrient intake should be covered every day and over a period of a week.

It is evident that the number of meals taken in a day (and the amount of food eaten at one time) influences the amount of nutrients utilized by the body.

People who eat sweets or chocolates between meals or eat a large number of snacks will have a reduced appetite for vegetables, cereals or meat at the next main meal. This is bad practice. Firstly, the intake of nutrient from the main meal will be reduced, and, secondly, excessive consumption of sweets can result in severe dental decay. Also it can result in an increase in weight if the total daily energy intake exceeds the energy used up.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. A meal can be defined as...

  2. The arrangement of a meal can be determined by...

  3. People who eat sweets or chocolates...

  4. People may eat from...

  5. This definition covers...

  6. It is evident that...

  7. Also it can result in...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. bad / is / practice / this.

  2. can / it / result / an increase / in / weight / in.

  3. eat / may / people / two / to / six / from.

  4. the amounts / of / nutrients / meals / in / different / be / may / different.

  5. eat / people / sweets / chocolates / or / meals / between.

Текст 62

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Flavour and Appetite

Food can be defined as any solid or liquid which, when swallowed, provides body with energy, material for growth, repair and for regulating body processes. But food cannot really be said to have entered the body until it has been:

  1. Digested - physically and chemically broken down into simple components which can be.

  2. Absorbed - passed through the wall of the digestive tract into the blood.

For food to be eaten, we must be hungry, or food must be appetizing. Hunger and appetite are the factors, which determine when and how much we eat.

The sensation of hunger occurs when energy stores in the body are reduced and the stomach is empty. But usually people, especially obese ones, do not eat only when they are hungry. They stop only when they do not feel hungry.

Appetite is a sensation, which relates to the smell and laste of particular foods and their ingredients, and is influenced by surroundings, habits and emotional state of the individual.

Thus, where there is freedom of choice, more attractive food is more likely to be eaten, and it can be seen that good cooking and pleasant surroundings are important in nutrition. It should be noted that some appetizing foods such as confectionery products can be relatively low in many nutrients, and that unappetizing foods can provide nourishment if they are eaten - as when an unconscious, person is fed through a stomach tube.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. For food to be eaten, we must be...

  2. Food can be defined as...

  3. Appetite is...

  4. Hunger and appetite are...

  5. It should be noted that...

  6. Appetite is influenced by...

  7. But food cannot really be said to have entered the body until it has been...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. stop / they / only / they / when / not / do / feel / hungry.

  2. to be / eaten / food / for / be / must / we / hungry.

  3. food / attractive / more / is / more / to be / likely /eaten.

  4. nutrition / in / important / are / surroundings / pleasant / and / cooking / good / that / seen / be / can / it.

  5. choice / is / there / a freedom / of.

Текст 63

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The Diet as a Whole

The nutritional value of a person’s diet depends on the mixture of foods eaten during the course of weeks, months and years. Also it depends upon the needs of the person eating these foods. There is no food that can be “good” or “bad” in isolation. Thus it is consistent overeating that results in obesity. At the same time, it is a consistent reduction in energy intake or increase in energy expenditure that affects permanent weight loss. Similarly, scurvy will not result from a diet containing little or no vitamin С for a few days, unless such practices are repeated for long periods.

It is very difficult to predict the exact effects of any particular diet on health, because there is a great variation in individual needs for energy and for other nutrient. But still it is a good nutritional practice to develop basic eating patterns that is the way to good health. That is why any person should eat one or more balanced meals per day. The variety of foods must be chosen from among the cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat or fish, and dairy products. The diet is much more likely to contain enough vitamin C, for example, if fruit, fruit juices or vegetables are eaten every day than if they are eaten only at irregular intervals. Such guidelines are especially important for people whose needs are high and whose appetites may be small, such as young children.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення,

  1. The nutritional value of a person’s diet depends on...

  2. The variety of foods must be...

  3. The diet is much more likely to contain...

  4. It is very difficult to predict of any particular diet on...

  5. There is no food that can be...

  6. Similarly, scurvy will not result from...

  7. Such guidelines are especially important...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. foods / of / the variety / among / from / must / be / chosen / vegetables / the cereals / fruit / meat / or / fish / and / products / dairy.

  2. it / very difficult / is / of / to predict / effects / exact / any / diet / particular / because / on / health.

  3. the / value / nutritional / depends / of / on / diet / person’s / during / the mixture / foods / the course / eaten / months / and / years.

  4. the / likely / more / enough / is / to / contain / vitamin С / diet / much.

Текст 64

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Cereals '

Cereal grains are a major component of man’s diet throughout the world. In this country, wheat in the form of bread, flour, cakes, biscuits together with other cereals provides more than a quarter of the total energy, protein, carbohydrate and iron in the average diet. Cereals also make a substantial contribution to the intake of many other nutrients, particularly calcium, niacin, thiamine and dietary fibre.

The distribution of nutrients within the wheat grain is not uniform. The concentration of protein, minerals and vitamins is higher in the germ and outer layers of grain. Thus, when wheat is milled to produce white flour, a proportion of the nutrients and dietary fibre is discarded with the bran and germ. Similar losses of minerals and vitamins occur in the milling of rice.

As a rule we use whole meal, brown and white flours. The flour and cereal are vitamins, particularly of the В-group. But it has little calcium. Wholemeal flour also contains more dietary fibre and physic acid, than brown or white flour. However, apart from the fibre content, nutritional differences between whole meal and the brown and white flours are not of great significance in a mixed diet. To make a large loaf of good quality, flours should contain sufficient gluten.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. Cereals make a substantial contribution to...

  2. The distribution of nutrients...

  3. As a rule we use...

  4. Wholemeal flour contains...

  5. Nutritional differences between...

  6. When wheat is milled...

  7. Similar losses of minerals...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. flour / more / wholemeal / fibre / contains / dietary.

  2. wholemeal І between / and / differences / the brown and white / significant / in / are not / flours / a mixed diet.

  3. contain / flours / gluten / should / sufficient.

  4. major / diet / cereal grains / a / component / are / of /man’s.

  5. a quarter / bread / more / provides / total / than / of / the /energy.


Текст 65

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Candy and Cake through the Ages

In the ancient world, candies were made of honey and sweet fruits. Sugar cane was unknown until Alexander the Great conquered India and discovered the “Sweet Sticks of the East”.

During the centuries of the Middle Ages, the only sweets were honey cakes and sugar-coated pills called “sugar plums”. By the end of the Middle Ages the demand for “sugar plums” became so great that they were sold in bakeshops instead of pharmacies. Sugar making again became popular.

It was just about this time that the Spanish conquerors discovered South Africa, and “Chocolate”. Chocolate was a bitter beverage made out of cocoa beans. The Spaniards decided to add some sugar to sweeten it and two hundred years later came upon the idea of serving it in solid form. Solid chocolate, however, was a delicacy only the rich could afford.

Even today the candy-eating customs differ greatly in various countries. The Ukrainian child is happy eating his candy with milk; ihe Mexican child prefers candy in the shape of human skulls. The German child’s first day at school is sweetened with a huge

cardboard filled with candy, and in Turkey one day a year is called Candy Day, and throughout the day children get candies from every adult they meet.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. Sugar cane was unknown...

  2. During the centuries of the Middle Ages...

  3. It was just about this time that...

  4. The Spaniards decided...

  5. The Ukrainian child is happy...

  6. The Mexican child prefers...

  7. In Turkey one day a year...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. honey / fruits / made / candies / were / of / and / sweet.

  2. unknown / sugar cane / Alexander / the Great / India / was / until / conquered.

  3. beverage / made out / cocoa bean / of / chocolate / was / a bitter.

  4. a delicacy / solid / was / chocolate.

  5. differ / countries / candy-eating / greatly / customs / in / various.

Tекст 66

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Eggs

Eggs make a useful contribution to the daily intake of vitamin D, retinol, riboflavin, iodine, iron and protein in the diet. For the elderly they can be an important source of protein, iron, vitamin В and vitamin D.

The shell colour is related to the breed of hen rather than to nutrient content and in this respect, it is unimportant. Similarly, a deep yellow yolk does not necessarily indicate high vitamin A content.

When eggs are boiled or fried the proteins coagulate first in the white at about 60°C, then in the yolk. This property of

coagulation make eggs suitable for binding dry ingredients together in cooking, and for thickening sauces and soup. The black discoloration which is sometimes present around the yolk of hard- boiled eggs is iron sulphide. This blackening can be reduced by cooling the eggs in water, immediately, after cooking.

When egg whites are beaten, the proteins will hold air and form a stable foam, which coagulates or sets at a very low temperature. Eggs are also used as raising agents, for example, in sponge cakes. In mayonnaise eggs are used to promote the emulsification.

During heating some of the heat-sensitive В-vitamins are lost. For example, the average loss of thiamine and riboflavin, which results from boiling, frying scrambling is between 5 and 15 per cent.

  1. Виберіть у тексті по грібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. During heating...

  2. The average loss of...

  3. When egg whites are beaten...

  4. The black discoloration...

  5. A deep yellow yolk...

  6. The shell colour is related...

  7. Eggs make a useful...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. an important / eggs / can / protein / of / iron / be / vitamin В /source /.

  2. eggs / the proteins / are boiled / when / fried / or /coagulate /.

  3. eggs / cooking / suitable /' makes / in / coagulation /.

  4. agent / also / as / eggs / are / raising / used /.

  5. emulsification / used. / in / to promote / the / eggs / are / mayonnaise /.


Текст 67

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English Cookery

English dishes differ from Ukrainian ones. There exists a certain difference in dishes, especially in the first courses.

Ukrainian soups are almost thick with a lot of vegetables and meat in them, as borshch, for example. Besides, they like to put a spoonful of sour cream into borshch, which is very tasty but quite unknown in England. Englishmen prefer thin*soups.

The menu. Appetizers are small, piquant dishes. There are cold and hot appetizers.

Examples: fruit cocktail; smoked salmon, sardines with toast, pineapple juice, grape fruits.

Soups. If there is no appetizer the meal is usually begun with soup. There are clear soups and thick soups. Exotic soups are mostly clear soups. Thick soups are rich and heavy.

Vegetables. Many English people like vegetables and salads. Salad dressing (a mixture of oil, vinegar or lemon juice, salt, pepper) is poured over the salad to season it.

Dessert is the last course of a good dinner. It may consist of hot sweets, cold sweets or cake with a cup of coffee, fruit, ice-cream or cheese. Pies and puddings are very popular in England, but ice cream is perhaps the favourite dish.

How to make good tea? Always warm the pot. Fill the kettle with fresh water and bring just to the boil before pouring over the tea. Allow it to infuse for three to four minutes before pouring. Quantities of tea will vary according to personal taste, but the old ruling, one teaspoonful for each cup and one for a teapot is a good average amount.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. There exists a certain difference...

  2. Quantities of tea...

  3. . Fill the kettle with...

  4. Pies and puddings are...

  5. If there is no appetizer...

  6. Ukrainian soups are...

  7. Dessert may consist of...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. Ukrainian / English / from / dishes / ones / differ.

  2. soups / Englishmen / thin / prefer.

  3. vegetables / people / many / like / and / salads / English.

  4. soups / thick / clear / there are / and / soups.

  5. good / dessert / last course / the / a good dinner / is / of.

Текст 68

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English Meals and Mealtimes

There is not much variety in English cuisine, though it is not bad at all. Meat and fish are excellent, but English soups, vegetables and sweet dishes are much worse than those on the Continent are.

The usual English meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner; or in some families breakfast, dinner, tea and supper. The English are very particular about their meals and strictly keep to their meal times.

The traditional English breakfast is a substantial meal. It does not just consist of a cup of coffee with milk and sugar, and of bread or toast with butter and jam. As a rule, it begins with porridge (oatmeal boiled in water or milk). It can be also corn flakes with milk instead of porridge. Then come ham and eggs or eggs and bacon, marmalade (usually made of oranges) with buttered toast, and tea or coffee. But many English workers have neither time nor money to enjoy this traditional English breakfast every day. They have it only on Sundays or when they are on holiday. And very often they have just a cup of tea and a slice of bread or toast.

Lunch is about one o’clock. It is a simple meal. Many people go to a cafe or a restaurant, where they can find fish, steak and chips or cold meat, boiled or fried potatoes. Many people like some mixed pickles or piece of cheese with it.

Dinner is a principal meal in England. A menu usually consists of an appetizer course (hors-d’oeuvre), a soup, an entree, the main dish and a dessert. A small dinner consists of an appetizer or soup, a main dish and dessert. Those who take an “early” dinner (at noon) have supper in the evening. So supper isn’t an obligatory meal in England.

Supper is a cold meal. It consists of all kinds of sausages, cold meat, tinned fish, cheese, mixed pickles and some bread and butter.

At five o’clock Englishmen have tea. But it is not a substantial meal, it is simply tea when they chat over a cup of tea with one’s friends or family. As a rule Englishmen like strong tea with two or three lumps of sugar, with milk or cream. Some prefer “Russian tea” with a slice of lemon. Usually they have their tea with buttered rolls, pastries, cream or sponge cakes.

  1. Виберіть у тексті потрібну інформацію та закінчіть речення.

  1. English breakfast consists of...

  2. Many English workers...

  3. Very often English workers have just...

  4. Many people go...

  5. Dinner menu usually consists of...

  6. Supper isn't...

  7. As a rule Englishmen like strong...

  1. Утворіть речення з даних слів (на основі тексту).

  1. cuisine / at all / English / is not / bad.

  2. particular / English / very / the / about / meals / are / their.

  3. substantial / traditional / English / the / breakfast / is / a /meal.

  4. englishmen / tea / at five / have / o’clock.

  5. a principal / dinner / in / meal / is / England.




Текст 69

Каталог: Icons
Icons -> Правила техніки безпеки : не доторкатися тильного боку апаратури та екрану, проводів живлення, з'єднувальних кабелів
Icons -> Методичні рекомендації до написання курсової роботи загальні положення відповідно до навчального плану зі спеціальності «Товарознавство та комерційна діяльність»
Icons -> Методичні вказівки до виконання контрольної роботи з дисципліни „Українська мова (за професійним спрямуванням)” Згідно з навчальним планом студенти заочної форми навчання виконують контрольну роботу з дисципліни „Українська мова
Icons -> Методичні вказівки щодо ви­вчення питань контрольної роботи, указана необхідна література і ставляться запитання для самоперевірки
Icons -> Тематичний план
Icons -> Кодекс законів про заборону полювання й орання деяких територій. Основні етапи розвитку екології
Icons -> Методичні рекомендації та завдання з дисципліни «Комп’ютерні правові сиситеми» Для студентів заочної форми навчання
Icons -> Центральна спілка споживчих товариств укоопспілка білгород-дністровський економіко-правовий коледж облік І аналіз зовнішньоекономічноїдіяльності
Icons -> Дисципліна Неорганічна хімія Викладач


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