a chronic shortage of money invested by the state in its schools, in laboratories, books, equipment etc.
2. Mass Media: Radio and TV
Problems of TV today and in the future: Twenty, or even as many as 40, programmes may be enough for most viewers: saturation point may have been reached.
Will competition between the TV stations lead to an improvement in the programmes of public-sector broadcasters like the BBC or does a larger number of channels inevitably lower the standards of all TV programmes?
More channels do not necessarily mean a wider spectrum for viewers: more variety may be offered by three state-run TV stations than by 30 private channels.
Trivialized unbalanced news coverage must be avoided.
Will there be enough programmes for minorities, enough educational and arts programmes etc.?
Will satellite and cable TV alter viewing patterns, so that people will spend more time watching TV?
In order to protect young viewers from violent or pornographic programmes a legal framework and electronic devices in the TV sets are essential: it is a matter of parental control to ensure that children do not have access to such movies on video cassettes.
Possible solutions to the problem: Drastically phase out prohibit the production of aerosol sprays and develop alternative compounds to replace CFCs.
Enforce tough controls on emissions to identify culprits and fine them.
Burn less coal or oil in order to reduce CO2 emissions.
Make heating, lighting, domestic appliances and industrial machinery more energy-efficient; use energy-saving technologies.
Use better energy-conservation equipment in buildings.
Employ the huge quantities of waste heat from generators for heating buildings.
Develop new sources of energy not derived from fossil fuels (wind, water, tidal, geothermal and solar energy, i.e. renewable energy resources).
Methods of combating drug abuse: International co-operation: multilateral efforts are essential in the fight against drug abuse.
Eradicate local crops of opium poppies, coca and cannabis, confiscate the chemicals used in processing drugs, destroy the laboratories engaged in cocaine processing, locate and destroy the clandestine airstrips in the jungle or in the mountains.
Encourage the peasants to find replacement crops such as coffee or cocoa.
More determined efforts to get hold of the major drug distributors, the middlemen and the street-level dealers/ pushers.
More police and customs officers to track down the supplies and to reduce the smuggling of drugs into the consumer countries.
More undercover agents who can give the police valuable information about the major drug distributors.
Stricter laws against the peddling of drugs and harsher penalties for drug racketeers.
Provide more and better information for parents in order to teach them how to keep their children away from drugs (for example the organization of self-help groups).
More rehabilitation centres for drug addicts who need to undergo special treatment to overcome their withdrawal symptoms.
More research into the psychological and social reasons for drug abuse so that the roots of the problem can be tackled.
General problems: Productions are becoming more and more expensive.
Theatres both in big cities and in the provinces generally suffer from a chronic shortage of money, partly owing to a lack of public subsidies.
Theatre owners and producers are often more interested in profits than in the quality of the plays produced, which leads to a lowering of standards.
Sponsors prepared to back new talent must be sought
There is a need for more tolerant and open-minded attitudes to experimental techniques like those used in off-Broadway productions and new dramatic modes of presentation e.g. theatre-in-the-round.
General problems: The film industry is confronted with the task of enticing the public back into the cinemas and of surviving in the face of tough competition from television and the video business, especially as more and more feature films are now being shown on TV.
It is often difficult to find producers willing to finance expensive productions.
Many producers are interested only in films with great box-office potential rather than ones of artistic value.
To guarantee diversity there is a need for financial support for independent film productions.